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Mean e Length.

Breadth.

Between
Latitudes

N.

Between Longitudes from W.C.

806) 801 886 292 1178

871 2049

James River,

250 40 10,000 36°40 38°201°00'E 13°40'W. York,

130 20 2,600 37 15 38 16 0 41 E.I 12 W. Rappahapnoc,

1401 20 2,800 37 34 38 44 0 41 E.1 25 W. Potomac, above

Blue Ridge, 1601 50 8,000 37 58 40 05 10 25 W.2 45 W. Potomac, below

Blue Ridge, 165 30 4,950 37 50 39 55 0 45 E. 1 00 W. Patuxent, Pataps.

110 25 2,750 38 10 39 42 0 45 E 10 05 W. Eastern Shore of

Chesapeake, 200 25 5,000 37 07 40 000 40 E.1 40 E. Susquehannah, 230 125 29,250 39 33 42 53 2 16 E.1 41 W. Chesapeake Bay, 180 20 3,600 37 00 39 33 0 26 E. I 24 E.

Pattonsburg, as in Ta.
ble X.

1981 rises.
Mouth of Catawba, 1442123
Forks of Roanoke,. 51 2631
Summit level, as in
Table VIII.

24 2871
Thence, as in Table

VIII. to the mouth

of Greenbriar, 943382 falls.
Thence to the mouth

of Great Kenhawa,
as in Nos. VIII. and
X.,

161454441

667 1382

co, &c.

8491 5331

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Tide water to Salem, 224 222 rises. 1002 1002 From tide water to
Salem to Forks of

Maiden's Adven-
Roanoke,

1142351
1761178 ture,

29 rises. 140.5 140.5 Mouth of Elliott creek, 114247

221 1399 Columbia,

30 59

39.28 179.78 Beginning of summit

Big Bremo,

11
70

29.22 209. level,

1242594
650/2049 Hardware river, 3173

33,27 242.27 Over summit level, 5265

Scottsville,

8 813

15.11 257.38 From western end of

Warminster,

19 100

58.37 315.75 summit level down

Lynchburg,

50 1503

185.88 501.63 Meadow creek and

Blue Ridge,

20 1701 103.47) 605. 1 Little river to New

Through do.

61177

94.75 699.85 river, 114 2764 falls. 309 1740 Pattonsburg,

210 1981 106.23 806.08 Thence to mouth of

Covington,

583257

416. 1222.08 Greenbriar river, 8313601

358 1382 Mouth of Fork Run 163273) 432. 1654.08 Bowyer's Ferry,

458 406

400 982 Beginning of summit Foot of Great Falls of

level,

21276

264.

1918.08 Kenhawa,

22 1428

341 641 Along summit level, 412803 Mouth of Great Ken

From western end of hawa at Point Plea

summit level down sant,

94 522

1081 5331 Howard creek to

Greenbriar river, 8 2881 falls. 249. 1669.08

Down Greenbriar to
TABLE IX.

its entrance into
New river,

287.
Table of the
Ascents and Descents from Tide Water

49 337

1382.08 in James River at Richmond, along the Channel of Bowyer's Ferry, 451383

400. 982. James River to the Mouth of Catawba Creek, Foot of Falls in Great

Kenhawa,

22 405

341. 641. thence up the latter and over the intermediate Summit into the Valley of Roanoke at the Forks of the Mouth of Great Ken.

hawa, latter above Salem, and thence, as in Table VIII.

94 1499

108. 533.

• Table IX. has a common route with No. VIII. below the mouth of Greenbriar river, and with No. X. from tide water to the mouth of Catawba creek.

| The traverse of Table X. intersects those of VIII. and IX. at the mouth of Greenbriar.

in

or

The three Tables VIII., IX. and X., as far as proceed to a review of the Delaware, Hudson, Canathe elements on which they are founded are correct, dian, and Ohio natural sections, before inserting must be of great service in showing the interme the tables of elevation, which exist on the canal diate elevations, between tide water in the Roan routes uniting Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New oke and James river, and also of the connecting York, and Ohio. The canal routes themselves, ground between those rivers in the higher part of also, can be much more conspicuously delineated their respective vallies above Blue Ridge. It ought, when brought under one field of view. however, to be carefully observed, that in all tables Delaware basin, from physical position, and from of elevations taken from measurements along the the immense advance of human power on its surstreams having canal operations in view, that the face, is a region of great importance in the geograheight at any given place must be below the arable phy and statistics of the United States. Taken in surface; therefore, as applied to an estimation of its fullest extent, Delaware basin has that of Sus. aerial temperature, without allowance for greater quehannah to the west and north-west; that of Hudheight, the results would in every instance yield a son north and north-east; the eastern slope of New too high temperature. The summit levels are also Jersey to the south-east, and opens, by a wide bay, much below the mean height of the mountain to the Atlantic Ocean on the south. Its greatest chains, but they give, where the surveys have been length is very nearly, from north to south, 250 carefully made, the lowest gaps or passes of the miles; and also deviating but slightly from the mechains in the vicinity of the line of survey.

ridian, 2° East from W.C. In Lat. it extends from Cape Henlopen, 38° 43' North, to the sources of

the Coquago branch, 42° 30' North, and in Lon. TABLE XI.

from 0° 42' East to 2° 35' East. The greatest

breadth is about ninety miles from the sources of Table of the Ascents and Descents along the Chan- Tulpehocken to those of Assanpink; but the mean nel of Potomac, from Tide Water at Georgetown width is fully estimated at 45 miles; area 11,250 to Cumberland, and thence, following the contem.

square miles. plated route of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal,

Without taking the extreme elevations of the over the Appalachian System by the Channels of Catsbergs, from which issues the Popachton branch Youghiogany and Monongahela to the Ohio at of Delaware, we may, however, safely estimate the Pittsburgh.

extremes of arable height on the Delaware basin at

1800 feet, or an equivalent to three degrees of lati. Distances Ascent Elevation in Route.

Feet above tude, and consequently, as the actual extremes of Mileg. Descent. mid-tide. latitude is 31°, the extremes of temperature is 61°.

Delaware Proper is formed by two main confluMouth of Monocacy,

44 rises.

224

ents, Coquago and Popachton, both rising in the Harper's Ferry, at pas

Catsbergs. The Coquago, or most remote, has insage of Potomac thro'

terlocking sources with those of Susquehannah and the Blue Ridge, and

Schoharie, and flowing south-west 55 miles, until influx of Shenandoah, 24 68

62 286 within 8 miles from the channel of Susquehannah, Williamsport,

28 96

69 355 where the two streams, approaching thus near, reHancockstown,

31 127

52 407 treat from each other in opposite directions. The Old Town,

42 1169

82 489 Delaware, rapidly inflecting to south-east, receives CUMBERLAND,

17 (186

84
573

in that direction, at 12 miles, the Popachton, and Mouth of Little Wills

preserving the latter course 50 miles, by comparacreek,

132199

309 882 iive distances, but very winding channel, to the ex. Eastern end of summit

treme northern angle of New Jersey and influx of level,

154 215

1016 1898 Nevesink river. Western end of sum

The Popachton issues from the Catsbergs, and mit level,

54 268.1 Mouth of Middle Fork

probably contains the highest fountains of the DeMiddle

laware, flows south-west, very nearly, an equal creek,

16 2848 falls. 216 1682 distance with the Coquago, above the great bend Mouth of Casselman

of the latter; the two streams preserving a relative river,

20 3044

420 1262

distance of from 8 to 10 miles asunder. Comnellsville,

271 332

432 830 At the influx of Nevesink, the Delaware reaches, Mouth of Youghioga.

and is turned to south-west by the Kittatinny chain, ny, 438 376

678 down which it flows 35 miles, to the influx of PITTSBURGH,

14 390

351 643

Broadhead creek, and the passage of the stream through the Kittatinny chain at the

pass

called the The Pennsylvania Canal, or, more correctly, the Delaware Water Gap. Here this now large navi. net-work of canals constructed and constructing in gable stream assumes a course a little west of south Pennsylvania, and which connect the basin of Dela. obliquely over the Kittatinny valley, 20 miles, to ware with the valley of Ohio, by traversing the ba- the influx of the Lehigh, at the foot of the Blue sin of Susquehannah, have conferred intense inter- Ridge. est on the relative heights. In order, however, to The beautiful mountain stream, the Lehigh, is preserve as much clearness as practicable, we now the lowest and largest of three considerable conflu

152

same

ents of the Delaware, which drain that part of the ware curves below Trenton gradually to the southbasin of the latter above Blue Ridge, and westward westward, and maintaining that course, by compaof the main stream.

rative distances, 60 miles, receives the Schuylkill Lackawaxen, become important from its mines from the north-west, at very nearly mid-distance. of anthracite coal, and canals already construct Schuylkill river is the largest confluent of the ed along its valley, draws its sources from the Delaware, interlocking sources with those of the

mountain chain from which rises the Lehigh, and also with those of the numerous conLackawannoc branch of Susquehannah, and, flow- fluents of the Susquehannah, from the Nescopec to ing south-eastward about 30 miles comparative the Conestoga inclusive; drawing its higher and distance, falls into the Delaware between Wayne principal sources from the rugged mountain valley and Pike counties. It is a very large stream when above Kittatinny: it is, indeed, the same valley, or the volume is compared with the brevity in length. series of vallies, which gives source to the Lehigh.

Broadhead creek is a much less important stream The upper Schuylkill drains a region of from 400 to than the Lackawaxen, and flowing from the lower 1200 feet, exclusive of the mountain ridges. Falling part of Pike and higher part of Northampton, en from this elevated tract, the higher branches unite ters Delaware river in the latter county, and im- above, and traverse the Kittatinny chain by the mediately above the Water Gap.

Schuylkill Water Gap, after a general course of 20 The Lehigh heads with both the preceding miles. After its passage through the Kittatinny, streams, and with some of the south-eastern creeks the stream assumes a course a little east of south, of Lackawannoc. Its extreme western source is 18 miles, to the influx of Tulpehocken from the about five miles eastward from the channel of the westward, and, traversing Blue Ridge at Reading, Susquehannah at Wilkesbarre. The numerous con turns to the south-eastward, and flowing in that di. fluent creeks rising on a table land of at least 1400 rection 45 miles, by comparative courses, to its feet mean height, flow generally to the south-westward passage over the primitive ledge, in the vicinity of 20 miles; unite between Northampton and Luzerne Philadelphia; where, turning to the southward five counties, inflect to a course of a little east of south miles, joins the Delaware, after an entire compa25 miles, to the north-western foot of Blue Ridge. rative course of ninety miles. The valley of Schuyl

In the latter course, the channel of the Lehigh is kill lying between, and in a remarkable manner pa. tortuous, and falling upwards of 800 feet, or, if we rallel to the contiguous parts of the basins of Sus. allow 40 miles to the actual channel, 20 feet per quehannah and Delaware, is a parallelogram of 80 mile. The stream is a series of small cataracts, but, by 22; area 1760 square miles. what is truly remarkable, with no actual fall, in the From the head of tide water, the channel of the true meaning of the latter term.

Delaware gradually widens, and assumes the feaPassing the Blue Ridge, the Lehigh inflects to tures of a bay; at Philadelphia, it is about a mile S.S. E. 18 miles, by comparative distance, to the wide, and continues from one to two miles in breadth influx of Little Lehigh and north-western foot of until passing the great bend, near where it is now Blue Ridge, at Allentown. Turned to north-east connected with the Chesapeake Bay by Chesapeake ward by the Blue Ridge, the Lehigh flows down and Delaware canal; but here turning to south-east that chain 12 miles, to its union with the Delaware, and rapidly widening into what is more particularly at Easton. The arable soil, or the point on which called Delaware Bay, a sheet of water 60 miles in the lower part of Easton stands, is about 200 feet length, and from two or three, to twenty miles in above tide water, and the higher sources of Lehigh width. This expansive opening to the Delaware being at the least 1500 feet, gives a difference of basin is terminated on the north-east by Cape May, arable height, to the extremes of its valley, of 1300 and south-west by Cape Henlopen. feet. In direct distance, it is only about 45 miles The numerous shoals and channels render the from the higher spring to the outlet of this moun- navigation of Delaware Bay intricate, but it admits tain river. The prodigious masses of mineral coal the entrance of the largest vessels of war as high as found in the mountains of the Lehigh have enabled Reedy Island, and merchant ships of large draught human genius and labour to render its precipitous to Philadelphia: sloops and steam boats ascend to current commercially available.

the lower falls at Trenton. The artificial navigation Traversing the Blue Ridge, and continuing to of the basin will be noticed in the sequel. the southward 10 miles, having passed in the latter The Delaware channel is, with the exception of distance the South East Mountain, the Delaware the higher Coquago, a political boundary. From lurns to the south-eastward 35 miles, to its fall where it reaches North Lat. 42°, above the mouth over the primitive ledge, and meeting the tides at of Popachton, to the Kittatinny chain, it separates Trenton. Similar to the head of Chesapeake Bay, New York from Pennsylvania; from thence to 12 or in fact the Susquehannah, as also the Potomac miles below the influx of Schuylkill, it forms the below Georgetown, James river below Richmond, boundary between New Jersey and Pennsylvania; and and the Roanoke below Weldon, the Delaware bends finally, Delaware Bay has New Jersey to the northalong the shelf of the primitive ledge on its min- east, and the state of Delaware south-west. gling with the tides. This phenomenon is, however, The head of tide water in Delaware and Raritan most conspicuous, and preserved to a greater dis rivers are only 26 miles asunder, though the dis. tance in the Delaware than in either of the other tance between their respective openings to the ocean rivers in which we have shown its existence. is 120 miles. The intermediate space forming the

Having become a tide water channel, the Dela- south-eastern part of New Jersey, and, if the entire

basin of Raritan is included, embracing more than basin of the Hudson is composed of two inclined two-thirds of that state, is a slope of 140 miles from plains. These opposing plains are of very unequal south to north, mean width about 25, and area extent. The western and most extensive stretches 3500 square miles.

the entire length of the basin, and advancing from of this slope, from Cape May to Sandy Hook, south to north, is drained by the Passaick, Wallthe Atlantic shore, with a slight elliptic curve kill, Esopus, Catskill, Norman's Kill, Mohawk outwards, preserves a similar character with the river, Sacondago river, and Hudson Proper. Of coast of Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas.

these, the Passaick, Wallkill, Esopus and Mohawk Long, narrow sand islands stretching in a chain have gained political and moral consequence from outside of shallow and narrow sounds. The inlets, having been made respectively subservient to canal numerous between the outlets of the Delaware and construction. Hudson, are, however, shallow, admitting only a Between the sources of Esopus creek and those coasting navigation. The tides, sweeping round of the Schoharie, or southern branch of the Mothis almost insulated tract, penetrate the smaller hawk, rises that remarkable mountain nucleus, rivers only 15 or 20 miles. The remark may be re- particularly called the Catskill Mountains. This peated, that the peninsulas between Chesapeake group, though of a less extent, is specifically simi. Bay and Delaware Bay, and that again between lar to the valley of Mexico, and the European val. Delaware Bay and river, the Atlantic Ocean and ley of Bohemia. Some of the peaks rise to near Hudson Bay, differ from Long Island oniy in the 4000 feet, and the main mass rises between 10 and circumstance of the latter being separated from the 25 miles from the tides of the Hudson, 40 miles continent by a sound. Suppose the others cut off in below their head. a similar manner, and the resemblance will be ob

From this comparatively very elevated tract the vious to the most casual observer.

Schoharie is poured northwardly into the deep vale The very remarkable basin of the Hudson follows of the Mohawk. The latter, by its channel extendthat of Delaware and the Atlantic slope of New ing from the main stream near the head of tideJersey. Forming the great link between the Atlan- water, in a direction a little north of west, carries tic Ocean and the vast basin of Canada, the Hud a chasm in the continent, rising in no place to 426 son basin has that of Delaware south-west; the ex- feet above mid-ride level in the Hudson. The Motreme north-eastern part of that of Susquehannah hawk has interlocking sources with the Susqueon the west; that of St. Lawrence north-west, north, hannah Proper, Unadilla and Chenango, with the and north-east; the basin of Connecticut east; that confluents of Oneida Lake, and those of Black river. of the Housatonick south-east; and the Atlantic The upper branches of the Mohawk flow towards Ocean south. In Lat. it extends from the south- each other and unite on a table land, where, whilst ern end of Staten Island, 40° 30', to the extreme in a state of nature, the water in times of flood fountains of the main Hudson, 44° 8' North. These separated; part flowing to the westward into Oneida, two extremes, lying very nearly in Lon. 3° East and thence by the Oswego, or Onondago river, into from W.C., stretch also along the greatest length Lake Ontario; whilst the other part flowed down of the basin, or to an unimportant fraction of 250 the Mohawk into the Hudson. miles; mean width 55, and area 13,750 square This table land between the Mohawk and Oneida miles.

Lake, is the lowest depression in the Appalachian The physical features of this basin are in a very system, and at right angles to its chains, from the striking manner curious. Like that of the Dela- south-western termination of the system to the Saint ware, the Hudson Basin extends very nearly from Lawrence, near the confluence of that great stream south to north; but the Delaware basin rises from and the Ottawas, and has been, to the honor and inthe primitive ledge by gradual acclivity, whilst the calculable advantage of New York, made the route tide valley of the Hudson is protruded inland over of part of a canal uniting the Hudson rides to the the primitive to the margin of the central secondary. water of Lake Erie. To this, the still deeper deSome of the peculiar features of the Hudson basin pression of the Hudson and Lake Champlain route were noticed under the general view of the Appa- is no exception, as the latter extends evidently lachian system, and by reference to what was ob- along, and not at right angles to the mountain served under that head, it will be seen that the deep vallies. tide vale or narrow bay of the Hudson is a part, The Hudson in full contrast with the Mohawk about one half of an immense chasm in the conti- issues by numerous sources from the Sacondago nent of North America, extending from the Allan- chain, and from a rather elevated table land, cold, lic Ocean, in a direction a little east of north to sterile and forbidding. The region from which the St. Lawrence. Along this chasm the tide is flows the Sacondago and Hudson Proper, the borne inland 160 miles to near the junction of the sources of Oswegatche, Grass, Racket and St. Retwo main branches of the Hudson. Beyond the gis, into St. Lawrence, and the Sable and Sarenac head of the tide, the valley or channel of Hudson rivers into Lake Champlain, is perhaps the least Proper, rises gently for another stretch of 40 miles. inviting tract in the United States. It abounds in Tbence rises a neck of land, 18 miles wide, which mountain ridges, lakes and marshes, giving source intervenes between the basin of Hudson and Lake to streams which find their respective recipients on Champlain, but even here the summit level does borders of an entirely different character. This not rise to 141 feet above the tides in Hudson river moist, cold, and repulsive region has remained in

From these observations it must be seen that the great part desolate and unsettled, whilst improve

ment has rapidly advanced around its outer cir- river; north-east by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and cumference, or along the outlet of its rivers. east, south-east and south, by the Atlantic Ocean,

The entire western slope of the Hudson basin so has so many peculiar features as to constitute a very diversified in feature, latitude and elevation, stretches distinct physical section. This section approaches 250 miles from south to north. Where widest a parallelogram of 500 miles from south-west to along the valley of the Mohawk, it is 90 miles in north-east, and with a mean width of 200 miles; breadth, but narrowing to the northward, and still area 100,000 square miles. Politically it contains more to the south ward of the Mohawk valley, and of the United States, the eastern slope of New the area being 9500 square miles, the mean breadth York, with all Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massais 38 miles.

chusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire and Main; and The eastern slope of the Hudson basin extends of the British North American possessions, the 170 miles from Haerlem river or strait, to the south-eastern slope of Lower Canada, and all New sources of Batten Kill, with a mean width of 25 Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Exclusive of the miles; area 4250 square miles. Between Haerlem peninsula of Nova Scotia, which is very nearly inriver and the Blue Ridge, or, as there called, the sulated, the main body of the natural section under Fishkill Mountains, Croton river and some smaller review is divided by its rivers into two very unecreeks, drain the eastern slope of the Hudson. qual slopes or inclined plains. That which rapidly Above the mountain pass of the Highlands, this falls towards the Saint Lawrence, is a strip of 560 slope is limited to the eastward by the Blue Ridge, miles in length; the utmost breadth along the valand is drained by Fishkill, Wappinger, Ancram ley of Saint Francis river, about 100, but where and Kinderhook creeks; and thus far the Hudson narrowest, between the extreme northern sources basin is opposite to that of Housatonick: but north of St. John's river and the channel of St. Law. wards of the sources of the latter river, those of rence opposite the mouth of Saguenay river, not Hoosack and Batten Kill originate in the continua- quite 10 miles, and perhaps overrated at a mean tion of the South East Mountain, there called Hoo- width of 50, and area 28,000 square miles. The sack Mountain; the same chain known still farther largest and longest river of this confined slope is northwards as Green Mountains.

the St. Francis, heading with the Connecticut, and To an eye sufficiently elevated the whole Hudson having a valley of about 110 miles in length. basin would present a most interesting appearance. The opposing slope, with a declination very nearThe main channel, in particular below the tides, ly southward, gives source and course to the great generally a deep chasm lined with immense walls streams of Connecticut, Kennebec, Penobscot and of rock. So deep indeed is this long narrow bay St. John's, which have their remote sources in the as to be very seldom visible from the roads along dividing ridge between the Atlantic and St. Laweither shore. This chasm is not as on the St. rence waters, and also to several of lesser length of Lawrence the lowest depression of a gradual de course and magnitude of volume, that rise and flow clivity from the outer exterior border of the basin, in the intervals which separate the basins of the but an abrupt fissure in the rocky base of the whole former and more considerable rivers. physical section. The rivers and creeks flow mo The character of coast, prevalent from the outderately until near their recipient, and are then lets of the basins of Santee and Pedee to the mouth precipitated with great rapidity, yielding two long of the Hudson, is perpetuated along the north-eastseries of water falls, and affording, perhaps, the ern shore to Cape Cod inclusive; if we regard, as most extended water power in the United Siates. on every physical principle we ought, Long Island

Into this profound chasm, ships of nearly the as the real Atlantic shore. Passing Cape Cod and heaviest burthen can be navigated above the High- entering the deep gulf between the south-eastern lands, and sloops to Troy, within 2 miles off the shores of Massachusetts and the south-western of confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk, and from Nova Scotia, a new order of coast commences. its surface so little can be seen of the enchanting The ocean border, hitherto a sandy flat, or where prospects which abound over the basin on both rocky or more elevated, the elevations moderate, sides, that the voyager feels, for hours, as if im- now becomes bold and prominent. The points and mured between craggy and precipitous walls of intervening bays numerous, and harbours deep and rock. At intervals, however, glimpses of the dis- safe. tant mountain, the cultivated fields, the neat and One of the most remarkable, and, whether reflourishing towns, the dashing water fall, and the garded as a natural phenomenon or as influential elegant villas crowning the steeps; all give intima on the operations of man, the most important, may tion of the rich and varied regions beyond the limits be appropriately noticed in this place. The Atof vision from the river surface. But to resume lantic tides from the Bahama channel, along the our general survey.

coast, increases in height, advancing north-eastward. Under the head of Appalachian system, it was The increase, it is probable, if not disturbed by shown that the physical sections on each side of the irregular protrusions of the land, would follow the Hudson were united by the mountain chains, a nearly regular law of progression, and this is with though a tide channel did in one place pass over a some allowance the case between very prominent gap in the system. On some other points of view, points. From the Bahama channel to Cape Hatthat region of North America, bounded on the south. teras, the increased height follows a scale but little west by the Hudson, Lake Champlain and Riche- influenced by the moderate intervening projections; lieu river; on the north-west by Saint Lawrence but passing Hatteras the increase is at once very

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