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rapidly augmented. The tides, however, again re Whilst, whether the preceding is in whole or in sume and follow a regular ratio of increased height, part a solution of the phenomena of the Atlantic with slight deviations to Cape Cod.
tides along the coast of the United States, New From the Florida point, where mean tide does Brunswick and Nova Scotia, remains for future innot exceed, if it amounts to two feet, to Buzzard vestigation, we may notice a very remarkable and Bay, on the south side of Cape Cod, the increased salutary effect of the increased height and, of height has reached an extreme of 9 feet. Viewing course, violent ebb and flow of the tides on the the Gulf between Cape Cod and Nova Scotia, with coast of the Gulf of Maine. From the lower harits retiring bays and salient points, and without any bours of Chesapeake Bay, inclusive to the southknowledge of facts or their causes, we would be west, the navigation of the United States is not unprepared to expect the tides to be doubled in ele- materially interrupted by ice, but from the Delavation, on passing the narrow neck between Buz ware inclusive to the north-eastward, the harbours zard and Cape Cod bays, yet such is the fact. and rivers are liable to be closed or greatly obThe gull, which to avoid circumlocution we may structed by winter frosts. Were it not prevented call the Gulf of Maine, extends from Boston har- by the peculiar phenomena of the tides, the interbour to the coast of Nova Scotia, 250 miles, and if ruption from ice would augment with the latitude; extended to the head of the bay of Fundy, upwards but the very violent currents produced twice in of 400 miles; its depth inland about 140 miles. every astronomical day, by the tides along the
Into this wide mouthed gulf the waves of the shores and in the tide part of the river channels Atlantic Ocean pour with inconceivable elevation and bays, prevent the formation of solid or comand force, and retreat again with corresponding pact fields of ice. This is evidently the cause why, violence. Rapidly as the mean height of the tides that in severe winters, the harbours of Massachusouth-west from Cape Cod augment, advancing setts, New Hampshire, Maine, and New Brunswick from south-west to north-east, their increase is still are more available for navigable purposes than are more rapid from the bottom of Cape Cod bay, to those of Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New that of Fundy. The actual mean and extreme tides York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, or those even of Fundy have been, no doubt, exaggerated greatly, of Massachusetts to the south of Cape Cod. With when their lowest term is given at from 30 to 40, these remarks we return to our general survey. and extreme from 50 to 60 feet; but retrenching Both in our review of the mountains, and of the one half, would leave this tide volume far the most Hudson basin, we have shown that the latter was elevated on earth.
separated from the physical section last noticed, by What are the causes of the increase of the At the continuation of the Blue Ridge and South East lantic tides along the coast of the United States and Mountain." If we extend our view beyond the New Brunswick, and their great excess at the north- estuary of the Hudson, the first remarkable object eastern extreme ?
which meets our eye is Long Island. That the These questions remain desiderata, and without Chesapeake and Delaware peninsula, the Delaware pretending to determine such a problem, it may be and Hudson peninsula, the Massachusetts peninsuggested, that the Gulf Stream is the immediate sula, and Nova Scotia are all specifically similar to cause. This oceanic current at its outlet from the Long Island, has already been remarked. Though Gulf of Mexico, between Florida and Cuba, is met, on a much more contracted scale, similar resemincreased and turned along the Florida shores, by blances exist in Staten Island and Manhattan island, another current between Cuba and the Bahama the latter rendered of so much importance from islands. Confined to a width of from 40 to 60 miles, having on its surface the city of New York. until clearing the whole Bahama chain, the Gulf Long Island lies between N. Lat. 40° 34' and 41° Stream is rapid, and for the next 500 miles of its 10', and Lon. 2° 58' and 5° 08' E. from W.C. The course, across the elliptic gulf in front of Florida, mean range is N. 694° E.; utmost length from the Georgia and the two Carolinas, though the stream Narrows to Montauk Point, within a trifle of 120 widens and of course weakens, it still retains suffi. statute miles. The utmost width nearly along the cient force to lessen the height and deflect the line between Queens and Suffolk counties, 20 miles; course of the tide.
the mean width about 8, area 160 square miles. Between Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod sweeps in The deep sound which separates Long Island ward another elliptic gulf, of not much less length from the continent, bears a strong resemblance in of chord than that between the Bahamas and Hat extent and form to the island, and both are followteras; along the second, or as we may call it, the ed by a bold and rather abrupt coast, the outer middle Atlantic Gulf of the United States, the great abutment of a slope, down which flow Housatonic, ocean river flows with an expanded breadth and din Connecticut, Thames, and the smaller rivers enterminished elevation, and here the land swell is found ing Narraganset and Buzzard Bays. to have increased in direct ratio with the diminu Housatonick comes first in order, advancing easttion of the Gulf Stream.
ward from the Hudson. The mountain chains now Into the third, or Gulf of Maine, at the distance stretching from south to north, discharge the rivers of 1000 miles from the northern outlet of the Ba- southwardly along their intervening vallies. The hama channel, the accumulated tides are left to fall Housatonick, interlocking sources with those of the with their whole weight, as opposite to its front of Hoosack, on the table land of Berkshire, at an ele. 250 miles, the force of the Gulf Stream has become vation of from 900 to 1200 feet, and between the almost negative.
South East Mountain and Blue Ridge. From this
elevated source the Housatonick flows, by compa 13 and 14 of Armroyd's Internal Navigation, the tive courses, 65 miles, in a direction a little west following elements are inserted. In a direct disof south, and in a striking manner parallel to the tance above Barnet or M’Indoe Falls, the rise is Hudson and Connecticut rivers; thence piercing 386 feet; thence in a distance of about 50 miles, folthe South East Mountain, the Housatonick bends lowing the channel from Dalton to Stewardstown, the to a course south south-east 40 miles, to its eflux into rise is 222 feet, and from thence to Connecticut lake, Long Island Sound, after an entire comparative above 30 miles along the channel, 562 feet. The encourse of 105 miles.
tire fall from Connecticut lake to Barnet 1170, which, Wallingford basin, from the brevity of its con added to 420 below Barnet, gives an entire fall of Auents, would not deserve specific notice in a gene 1590 feet from the level of Connecticut lake to tide ral view, were it not rendered important from the water. The lake is not, however, the ulmost exfine city of New Haven, and from a proposed com treme or clevation of the basin, which, it is probamunication by canal between its principal tributary, ble, reaches, if it does not exceed, 2000 feet. The the Quinipiack, and Farmington river and canal. difference or level is fully equivalent to four degrees The Wallingford basin, only 30 miles in length, in- of latitude, giving to this basin as respects aerial tervenes between that of Housatonick and Connec- temperature the extremes of eight degrees of latiticut. Confined, however, as it is, the basin of tude, or considerably more than exists in any other Wallingford, at the distance of ten miles, is sepa. river basin of the Atlantic slope of the United rated from that of Housatonick by a chain of States. mountains, and again it is detached from that of As far as the defective delineation of the mounConnecticut by another chain still more elevated tain chains on our maps will enable us to trace the and distinct; both chains exemplifying a remark connexion, it appears that the chain which leaves formerly made in this article, that the Appalachian the Sound between the basins of Connecticut and chains, eastward of the Hudson, extended nearly at Thames is continued northwardly, separating in its right angles to the Atlantic coast.
advance beyond the Thames, the basin of Merrimac Taken together, the two basins of Housatonick from that of Connecticut, but traversed by the latand Wallingford may be truly considered a moun ter stream between the falls at the mouth of Pastain region, extending in Lat. from 41° 08' to 42° sumpsic and Lancaster, and thence more north34' N., and in relative elevation differing 1200 feet. warúly, separating the vallies of upper Connecticut Such, indeed, is the abrupt rise of the plain from and Passumpsic. The preceding conjecture is the Sound, that the tides rise but a few miles in strongly supported by the relative elevations of the either basin.
latter stream and the surface of Lake MemphramaBoth the preceding and the Hudson and Cham- gog, with their intervening summit level. plain basins are followed by the long and interesting Passumpsic river rises on a table land interlockbasin of Connecticnt. As laid down on Tanner's ing sources with those of Willoughby river and United States, the Connecticut has its highest lake, one of the higher confluents of Lake Mem. source at N. Lat. 45° 15', and enters the Sound at phramagog, and flows thence southwardly 25 miles, N. Lat. 41° 16'; of course flowing over within an to its junction with the main Connecticut. The insignificant fraction of four degrees of latitude. summit level between Willoughby Lake and the The basin lies between 49 and 5° 45' E. from W.C. source of Passumpsic is, according to Armroyd,
So little does this stream incline westward of 523 feet above Lake Memphramagog, and 755 feet south, that in its entire length, or rather direct line above the water at the confluence of Passumpsic from source to mouth, of, by actual calculation, 277 and Connecticut. If these elements are correct, statute miles, the course is S. 12° 18' W; nor does the summit height which separates the valley of the stream in any part of its course depart 40 miles the Passumpsic from that of St. Francis, is 415 from a line drawn direct from source to outlet. feet below Connecticut lake, and from all analogy The comparative length of the channel, determined double that descent below the extreme fountains of by steps of 50 miles, is almost exactly 300 miles. Connecticut river. They also expose another interThe length of the basin is 290 miles; and in one esting feature in the surface of this region; that is, part from the sources of Chickapee river to those that Lake Memphramagog is 938 feet below Conof Westfield river, it is 60 miles wide, but narrow necticut Lake. ing gradually towards both extremes, the mean From the preceding data, it appears that Conbreadth is perhaps not far from correctly estimated necticut river rises on a comparatively very elevatat 40 miles; area, from the preceding elements, ed table land, and, passing a chain of mountains, 11,600 square miles.
falls upwards of 1200 feet in 60 direct miles, or This beautiful stream has interlocking sources upwards of 20 feet per mile, and that more than with those of St. Francis and Androscoggin or 200 miles above the head of its tides, the stream western branch of Kennebec river. From this has made more than two-thirds of its entire de. elevated source the main stream flows by compara- scent. We have been more particular in our attive courses, 70 miles to the influx of the Passamp- tempts to determine the real elevation of the region sic at Barnet Falls. The real elevation has never giving source to Connecticut, as the same elements been well determined of the region from which are decide the height, from which flow the St. Francis derived the sources of Connecticut, St. Francis and and Chaudiere into St. Lawrence, as also that give Androscoggin, but the height of the former at ing source to the western confluents of the AndrosBarnet Falls has been found by actual measurement coggin and Kennebec rivers, and more north-east420 feet above tide water at Hartford. At pages wardly to the higher sources of St. Johns river.
This tract is, in fact, independent of mountain 1600, Narragansett 2000, and Buzzard 650 square ridges or chains, a real table land rising to from miles. 1800 to perhaps 2200 feet above the tide level in The tide, which penetrates the Connecticut upthe Atlantic Ocean. That part from which issue wards of forty miles, is arrested in the basin of the the extreme fountains of Connecticut lies very near Thames, at about 16 miles from the sound. Into ly at equal distance, one hundred and ten miles, the Narragansett, the flood of the ocean ascends to from the head of the tides in the Kennebec, and Providence, 30 miles, and about half that distance that in St. Lawrence at the town of Three Rivers. in Buzzard Bay.
The great height of their fountains, compared Passing Buzzard and Narragansett, we find the with the brief mean length of their courses, explains singular projecting curve of Cape Cod, extending the cause of the unnavigable channels of upper 38 iniles eastward into the Atlantic, and thence 32 Connecticut, Androscoggin, Kennebec, St. Johns, northwards, enclosing a deep bay bearing the same Chaudiere and St. Francis.
This bay is, however, only part of one of Connecticut, however, pouring its rapid current those gulfs or lengthened bays which indent the down 1170 feet in the first 60 comparative miles of Atlantic coast of the United States, extending about its course, has fallen at the mouth of Passumpsic, 65 miles from the narrow neck of Barnstable, and to 420 feet above tide water, 81 feet lower than from a line drawn from the extreme northern point James river at Lynchburg, 153 feet lower than the of Cape Cod to Cape Ann, 25 miles in depth. Fol. Potomac at Cumberland, 303 feet lower than the lowing the general bearings of the coast, the curve Susquehannah at Tioga Point, 35 feet lower than of this sheet of water is 150 miles, and, including the Delaware at the mouth of Nevisink river, or the extension of Cape Cod, is bordered by a slope where united with the Hudson and Delaware canal, in no part 20 miles wide, and does not exceed eight and almost exactly, or at least differing only 5 feet miles of average breadth. The great and abrupt from, the summit level of the Hudson and Erie Ca. increase of the tides passing from the south ward nal, on the Utica and Rome level.
into Cape Cod Bay has been noticed; yet so bold If we compare these comparative elements with are the shores, and great the angle of acclivity of the length of their respective channels above tide the country, that the tide in no one place penetrates water, and extend our view to the Alatamaha on ten direct miles inland. The water inside the cape one side, and to the Penobscot on the other, we shall is generally shallow, but that from Plymouth to find that, excepting the Hudson, the channel of the Gloucester inclusive, abounds in fine harbours, of Connecticut, even in its natural state, is the deep- which Plymouth, Boston, and Salem may be conest and most favourable navigable route on the At sidered the principal. lantic coast of the United States. It is, by the bends With Cape Ann the slope greatly widens, curves of the river, 220 miles from the mouth of Passump- first westward, thence a few miles to the northward, sic to Hartford, and that distance has already been and finally to N.N.E.; and in a distance of 50 miles made navigable; but farther improvements are con the coast is broken by the outlets of Merrimack, templated.
Piscataqua, and Saco: the two former, rising in In proportion to its length, the basin of Connecti. the White Mountains, interlocking sources with cut is narrow, and the confluents from either side each other, and with those of the Amonoosuck and are numerous, but of no considerable length or vo Androscoggin rivers, and overheading the numerlume. Advancing upwards along the western side, ous confluents of the Piscataqua. the first tributary of note is Farmington river, from The White Mountains of New Hampshire have Hartford county, Connecticut. Westfield river heads attracted attention since the original settlement of in the Green Mountains, opposite to the Housato- the country, and the extreme height probably accunick, and falls into the Connecticut at Springfield; rately determined at 7300 feet above the Atlantic Deerfield river mouths below Greenfield: both the level; but the most important part of their physical latter streams are in Massachusetts. In Vermont, history remains obscure. Are the peaks called the Green Mountains give source to numerous fine “ White Mountains” a detached group? or are they streams flowing south-eastwardly into Connecticut not like the peaks of Otter and Catskill mountains, river, but none of magnitude above that of a large part of an extended chain ? The latter has in its creek. The principal ones are West, Black, and support the analogy of other sections of the AppaWhite rivers. On the eastern side there is no stream lachian system, and the great elevation of the counworthy notice entering Connecticut river in the state try northwardly from the main group, and which of Connecticut. From Massachusetts enter Chick- separate the sources of Connecticut from those of apee and Miller's rivers. From New Hampshire, the Androscoggin; and again, those of Kennebec also, the confluents are unimportant, if we may and Penobscot from those of Chaudiere. except the Asbuelot, entering the main stream at Leaving the preceding hypothesis to future invesHinsdale, in the south-western angle of the state; tigation, we find the sources of two rivers pouring and the Amonoosuck, heading with the Merrimack from the southern side of the main group of White and Saco, in the Green Mountains, and joining its Mountains. These sources are the higher fountains recipient ten miles below the influx of Passumpsic. of Merrimack and Saco. Thames, Narragansett, and Buzzard basins fol.
The Merrimack, Saco, and Amonoosuck rivers low that of Connecticut along the same slope; but, issue from within two or three miles of each other, if taken together, drain only a surface of 4250 at North Lat. 44° 10', and at a probable elevation square miles, of which the Thames basin occupies of 4000 feet, on the slopes of the White Mountains.
VOL. XVIII.PART I.
From this elevated tract, the Merrimack flows about bute to give to the discharge of that stream a uni20 miles to the south-west, and thence curving to a formity of quantity in the different seasons of the general course a little east of south, which it main- year, which is unknown in rivers of equal length, tains, by comparative distances, 85 miles, to the but without those natural reservoirs: a remark that influx of Nashua river from the south-westward. may be extended to all rivers, and fully illustrated Inclining below the mouth of Nashua to the south- in the next basin beyond the Merrimack. east and east 12 miles, the Merrimack receives the Piscataqua basin is semi-circled on the south, Concord river from the south, and below Chelms south-west, west, and north-west by that of Merri. ford falls, and, bending to the north-eastward 25 mack, and north and north-east by that of Saco. It miles, is lost in the Atlantic Ocean, at Newbury is formed by a series of short, but bold streams, port, after an entire comparative course of between which are discharged into a real lake, called Great 140 and 150 miles.
Bay, the discharge of which into the Atlantic The basin of Merrimack, and the quantity of wa Ocean, at Portsmouth, is the real Piscataqua. The ter it discharges, are extensive when compared with basin, only 40 by 25 miles, gains immense importhe area. The relative position of this basin, and tance from the fine harbour of Portsmouth. the course of its two southern confluents, Nashua Saco river, the principal drain of the White and Concord, give it a peculiar form. Concord ri Mountains, with the small river Kennebunk, forms ver rises within 12 miles from tide water, at Provi. a basin to the north-eastward from those of Piscatdence, and flowing thence northwardly, nearly in aqua and Merrimack; south, from the Upper Andirect opposition to the course of the Merrimack, droscoggin; and south-west, from the basin of Casco above their junction. From the latter circumstance or Presumpscut. Saco is formed by two unequal the extreme length of the basin is 145 miles extending branches, Saco Proper and Ossipee rivers. from south to north, not far from pårallel to the Saco, fed by the almost perennial snows of the opposing Atlantic coast, and almost exactly at right White Mountains, derives its higher sources from angles to the outlet of its own water. It was taking an elevation of from 3000 to perhaps 6000 feet, advantage of its singular structure, and of the ele and pours its rapid current, by a very tortuous vation and course of the Concord branch, that en channel, to the south-eastward, 60 miles, by comabled the people of Massachusetts to connect Bos parative distances, to its union with the Ossipee ton harbour, by a navigable canal, with Merrimack from the westward. Cssipee, the product of innuriver at Chelmsford.
merable ponds, lakes, and small creeks, heading Another circumstance, also, gives great interest with the confiuents of Squam and Winnipisseogee to the Merrimack basin. With it commences, on lakes, joins Saco, after a comparative course of 30 the Atlantic coast, the lake section, of not only the miles to the eastward. Below the junction of its United States, but of the continent of North Ame two main branches, Saco flows, by comparative rica. It is a remark, applicable to the land protu courses, 30 miles south-eastward, to its final dis. berances of the earth, that the southern sections are charge into the Atlantic Ocean, at North Lat. 43° devoid or deficient in lakes, whilst those mediterra 36'. The basin of Saco approaches the form of a nean seas, on a small scale, abound in proportion parallelogram of 70 miles by 25, area 1750 square to polar approach. The two vast peninsulas of Al miles. The surface is a rapidly ascending inclined rica and South America fully sustain this contrast. plane, since though the ocean tides are 18 or 20 feet Southern Europe, southern Asia, and New Holland, at the outlet, they are arrested at Biddeford, only as far as the latter has been explored, are also strik seven miles up the channel. ing examples. But of this geographical feature in Casco Bay, a noble sheet of water, extending twenty the land area of our planet, no other section affords miles from south-west to north-east, and from Portstronger exemplification than does North America. land harbour to within five miles from the AndroThe lakes along the coast of Louisiana, and other scoggin at Brunswick, receives into the northern places near the oceans, are mere ponds enclosed by side of Poriland harbour Presumpscut river from recent alluvion, and not lakes, in the proper mean the north-westward. Presumpscut is the outlet of ing of the term. The small lakes on the table land Sabago, and countless other smaller lakes, spreadof Mexico, and Lake Chipala, also in Mexico, with ing between the basins of the Androscoggin and a few very small lakes along the Chippewayan sys Saco. The basin approaches a triangle of fifty miles tem of mountains, are the only depositions of water base; mean breadth 12, and area 600 square miles. deserving the name of lakes, known to exist on The four basins of Merrimack, Piscataqua, Saco, North America below North Lat. 35°. East of the and Presumpscut occupy a physical section extendChippewayan chains, over the whole basin of the ing from 42° 2' to 44° 18' North, and lying between Gulf of Mexico, drained by the Rio Grande, Colo. Lon. 4° 56' and 6° 50' East from W.C. Greatest rado, Brassos, Mississippi, Mobile, and Appalach- length 150 miles, extending very nearly due north icola, and smaller rivers; and over the Atlantic from the higher sources of Concord river to the slope of the United States to the basin of Merri- extreme northern fountains of Saco; mean width 55 mack, no real lakes exist of any adequate extent to miles, and area 8350 square miles. This tract is merit notice. With the immense basin of St. Law- remarkable for a wide rear towards Connecticut rence, and the much less, though remarkable basin river, and a narrow front on the ocean; and from a of Merrimack, the change is abrupt and striking. much more important circumstance, the rapid rise Winnipisseogee and Squam lakes discharge their of the ocean border, and, of course, the very short water into the left side of Merrimack, and contri- distance inland penetrated by the tides. The ports
are all either directly on the ocean, or within from and lakes along the same chains, but on the oppoone to seven miles within the mouths of the bays or site side from the sources of Connecticut. Flowing the rivers. If a general name was given to this physi- thence, a little S. of W. 70 miles, nearly parallel cal section, taken from the the political subdivi- to, and 20 miles distant from the Connecticut, the sions, it ought to be designated the basin of New Androscoggin abruptly bends to a little N. of E., Hampshire. It is, however, advancing on the course and maintains the latter course 50 miles, where, of our previous survey, followed by another natural reaching to within 25 miles from Kennebec, it in: section, which may be, with great propriety, called flects, and, by a sweeping curve to S. W., but a gethe basin of Maine. The latter, physically speak- neral course of S.E. 50 miles, joins the main stream ing, commences with Casco Bay. With an elliptic 30 miles above its mouth into the ocean. curve to the westward, the general course of the Kennebec has its extreme northern and principal coast, in a distance of 140 miles, is very nearly source in Moose Head Lake, but that comparatively from south to north, from Barnstable isthmus to large sheet of water is only one of perhaps hundreds Portland harbour. With Portland harbour, or what of smaller lakes which spread between the sources is the same, Casco Bay, the range and character of of Androscoggin and Penobscot, and opposite to coast changes. From the Alatamaha to Casco, the those of Chaudiere. With many intermediate inindentings of the coast, with great variety, yet pre- flections, and receiving numerous confluents from serve some uniformity of structure; but with the both sides, the general course of Penobscot is from latter begins a new order of bays and islands. The north to south, comparative length 140 miles above islands hitherto, in most instances, extend in length the influx of Androscoggin, and 30, thence to the with that of the coast; along the basin of Maine,
The entire basin is in length 170, with their position is directly the reverse. With salient a mean width of 60; area 10,200 square miles. points towards the ocean, the islands and peninsu Though there is one channel called the Kenyebec, las, with their intervening bays, spread a most in- it is very difficult to determine the real mouth of tricate border from Portland to Quoddy Point: the that stream. Estimating the distance from the two extremes bearing from each other N. 65o E., outer capes, the tide ascends 35 miles up the Anand the reverse, 1811 statute miles. It may be also droscoggin to Durham, and 40 miles into the main remarked, that if the preceding course is continued Kennebec to Augusta. Above tide water, though it will follow the Bay of Fundy to its extreme head, from the great and rapid descent of their plane, both nearly two hundred miles still farther beyond the branches are incumbered with shoals and rapids, mouth of St. Croix and the north-eastern limit of and are navigated downwards from near their rethe United States. Were it not for what has been spective sources. already noticed, the excessive tides, the access to Penobscot basin has that of Kennebec to the W., the Maine basin from the ocean would be impeded Chaudiere N.W., St. John's N. and N.E., and St. to almost exclusion for three or four months of each Croix E. The extreme higher sources of the Peyear.
nobscot rise between those of St. John's and KenneThe United States section of this coast receives, bec, and opposite to those of Chaudiere. Flowing beside many smaller streams, the large volumes thence eastwardly 40 miles, it opens into a large formed by the union of Androscoggin and Kenne- lake, called Chesuncook, one of a congeries of lakes bec, the Penobscot and St. Croix. On its northern and creeks. With a greatly augmented current, the part rise the numerous sources of the St. John's, Penobscot issues from Chesuncook lake, and, inthe most considerable stream of the basin, but flecting to a course something east of south-east, which has something more than one half of its en and in some places swelling into lakes, and again tire course and its outlet in New Brunswick. As contracting to a rapid river, maintains the latter laid down on Tanner's United States, the mouth of direction, by comparative distances, 45 miles, to Kennebec is at North Lat. 43° 44', and the extreme the entrance of Wattawam keag river, from the source of Mattawasca at 48°, almost exactly. This north-east. The latter drains the space between gives an extent of 45 degrees of latitude.
the great bend of St. John's river, the head of St. The most extraordinary feature of this basin is, Croix, and the Penobscot, where the latter makes that along the higher sources of St. John's, in a dis- its final inflexion to the southward. Immediately tance of 140 statute miles, it is no place 35 miles below the influx of Mattawamkeag, the course of the distant from, and in one or two places approaches to Penobscot is, however, for 25 miles to the S.S.W., within ten miles to the channel of St. Lawrence to the entrance of the Piscataquis from the westThe mean distance between the higher rim of the ward. The Piscataquis, usually regarded as the basin and the great river of Canada is about twenty principal confluent of Penobscot, drains the space miles, whilst the inclined plane towards the Atlan between Kennebec river, Moose Head Lake, Chestic has a width of 220 miles.
uncook Lake, and Penobscot river. The particular basin of Kennebec has that of Below the mouth of Piscataquis the residue of Presumpscut S.W.; Connecticut and St. Thomas the course of Penobscot is a little west of south, W.; Chaudiere and the higher Penobscot N.; and 90 miles to its ultimate entrance into the Atlantic the main extent of Penobscot to the N. and E.: ex Ocean, between the Fox Islands and St. George's tending in Lat. from 43° 44' to 46° 15' North, and Point, at N. Lat. 44°, and Lon. 8° E. from W.C. in Lon. from 5° 40' to 7° 50' East from W.C.
The tide rises in the Penobscot 60 miles to BanThe Androscoggin, or western branch of Kenne. gor, and thus far the stream is rather a bay than bec, has its source in an intricacy of small rivers river. Above tide water the Penobscot, contrary