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only 15 feet water, a depth maintained, if not in- four to five degrees Fahrenheit over the sandy or creased, 130 miles to Lake George. The latter 18 marshy plains of southern Florida. miles by 12, has 12 feet water; and that depth-is Along this coast, following the inflexions without again sustained 30 or 40 miles farther south, to entering the bays, in a distance of 700 miles, the where this singular water course has its origin in water is generally shallow. There are havens in inundated fats. The course of St. John's is about Chatham bay, Charlotte river, Tampa bay, VacaN.N.W. with one rather comparatively large con- sausa bay, Suwanee, St. Mark, estuary of Appala

fluent, the Ocklawaha from the west. This tribu. chicola, in St. Andrews, Pensacola and Mobile bays. tary comes in below Lake George, and drains the Of these, the entrance of Pensacola with 22 féet

space of grassy plains between the sources of Sur water, is the deepest. The others vary from 12 vanne and Amasura rivers, and as reported by some down to three feet. Of the entrances to the inte. persons, the salt water of the Gulf of Mexico has rior, those of Mobile and Appalachicola are the been thrown by violent storms over the interme- most important. A projected canal over the northdiate space into the St. John.

ern part of the peninsula will be noticed in the se. Returning to Cape Sable, or the southern point quel of this article. of Florida, and carrying our view along the eastern We close this physical survey of the United shore of the Gulf of Mexico, we perceive the west States by resuming and completing our view of the ern slope of the peninsula wider than the eastern,' canals and roads. The Chesapeake and Ohio canal and from the former issuing Shark's, Young, Salli- has been noticed, and its ascents and descents given van's, Coolasahatchie, Charlotte's, Tampa and Ama in Table II. sura, in a distance of 350 miles. The mouth of St. The Chesapeake bay is an immense reservoir, re. John's on the east, and Vacasausa bay on the west, ceiving into its capacious bosom the discharge of are usually regarded as the limits of the peninsula rivers presenting natural channels affording more of Florida, but it is difficult to fix unexceptionable or less facility to navigation. But the approach of bounds to what nature has left vague. With the the two bays of Chesapeake and Delaware, sugentrance of Suwanee river into the northern side of gested at an early age of settlement a canal of conVacasausa bay, commences a rapid and wide ex nexion. . Similar to that part of the Erie canal of tension of the Florida basin, and the eye sweeps New York, now forming the Utica level, the first over in succession the sub-basins of Suwanee, Ock- idea of uniting the Delaware and Chesapeake bays lockonne, Appalachicola, Choctawhatche, Conecuh, by a navigable canal, must have been excited in the Mobile, Pascagonla and Pearl. On strict physical mind of the first intelligent person who became acprinciples the Mississippi itself belongs to this sys- quainted with the intermediate country. “It has tem of rivers; but that great stream and its confliu been affirmed,” says Armroyd, " that as early as ents are already noticed under their appropriate 1762, David. Rittenhouse, the celebrated astronoheads. The estuary of the Mobile affords also a mer, and at or about the same time, Dr. William very natural termination to the Florida basin;* Smith, Provost of the University of Pennsylvania, though by the changes and restrictions of political effected a survey or surveys, and levelled a route terms, the latter basin no longer debouches in any for a canal, to connect the waters of the Susquepart of political Florida.

hannah and Scbuylkill rivers by the Swatara and Embracing the area drained by the rivers enter. Tulpehocken," &c. ing the Gulf of Mexico, from Florida Point to the In 1767, or the following year, the canal system Mobile, including the whole basin of the latter, the of the United States' may be said to have comFlorida basin extends 850 miles in a direction from menced, by the surveys made by Thomas Gilpin south-east to north-west. For the first half of that and others for a canal from Duck' creek to the head distance, including the rivers of the peninsula with of Chester. In 1769, this project was further disthe Suwanee, the mean breadth is about 70 miles, cussed, as were also the routes from Bohemia to and the area falls short of 30,000 square miles. Appoquinimink, and by the Christiana and Elk ri. This long narrow strip is followed by a section com vers. Had the state of society been mature for such prising the sub-basins of Appalachicola and Mobile, designs as early as 1769, the revolutionary war with the smaller intervening and adjacent basins, would have arrested their execution; and when that and containing 74,800 square miles; of which great war terminated, want of moral and political coheextent Mobile embraces 37,000, and Appalachicola sion in its parts, want of foreign, and still worse, 12,800 square miles.

domestic commerce, in the United States, were The whole basin of Western Florida extends in all adverse to any project on a large scale, and Lat. from 25° to 35° 05' N., and in Lon, from 3° 50' which also was in its nature different from the or. to 12° 30' W. from W.C. In relative height, the dinary operations of society. With all these causes extrémes it is probable exceed 1800 feet; or the of rejection or delay in canal plans, two abortive country giving source to the Coosa river, differs in attempts were made to unite the Delaware and temperature, arising from greater elevation, from Schuylkill. Finally, in 1801 the Chesapeake and

• Some explanation of the political term Florida may be necessary. The Spaniards imposed the name of Florida on the southern part of what is now the Atlantic slope of the United States, early in the 16th century. The name in the revolutions of last century became limited to the peninsula extending to St. Mary's on the east, and stretching westward to the Mississippi, southward from N. Lat. 31°. In the still inore recent revolutions by which the whole of Florida was absorbed in the United States, the name became restricted on the west by the Perdido river; and West Florida divided between the states of Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama. Vol. XVIII.- PART I.

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Delaware canal was commenced, and several miles of Susquehannah, the intervening mountains by a of the feeder of the upper route (via. Wilmington) rail-road link, and going on to the head of Ohio were finished : the work was then suspended for river at the city of Pittsburg, may be viewed as the about twenty years, and in 1823 the present route .main junction navigation between the basin of Suswas selected, and on the 5th of April 1824, was quehannah and the Valley of Ohio. We may now commenced. This great work was finished the 18th speak of this immense work as complete, and as October 1829. Length of this canal from Bush one of those stupendous undertakings involving excreek, water of Chesapeake, to Delaware city, on pense which few European nations would have dared Delaware Bay, 14 miles; 60 feet wide at surface, 36 to encounter sixty years past, and as one of the at bottom, with 8 feet water. It has now been in many proofs afforded of a change. in the thinking operation a little above two years.

faculties of mankind on the means of applying Next to the preceding, advancing up the Dela- their labour and resources,* Of this magnificent ware basin, is the Union Canal, the title of which undertaking, that part from the junction with the was taken from the incorporation, into one of two Union Canal to Huntingdon on the Juniata, and from former companies, chartered in 1791 and 1792; but the city of Pittsburg to Johnstown is already naviif we regard the city of Philadelphia as a point of gated. The residue, as also the two rail-roads, are outlet, the Schuylkill navigation may be regarded in progress, and will be in operation before the teras the commencement on tide water of the chain, of mination of the present year. which the latter navigation, the Union Canal, and Other works entirely within or united with the Pennsylvania Canal are the great links. The western side of the Delaware basin, are also either ascents and descents of these works, with their completed and navigable, or in rapid advance toroutes, as also the route and perpendicular inflec- wards becoming so. tions of the Columbia Rait Road, are given in la of these, the Lehigh Navigation is the only one bles XII. and XIII., and in Table XIV. are given altogether confined to the Delaware basin. This the connexion of the Pennsylvania Canal with the very important work is executed and owned by a higher part of the basin of Susquehannah, and the chartered company, called “ The Lehigh Coal and farther connexion with the Canadian basin, by the Navigation Company.” The Mauch Chunk and Erie Canal of New York.

Easton Canal is 464 miles in length, the locks are of the Pennsylvania part of the preceding, the 100 feet long and 22 broad, the caoal is five feet Schuylkill Navigation is in complete operation, not deep, and is perhaps the best work of the kind in only to meet the Union Canal near Reading, but to the Union ; it was viewed and approved of by the Pottsville at the coal mines. This is a combined state commissioners, as finished, January 1830, and system of dams, slack water, and canal and lock is in full operation. navigation; distance about 108 miles, and rise of Mauch Chunk, the coal landing on the Lehigh, 620 feet from tide-water to Pottsyille. This great is 524 feet above tide-water, and 361 feet above the work was commenced in 1792, and 240,000 dollars Delaware at Easton. were expended on it before it was suspended. In A plan of a canal of connexion between the le. 1815 a new company was organized, and a new high at Lausanne, two miles above Mauch Chunk route was selected; the work was recommenced in and the Susquehannah at Nescopec, led to the in1816, which was one year prior to the commence- corporation of a company, on the 25th of March ment of the New York Canal. The total sum • 1826, by the legislature of Pennsylvania. The which has been expended on the old and new work, practicability of this canal is rendered doubtful, if including also Fairmount Dam and Canal, has been Armroyd has correctly stated the elevation of the 3,060,000 dollars. This is the greatest work yet intermediate summit level at 1325 feet. accomplished by the enterprise of any company in A canal from the Delaware river at the foot of the United States.

its lower falls and mouth of Assanpink, by the val. Union Canal also completed, and in successful leys of Assanpink and Millstone rivers to the Rari. operation, leaves the Schuylkill near Reading, and tan, was amongst the early canal routes planned in following the valleys of Tulpehocken and Swatara, the United States; a charter for the purpose was reaches the Susquehannah and joins the Pennsyl- granted by New Jersey, 30th December 1824, and vania canal at Middletown; length 80 miles.

under certain limitations acceded to by Pennsyl. The Pennsylvania Canal itself, commencing at vania on the 6th April 1825. Columbia, and uniting with the Union Canal at the Comparing the natural obstructions respectively mouth of Swatara, and thence traversing the basin opposed, we should have expected a canal from the

With all the apparent magnitude it has gained, the system of roads and canals in the United States with direct commercial views is in its infancy. Having lent my feeble aid to this system, no reader will deem it presumption when I endeavour to secure the only reward I ever expect or wish to directly receive. In the origioal designs of canals there are two routes inserted in Armroyd's Naviga. tion, which, as far as I have learned, came first from me. The first was to extend the Erie Canal from Black Rock to Detroit, along the United States side of Lake Erie; the second was to extend a canal from Pittsburg to Louisville, along the Ohio river. · To these I am bold enough to add another; that is, the practicability to deepen the channel of ihe Mississippi, and navigate ships of the line to New Orleans.

These were not designs made in the closet; they were conceived on the very ground they are to be effected; and on which they will be effected. The Union Canal passes over the very spot, where, 6fty-six years past, I was born, and if, in the course of nature, I could be in existence only fifty more years, what too many will now consider visionary, I could view or contemplate amongst the great finished labours of man.

WILLIAM DARBY.

Delaware to the Raritan as the first work of that by noticing the numerous canals and locks design. kind which would be carried over New Jersey, but ed, or even chartered, where no ostensible labour such has not been the actual course of events. The has been performed; but the great importance of the Morris canal, from the Passaick river to the Dela Susquehanna basin will justify attention to the proware at Easton, passes over a summit level of 888 jected canals along the different channels. Perhaps feet above tide-water. The greater part of this no river of equal magnitude ever more completely elevation is passed by means of inclined planes in justified the expression of Mr Brindley, that rivers lieu of locks; the boats used are 25 tons each. The were made to feed canals, than the Susquehanna, engineer who directed the work was Major Doug Abundant in its volume of water, but flowing over lass. It has been completed and is navigable, afford a rocky bed, and wide channel, the natural faing a channel of intercommunication between the cilities of navigation are attended with difficulty Delaware and Lehigh and the Hudson at the city of and danger. To remove or obviate these obstrucNew York. The Delaware and Raritan Canal is tions different works have been proposed and exenearly finished, and will be navigable in the ensuing cuted. autumn : the canal is 75 feet wide, 7 deep, and 383 Port Deposite canal, to pass the lower falls, has miles long, exclusive of the navigable feeder. been long since completed by the state of Maryland,

The Delaware and Hudson Canal is again another Conestoga canal, to render that small river navgreat work, produced by the coal mines of Pennsyl- igable to Lancaster, was authorised by the legislavania. This work unites with the Delaware near ture of Pennsylvania; 28th of March 1820; and an Carpenter's Point, and four miles above the mouth of act of incorporation passed for the same purpose, Nevesink river, and also very near the extreme the 3d of March 1825. It has been completed in northern angle of New Jersey, at an elevation of 455 the manner of a dam and slack-water navigation, feet above tide water. From the Delaware it as length 18 miles and fall 70 feet. cends 80 feet up the valley of Nevisink, and again Conewago canals, two and a half miles in length, falls 535 feet down the Rondout and Esopus creeks to overcome a fall of 21 feet, similar to the works at to tide-water at Eddyville on the Hudson, length Port Deposite, were erected to pass falls, and are 106 miles, including also the canal to Honesdale in now used chiefly to convey water to certain mills. Pennsylvania.

The Susquehanna, or Middle Division canal, The Hudson and Delaware canal is continued by leaves the main trunk of the Pennsylvania canal at that of the Lackawaxen. The latter ascends the left Duncan's Island, nearly opposite the mouth of Junibank of the Delaware river and in the state of ata, and ascends the valley 39 miles and rising 86 New York to opposite the mouth of Lackawaxen feet to Northumberland; and thence to the New river, rising, in a distance of 17 miles, 148 feet; York state line above Tioga Point, rising 337 feet in crossing Delaware and ascending the Lackawaxen 165 miles. See Table XIV. valley 36 miles, and rising 68 feet, attaining an en West Branch Division leaves the Middle Divi. tire elevation of 1271 feel above tide-water.

sion at Northumberland, and extends to Dunstown, The two latter, if they can be termed two canals, rising 109 feet in 70 miles. On the two Divisions open to the New York market the immense coal just mentioned, 143 miles have been finished, ex. deposites on the Lackawanna river, and similar to clusive of the portions now in progress. the Schuylkill and Lehigh navigations, have been It is an observation 'equally applicable to roads crowned by new towns rising amid what a very few and canals, that those directly uniting the east with years past was barren rocks and silent desolation. the west have always succeeded to an extent far Honesdale and Carbondale, in the mountains of beyond those extending-longitudinal to the Atlantic Wayne and Port Carbon, Port Clinton, and Potts coast. From the Susquehanna to the Seneca lake ville, in the mountains of Schuylkill county, have in New York, a canal is in progress, and from risen indeed amid the rudest wastes, monuments Oswego, on the east branch of the same river, to of the rapid improvement of the state to which Ithaca, on the Cayuga lake, a rail-road is in prothey belong and adorn.

gress; a canal from the Chenango to the Erie canal Independent, however, of canals or roads, the chan- has been commenced, the Champlain route being ņels of the eastern and central rivers of Pennsylva. too peculiar in its elevation and other attendant nia, have demanded and received some share of at- circumstances to come into the comparison. tention. Four hundred and forty thousand dollars Our survey now brings us into the great basin • have been expended in improving the natural chan-' of the Hudson, rendered as remarkable for the vast nels of the rivers in this state.

extent of its canals as for its peculiar natural feaA canal commences at Bristol on the Delaware, tures. The canals of this physical section have 18 miles above Philadelphia, and with some slight been so extensively noticed under the Art. Nav. Inexceptions extends along and near the right bank LAND, Vol. XIV., from page 345 to 375, that we' of that river 60 miles, and rising from tide-water may refer to that part of the Encyclopædia and to 170 feet to meet the Lehigh navigation and Morris tables XIV. and XVI. of the present vol., only nocanal at Easton. Above Easton to Carpenter's licing under the present head, important works exPoint, in a distance of upwards. of 60 miles, the ecuted since the Art. Nav. INLAND was published. channel of the Delaware has been but little improv. Oswego canal was authorised by an act of the ed; a remark equally applicable to both its higher legislature of New York, the 25th April 1925, and constituents above the influx of the Lackawaxen river. has been navigable since 1829. It connects the

It is needless to swell an article necessarily brief Erie canal with Lake Ontario by Seneca and Onon

dago or Oswego river. It is a mixed navigation miles. Many parts of this mountain valley spread of 38 miles, composed of canals and dams.

into alluvial plains with very slight declivity in any Cayuga and Seneca canal was formed from the direction. outlet of one of these lakcs to the other.

As every

The legislature of Counecticut, as early as, 1822, reader may not be fully acquainted with the topog- granted an act of incorporation to a company for raphy of this part of New York, it may be necessary the construction of a canal from tide water at New to state, that the two lakes of Seneca and Cayuga Haven, to the Massachusetts line, near Southwick; extend not far from north and south and of nearly length near 50 miles, in direct distance. The work equal length 36 miles. At their head or southern was commenced in September 1825. Armroyd says extremity they are 18 miles asunder, but gradually that “in the distance from Southwick to New Haincline towards each other so as to leave between ven, about 50' miles, there will be required a ten them an interval of only about nine miles. Both feet lock for every, three miles of canal, or nearly are discharged at the northern extremity. The so.”. This would suppose an entire fall of 1663 feet, route of the Seneca, the western and most elevated, in 50 miles, or three feet per mile nearly. bending to the eastward from the point of discharge The Farmington canal is in operation, and to be about twelve miles, joins the outlet of Cayuga, continued in Massachusetts by the Westfield and and inflecting to northward nine miles is crossed Northampton canal, and above the latter place is by the Erie canal at Montezuma. Both lakes are continued in the improvements of Connecticut river. deep and navigable, therefore, to open their bosoms The latter channel is one of the most extended to the Erie canal became an early object of atten- and important on the Atlantic slope of the United tion, the instant the lattes work was so far advanc- States, and in proportion to length and magnitude ed as to secure its final completion. An act of the of obstruction has been very greatly improved, In legislature of New York was passed 20th April table XVII., the rise of this river and Passumpsic 1821, directing the prosecution of the Cayuga and are given, and under the head of Connecticut river Seneca Canal, and early in 1829 it became navi- itself, is shown the great and rapid ascent of the gable.

main stream above the influx of Passumpsic. BeThe connexion between the Seneca and Cayuga low the village of Barnet, at the junction of the lakes by a navigable canal once effected, naturally Connecticut and Passumpsic, the river has been suggested the Chenango Canal, to connect the On- rendered navigable to tide water, but the works are tario and Susquehanna basins.

not such in all places as to secure the full rise of the Many other branch canals have been projected to fine volume of water draining one of the most inteunite with the Erie canal, but as far as our informa- resting basins on earth. tion extends, the preceding is the only one in pro Several different routes of canals from both sides gress.

of the Connecticut river have been proposed, as Passing the Hudson, we arrive at the great phys. links of connexion with the adjacent basins. Toical section of New England. Since the article wards the Hudson, it has been proposed to carry a NaviGATION INLAND was published, though the sub. chain of canals and locks from the mouth of Miller's ject of canals has excited very active interest, the river to the city of Troy on the Hudson. general exertions have been made to meliorate nat A second route from the same side has been traced, ural channels. To the preceding observation, the leaving Connecticut river at Windsor, in Vermont, execution of the Farmington and Blackstone canals and over the intermediate mountains to Lake Chamare important exceptions.

plain, by Otter river, or by the Pultenay river to Farmington canal was suggested by the peculiar Lake Champlain, at Whitehall. Above the precedstructure of that part of Connecticut over which ing, numerous other routes have been named and the canal has been constructed. In that part of this measured: the last of which is the Connecticut and article describing Connecticut basin, we noticed the Memphramagogue route, the ascents and descents small basin of Wallingford, at the southern extrem- of which may be seen by reference to Table XVII. ity of which stands the city of New Haven. Under On the eastern or left side of the Connecticut the head of mountains we also noticed the chain basin, the most important canal work proposed, is which extends from New Haven northwards and that route designated by the Boston and Connectireaching Connecticut river at Northampton in Mas. cut, or Chickapee canal. This latter was a link in a sachusetts. To the westward of this chain extends splendid desigo of uniting Boston harbour with the a valley nearly parallel to, but considerably elevated Erie and Champlain canals of New York. Though above, the Connecticut river, and stretching from the as first planned, this route received the name of plain of New Haven to Northampton. Farmington Chicka pee from an intention to pass by that river, river rising in the south-east mountain flows S.S.E. the vested rights of the Blackstone Canal Company, about 40 miles until meeting with the New Haven and more exact surveys, induced the preference of chain, and inflected to the northwards by an acute the route by Miller's, Deerfield, and Hoosack rivers. angle. Flowing along the mountain chain 16 miles, Summit level between Boston harbour and Conthe stream bends eastward, passes the mountain and necticut river, Ashburnham pond, elevated 1066 falls into Connecticut river. As already stated, the feet above low water in the harbour and 893 feet mountain valley continues along the chain into Mas- above the Connecticut river at the influx of Milsachusetts. In the latter state it is traversed by ler's river. These projects of canals have been Westfield river, and does not really terminate until abandoned. reaching Deerfield, having a length of about 90 In table XV. will be found the ascents and dea

scents of a projected rail-road, to supersede the reference to the latter table it will be seen, that this preceding canal. Indeed, recently, very few canals canal commences on the Ohio river at Portsmouth, are projected in any section of the United States and at the mouth of Sciota river, and thence ascends without meeting a counter rail-road project, and the Sciota upwards of 70 miles, passing the towns whilst the public mind remains in doubt which de- of Piketon, Chillicothe and Circleville. It then, serves the preference, the contest must operate leaving the Sciota, pursues a course a little E. of against the advance of either. From this and many N.E. to Conhocton, passing the towns of Hebron other causes no side canal has yet been undertaken, and Newark, and the summit level between the valto connect the basin of the Connecticut with those leys of Sciota and Muskingum rivers. From Conadjacent on either side. A rail-road from the hocton, the canal follows the valley of Tuscarawas Connecticut to Boston will be commenced this year. about 100 miles to the summit level between the

Blackstone Canal from the head of Narraganset Ohio valley and basin of Erie. It thence finally falls bay at Providence, to Worcester in Massachusetts, rapidly 31 miles to the level of Lake Erie at Cleavelength 45 miles, and rise 444 feet, is in full opera- land. This great canal traverses the counties of tion.

Sciota, Pike, Ross, Pickaway, Franklin, Fairfield, Beyond the Boston and Narraganset basins some Licking, Muskingum, Conhockton, Tuscarawas, of the rivers have been farther improved, since the Stark, Portage and Cayahoga, and may, in more Article NAVIGATION INLAND was written, but no than one important circumstance, be regarded as a large work of connexion between the sub-basins continuation of the Erie canal. Both the Ohio has been undertaken; we must therefore refer to canals are owned by the state. Armroyd and the public prints, for notice of inci Louisville and Portland Canal, to pass the rapids pient projects, which merely point out the routes of Ohio on the Kentucky side of that stream, though where it may be desirable or practicable to form a a work of immense importance, is yet in itself to canal or road; and return to our survey of what has be classed with side canals. It may be certainly been performed.

considered as the most astonishing contrast between What'has been actually completed on the Atlan- the rivers in the basin of the Mississippi, and those tic slope, and in the cases of New York and Penn on the Atlantic slope, the extreme rarity of natural sylvania, the extensions made into the great Cana- obstructions in the channels of the former system dian basin by the former, and into the Ohio valley of rivers, compared with the abundance of shoals, by the latter, may well excite astonishment, but if rapids and cataracts in the latter.

But, amongst all things are considered and liberally compared, the rivers which compose the Mississippi system, the two great canals of the state of Ohio are the most the Ohio, with its two main constituents, the Mostupendous undertakings ever achieved on the face nongahela and Alleghany, are remarkable for preof nature by man. Forty years ago the writer of senting in the Ohio itself 948 miles; and adding this article saw the ground now comprising that either of the two channels above Pittsburg, 1200 state a wilderness. It is only a few days past 40 miles of a natural navigation with but one scrious years since the United States army was defeated by interruption. savages on the very section of this youthful state, The Rapids of Ohio are occasioned by a bed of where now an artificial canal is navigated. It is limestone rock, over which the volume rolls down really difficult to avoid excursions of fancy on such 224 feet in little more than two miles. To pass a subject, but the nature of our subject forces us these rocks by a canal must have been a suggestion back to matters of fact.

coeval with the navigation of the Ohio, but to comThe Ohio state canals were projected about 1823, plete such a work demanded population and wealth. and may now, 1831, be regarded as completed, or The latter seems, however, to have increased still so nearly so, as to admit a notice admitting their more rapidly than the former. According to Armcompletion.

royd, page 337, the Ohio tonnage in 1823, was The Miami canal commences at Cincinnati, and 19,453, and in 1828, 50,000; an increment of 257 extends north-north-eastwardly along the valley of per cent in six years. Something may no doubt the Great Miami, a total distance of 67 miles. It be allowed for more accurate registry, as the periou passes the towns of Hamilton, Middletown, Frank- advanced, but where the trade even doubled in six lin and Miamisburg to Dayton, the county seat of years, its increasing weight must of course sweep Montgomery county. This canal is in full opera away the obstructions at the cataract near Louistion, and it is in contemplation to extend it to Lake ville.

ville. The legislature of Kentucky granted a charErie by the valleys of Miami, Miglaize and Maumee ter, January 1825, to The Louisville and Portland rivers. To secure this latter extension, the Con. Canal Company," with a capital stock of 600,000 gress of the United States made a grant or grants dollars, one sixth part of which was taken by the of land to a large amount, conditioned that the United States under an act of Congress. The Ohio canais be completed within seven years from United States by a subsequent subscription increased 1828, or in 1835, and said canals to be and forever the stock of the Company 150,000 dollars.* remain public high-ways, for the ure of the govern From the 6th Annual Report of this Canal Comment of the United States.

pany, it appears, that on the failure' of the subscripThe route of the eastern Ohio canal, with its tion expected from the United States, the Board ascents and descents, is given in Table XVIII. By negotiated a loan for 100,000 dollars, and a subse

Armroyd, page 336–337.

VOL. XVIII.- Part I.

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