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ed for by the petitioners was not authorized. Sur. ed for the residue of the line. The road is then veys were promptly executed by the parties, but they curved to the north-west, and proceeds afterwards were based on defective principles. The delay in in a straight line to the entrance of Prati's gardens, obtaining subscriptions for this unprecedented en- where the cut of 70 feet deep, and one-fifth of a terprise (the first of the kind which was ever pro- mile long, commences. This cut was executed in jected in any part of the world, and the first which 1792, for the bed of a canal which has been long was ever authorised by law in the United States), in- abandoned. The line then continues nearly parallel duced the friends of ihis work to apply to the legis- 10 the river Schuylkill, and generally occupies the lature for certain alterations in the act of assembly; bed of the old canal (which has been altered for the accordingly, an act was passed on the 7th of April purpose), to the bridge over this river below Peters's 1826, annulling the act of 1823, and authorising Ísland. This viaduct is 984 feet in length between the formation of a new company. Surveys were, in the extremities of the wooden platform, which is the mean time, in progress under the authority of elevated 37 feet above the water. The stone piers the general and state governments, embracing the are six in number, and the greatest depth of the country through which the projected canal of the foundation, below the surface, is 24 feet. These state was expected to pass. Until the completion piers rest on rock, or compact gravel; coffer dams of these surveys, no aid to the rail-road could at have been resorted to here. Crossing the stream, that time be obtained from the state. In the follow. by this noble viaduct, the line is conducted to the ing year, however, on the 9th of April 1827, the foot of an inclined plane, which is located on the legislature yielded to the wishes of the majority of bank. This plane is straight, and uniform in inthe friends of the rail-way, who were anxious that clination; the length of it is 41 chains 60 links, the the state should execute the road, and a new survey height 187 feet. The line. is continued on the di. was authorised. In order to gratify the wishes of viding ridge, between the waters flowing into the a few persons, who still imagined that a canal was Delaware and the Schuylkill, and attains the first practicable on this route, the engineer was ordered principal summit (547 feet above mean high tide), to report the facts in relation to a canal also. The at a point near the Warren tavern; it then gradually result was reported to the legislature; and they au descends the South Valley Hill into the Great Valthorized, on the 24th of March 1828, the construc. ley of Chester county, and crosses Valley Creek tion of this rail-way as a state work. This rail-roud by a viaduct 577 feet long, the piers of which rise is, therefore, the first which was undertaken in any 58 feet above the water. Here the road approaches part of the world by a government. Prior to the the southern slope of the valley, thence it is conpassage of this latter act, namely, on the 5th of tinued, and crosses the eastern branch of the April 1826, they had authorised a company to con- Brandywine river by a viaduct situated immestruct a rail-road, as “a public highway for the diately to the south of Downingtown, then it transportation of persons and commodities,” from crosses the western branch of the river, just menthe Lackawaxen to the Lackawanna; and a com tioned, by a viaduct at Coatesville. The viaduct pany incorporated on the 11th of March 1826, was over the Big Brandywine is 465 feet Deng, the authorised by a supplementary act, passed the 16th the piers rise 26 feet above the water. The viaduct of April 1827, to construct a rail-road from the over the Little Brandywine is 850 feet long, the Great Bend of the Susquehanna to the mouth of piers ‘rise 73 feet above the water. The piers of the Lackawanna, forming a continuation of the for- this structure are composed of rubble masonry, mer road. The first part of this work has been in and are supposed to be the loftiest of the kind in operation for three years. An act was also passed, on existence. Thence it is located on the northern the 5th of April 1826, authorizing a company to slope of the valley, which it now leaves, and ascends construct a public rail-road from Pottsville, on the along the margin of a branch of the Octarara Creek Schuylkill, to the Susquehanna. This work is not

This work is not (a tributary of the Susquehanna), to the second finished, but is in rapid progress.

These acts are principal summit at Mine Hill. It passes through prior to any passed in other states.

the Great Gap, in this ridge, by a cut of 37 feet deep. “ The Pennsylvania rail-road is not a continuous This summit is 555 feet above mean high tide at line, as might be supposed from the title, but is Philadelphia. Thence, gradually descending, the composed of two divisions, separated by a canal of road proceeds westwardly, crossing the Pequa by 171 miles in lengtli. The first division is commonly a viaduct 145 feet long, elevated 18 feet above styled the Philadelphia and Columbia rail-road, and the stream, and Mill Creek, by a viaduct 550 feet the second the Alleghany Portage: each will be de. long and 40 high, and the Big Conestoga by a viascribed in order.

duct 1412 feet long, elevated 60 feet. The plan “ The first division (the history of which has just is what is commonly called Town's; and this is the been narrated) commences in the city of Philadel- only instance on the line where it has been adopted. phia, at the corner of Broad and Vine streets, Seven of the eight large viaducts on this rail-road whence various branches, constructed by the several are made according to Burr's plan. The road then corporations, will diverge. The main line proceeds enters the city of Lancaster on the northern side; northward to Callowhill street, and thence is curv thence it is conducted across the Little Conestoga, ed to the west, and is continued due west along an by a viaduct 804 feet long and 47 high, in a direcavenue, which is designed to be 100 feet broad. tion towards the head of the inclined plane at CoThe road is straight for about three quarters of a lumbia. This plane is straight, the length 1720 mile, and conforms to the inclination of the streets feet, the height 90 feet. From the foot of the plane which are within the limits of the grades prescribe the road is conducted through Columbia, along the

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margin of the Susquehanna, to the outlet lock in tom: they weigh 414 lbs. per yard. The cost in the basin which terminates the great Pennsylvania England was 61. 178. 6d. per ton: cost, delivered canal. In the heights above mentioned, it is in- in Philadelphia, 850,67. The cast-iron chairs weigh tended to describe the height of the piers above the 15 lbs. each; the nails, or bolts, 10 oz. each; the two surface of the water. The lengths include only the wrought-iron wedges to each chair, weigh each platforms, independent of the wing walls. On the

On the turn-outs the rails weigh 33 lbs. to line there are 31 viaducts. The aggregate length the yard; chairs 12 lbs. each. of the platforms of the viaducts is 7,349 feet. There 63. The stone blocks are 31 feet apart on the are also 73 stone culverts, &c., having from 3 to straight lines, and three feet on the curves. Seven25 feet span (the aggregate of the spans being 538 teen miles of single track have stone blocks; nine feet), and nearly 500 stone drains, generally 2 feet miles have stone sills. wide, and 3 in the clear. There are 18 common " 4. The residue of the single track, and probaroad and farm bridges, 8 of which have stone bly all but the city division of the second track, arches of 25 feet span; the remainder have stone will rest on wooden sleepers, placed in trenches abutments, &c., and wooden superstructures; the across the road, filled with broken stone. The rails span varying from 31 to 54 feet. The length of the and chairs will be similar to those resting on the rail-road from Vine street, in Philadelphia, to the stone blocks; the latter are 20 inches by 12, and the termination is 81% miles, and the whole is in upwards, and are placed in trenches in the same rapid progress. The road formation of 80 miles is

manner as the stone sills. finished, and the remaining 1,4 miles will be finish “ 5. On the new heavy embankments, bearing ed in a few weeks; with the exception of two via- timbers are placed beneath the sleepers. ducts, and the deep cut through Mine Hill (which "66. In crossing a ravine, near the Conestoga, will not be finished until September). A temporary the road is supported by truss work for several ferry will form a substitute at the Schuylkill until hundred feet in lieu of an embankment. 1833, when the viaduct will be used. Westward - The line traverses a very undulating country, from Philadelphia the rails are laid on a number of and crosses the streams at right angles; consesections, and wagons are employed on them. Tra- quently the expense of the road formation has been velling has commenced; and the rails for the first unusually great; the excavations are frequently track may be laid on the residue of the road during deep, and the embankments extensive and lofty. the present year. The cost will be about $28,000 Near the Warren tavern, the surface of the road is per mile, viz. $12,000 for graduation and bridges, elevated 80 feet above the bottom of a ravine. The and $16,000 for the rail-way or superstructure.” cut at Mine Ridge is 37 feet deep, through gravel

Six plans of rail-way have been adopted on va abounding in springs and difficult quicksands. rious parts of the road, viz:

Large, but judicious expenditures have been in1. The use of granite sills, or rails, is confined curred, to render the line as straight, direct, and to the first 10 miles westward from Philadelphia; level, as the country would permit. The curves these are from 4 to 9 feet long, and at least i foot have greater radii than those which have been rewide, and i thick; and the trenches are 22 inches sorted to on any extensive rail-road, located across deep, including the thickness of the road metal, ridges, in Europe or America. The length of the and are filled with small broken stone. These sills line is only a few miles greater than that of the are arranged in continuous parallel lines. On the turnpike between the same points.

The length upper surfaces, near the inner edges, flat iron bars, from Fairmount, to the basin at Columbia, is 80 15 feet long; 2. inches wide, and five-eighths of an miles by this rail-road. By the Schuylkill, Union, inch thick, are attached by square pails, 3; inches and Pennsylvania canals, which conneci these points, long, and į inch in diameter, driven into cedar the distance is 158 miles, or twice the length of the plugs five-eighths of an inch in diameter, which are rail-road.* The maximum grade never exceeds 30, inserted in holes 31 inches deep, drilled into the feet to the mile, and this only in the direction or sills at intervals of 18 inches asunder.

the greatest trade. Two points, only, require sta66 This part of the rail-way has recently been tionary engines. The width of the road bed is, in carefully examined by the engineer. The severe general, 25 feet, and sometimes it is wider. If the winter of 1831—2 (during which the frost was in- profile be analyzed, it will be perceived that 71 per tense, and several thaws occurred) has not in the cent of the useful effect of a perfectly level line, will slightest degree affected the stability of the rails. be attainable of a line perfectly level. It is almost

2. Seventy chains on the recently formed em unnecessary to add, that every division of this great bankmenis of the city division (commencing at the work evinces the skill and sound judgment of the short curve of 300 feet radius, in the streeis of Phi- engineer, Major John Wilson, to whom it has been ladelphia, at Broad and Callowhill streets), are entrusted from the commencement. composed of Carolina string-pieces, six inches " Branches.-At the termination of the state square; the iron bars 2} x of an inch; the sleepers, rail-road, at the corner of Broad and Vine streets, of the usual form and size, rest on bearing timbers a continuation of the line, along Broad street eight inches square, secured by ties 20 feet apart. southwardly, through the city, and thence to the The edge rails, of rolled iron, are 16 feet long, 3} Delaware, a distance of about 23 miles, is to be inches deep, and are parallel at the top and bot. commenced, without delay, by the corporations.

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A law has been passed authorizing the construction of the rail-road through the middle of Lancaster. This pernicious project wil injure the line, increase the length, and delay, and expense of construction, repairs and transportation, and be a perpetual tax on the trade Vol. XVIII.- PART I.

2 X*

land.

and a junction is to be formed with the Delaware, on the Panther Creek, a short distance below the north of the city, by a line about 1š mile long. summit of Mauch Chunk, or " Mountain of Bears.” Also a branch, four miles in length, which forms a It is used for the purpose of carrying the Schuylkill junction with the rail-road from Philadelphia to coal from this valley to the top of the mountain, Norristown. A company has been formed to con and thence to the Lehigh river: hence the common, struct a branch from Downington, via the valley of but erroneous name of this coal, in the market, is the Brandywine, to Wilinington; the surveys have Lehigh coal. The road was commenced in the been published, but the work is not yet commenced. winter of 1826–7, and finished in four months. Another company

has been authorized to construct The extent of the main line, which is single, is nine a branch towards Port Deposit, on the Susque- miles, and the branches and side lines extend in the hanna, via Oxford. The surveys were made by a aggregate 3i miles. This was the first rail road of corps detailed by Major Wilson. It is contemplal- any considerable extent in the United States. The ed io extend this branch to Baltimore, for which Quincy road, near Boston, was commenced in 1826, purpose a company has been formed in the state of but its extent was only three miles; and a number Ma

A branch of nine miles in length from of rail-ways of less length had been in use for a the South Valley Hill to West Chester has been number of years in Pennsylvania. Rail-roads, made, and will be opened during the ensuing however, were then in their infancy in this country month.”

This work was executed without the superintend.

ence of a rail-road engineer. Notwithstanding the Allegheny Portage Rail-road.

mechanical ingenuity of the public-spirited, enterThis is the most important work in the United prising, and estimable gentleman who directed the States, inasmuch as it forms at present the only execution of this primitive rail-way, imperfections rail-road communication between the Atlantic states might be, of course, expected to exist in the strucand the great valleys of the Ohio, Mississippi, Mis- ture and location. The latter is peculiarly disadsouri and their tributaries. It is now acknowledged vantageous. Although this road has been referred that no canal is practicable across the Allegheny to by the uninformed, as a specimen of the capacity mountain in any part of its course; rail-roads have, of rail-roads, it is well known to those who are contherefore, been projected to cross it at several points versant with the subject, as the least efficacious of -none of which have been commenced, except the all the extensive rail-roads in America. The useful one which is now described.

effect produced by a horse is far less on it than on 6. It commences at Johnstown, on the Cone. any rail-road in the Union. The plan exhibits conmaugh river, and rising 1171, feet, by means of tinual, frequent, and often very abrupt curves; five inclined planes and gently graded stages, at 'some of the radii are only 190 feet. A few of them tains the summit of the mountain; it then descends have subsequently been slightly improved. These in the same manner, by five inclined planes and curves were, moreover, irregular; formed with no graded stages, 1993, do feet. One of these stages precision or mathematical science. The profile is descends at the rate of 52 feet

per

mile. All the very irregular. The mine in which the rail-road inclined planes are straight, and the greatest angle commences is 860 feet above the Lehigh at Mauch of inclination with the horizon is 5° 51'9". The Chunk. From the mine to the summit, 960 feet curves on the residue of the road have larger radii above the Lehigh, the line ascends 100 feet in threethan the rugged surface of the country would at quarters of a mile,= 133$ feet in a mile; and this first seem to admit. On the western slope of the steep stage is worked solely by horse power. Onemountain the rail-road passes through a tunnel 900

third of a mile, at the summit, is nearly level; feet long, 22 feet wide and 19 high, excavated thence, for eight miles, the line descends 745 feet to through rock. The bridges are of stone, one of the head of the inclined plane (the latter is 750 feet which, over the Conemaugh, has a span of 80 feet; long, and 215 feet high), the grade being from 0 to two of these are skewed. Stationary steam engines 107 feet per mile, and in one place, for 30 yards, it are located at the head of each inclined plane. The is 1 in 25. length of the road is 36,6 miles. The gradir.g is

Baltimore and Ohio Rail-road. nearly finished, and the first track will be laid before the termination of the present year. The “In the year 1827, the citizens of Baltimore har. edge rails are of rolled iron of ihe Clarence pattern, ing ascertained that a canal was impracticable from weighing 40 lbs. to the yard. The chairs weigh that city to the Potomac, and that the execution of 12 lbs. each; they rest on large stone blocks placed the Chesapeake and Ohio canal would be attended three feet apart from centre to centre. On the by cnormous expense, unprecedented difficulties, heavy embankments wooden sleepers and bearing and great delay and embarrassment-and being timbers support string pieces and iron bars, simi- also convinceil that rail-roads possessed numerous lar to the eastern division of the Pennsylvania rail- advantages over canals-they determined, on the road. A space, 120 feet in width, is appropriated 19th of February 1827, to construct a rail-road-a to the road, of which 25 feet in width is now decision evincing their foresight, wisdom, and engraded. The second track will be laid in the course terprise. Rail-roads had several years previously of the ensuing year.

begun to attract attention in Pennsylvania, and a

number of charters had been already granted in Mauch Chunk Rail Road.

this state, and one in New York, authorizing rail6. This work commences at the coal mires which roads-several of which have been finished. A charare, in fact, in the valley of the Little Schuylkill, ter was immediately obtained, on the 28th of Feb.

ruary 1827, and the work was commenced on the 5. The viaducts are, with two exceptions, con4th of July 1828, by laying the corner stone of a structed entirely of masonry; these have materially monument near the rail-way, and a few months increased the cost of the road, particularly on the afterwards the road was actually begun, and has first 13 miles, where they were adopted in preserbeen prosecuted with great vigour.

ence to wooden superstructures, contrary to the " It commences at the city block, in Baltimore, opinions of the engineers. These viaducts are and passing thence to the depot, near the head of massive, imposing, magnificent, expensive, and inPrati street, 14 mile, it is continued to the verge judicious structures. Dressed stone has been used of the city plot, and thence to the Point of Rocks, in a few cases, thereby increasing the expense. The on the Poiomac river, a total distance from the number of viaducts is 33, of which 31 are built enCity Block of 69% miles. At this point the pro- tirely of stone; one of 12 feet span has stone abut. gress of the work has been temporarily arrested, ments and a wooden superstructure; another, across in consequence of the canal company having ob the Monockessy, has three arches of 110 feet span tained a prior right of way. The length of the each; the piers and abutments are of stone, the surail-road, from the Point of Rocks to Pittsburgh, on perstructure of wood, without a roof. the Ohio, will be about 260 miles at least: a recon " The Carrolton viaduct, near Baltimore, has an noissance of this part of the line has been made, arch of 804 feet span, and a small arch of 20 feet but only a small portion of it has been surveyed. span. The road may, however, according to the charter, "The Patterson viaduct, across the Patapsco, be conducted to some other point on the Ohio, be has two arches of 55 feet span, and two small tween Pittsburgh, and the mouth of the Little Ken arches (for roads) of 20 feet each. The Oliver haway.

viaduct has three arches of 20 feet span each. The 66 The most difficult and expensive portion of this residue of the viaducts have single spans: namely, great rail-road is nearly finished, and in point of three viaducts have spans of 10 feet; 10 have 12 length it is surpassed by only three or four rail feet; three have 14 feet; one has 15 feet; seven roads in any part of the world. The eastern por bave 20 feet; three have 25 feet; one has 30 feet; tion of the Pennsylvania rail-road (which will not and one has an arch of 40 feet span. be in operation throughout until December next) is ". The masonry on the 71 miles 916 poles (includonly 15 miles longer.

ing the branch) consisting of 80,303 perches has "In addition to the main line, extending 69} cost $318,072 and 414 cents; of which 58,244 miles, a branch of three miles 130 poles, graded perches of arched masonry cost $274,201 and 76 for a double, but laid with a single track, has been cents, and 22,058} perches of culverts, detached made to the city of Frederick.

walls, &c., cost $43,870 and 651 cents. The addi“ The road bed is 26 feet wide. The grade for tional cost of graduation, exclusive of masonry, is the first 29 miles from Baltimore does not exceed estimated in the last annual report at $783,542 and in any place an ascent of 22 feet per mile; on the 84 cents; making the total sum, for graduation and next 11 miles, from 22 to 30 feet; on the next 3 or masonry, of $1,101,615 and 25 cents, of which 4 miles, from 30 to 475 feet. At the distance of 830,258 and 914 cents is assigned as the cost of the 403 miles from Baltimore, commences the first in- branch. The first 13 miles constitute by far the most clined plane, which ascends 80,6 feet in a length difficult and expensive portion of the line. The of 2,150 feet. The second inclined plane ascends graduation of this part has cost $29,200, and the 99.000 feet; the length is 3000 feet. The summit, masonry $17,154 and 56 cents per mile; being (elevated 813100 feet above mid tide), thus at- $46,354 and 56 cents for these items alone. The attained, is 42,6 miles from Baltimore. The lirie cost of graduation of these 13 miles being $8,994 then descends by two inclined plancs, Nos. 3 and and 16 cents more than the cost of the remaining No. 3 is 3,200 feet long, and descends 159,6% feet. 54 miles; whilst the cost of the masonry on the No. 4 is 1,900 feet long, and descends 81,50 feet. first 84 miles only, is equal to the cost of the maAll the planes are straight. On the next five miles, sonry on the remaining 583 miles; or the aggregate the grade does not exceed 37 feet, except at two cost has been nearly in the proportion of 51 to 1. places, extending 1,176 feet, where it is 52 feet to The first 13 miles present a continued series of stuthe mile; the residue of the line to the point of pendous embankments and excavations—an unusual Rocks is much less steep.

proportion of the latter through rocks. “ The plan of the road presents numerous, and “The cut near Baltimore is 70 feet deep; 310,250 frequently abrupt curves. Of the 675 miles, ex cubic yards of earth were removed from it, at an ertending from Baltimore, at the depot, to the Poto- pense of $ 122,118 and 33} cents. Gunpowder was mac, 33 miles and 615 feet, in the aggregate, are used for the purpose of loosening the tenacious straight; 13 miles and 3,963 feet are composed of earth of this great excavation. curves, the radii of which vary from 955 feet to in "The great embankment across Gadsby's Run finity, and about 21 miles have radii varying from has a maximum elevation above the surface of 57 395 to 955 feet; one curve, 1,400 feet long, has a feet: it contains 210,101 cubic yards, and cost radius of only 318 feet: another, 1,100 feet long, $65,584 and 353 cents. has a radius of 337 feet. On the branch, 2 miles " The cost of graduation and masonry on the and 1,034 feet are composed of straight lines--the residue of the line is stated at only $8,532 and 16 minimum radius of curvature is 477 feet. The cents per mile; and the total cost of the rail-road, maximum grade per mile is 30,0 feet.

on this extensive portion, at 20,168 per mile-a

sum which the company state to be ample for the rail-roads, in this country, has induced many inwork in its farther progress to the west. The genious persons, connected with this rail-road, to average cost for graduation, masonry, bridges, and submit to the public, through the press, a number rail-way, (composed of double tracks) has been on of devices purporting to be original; all of which the whole line $27,128 per mile; but $30,000 will (so far as they have been examined by the writer) probably be required to defray all the expenses. are either in use, or have been proposed elsewhere,

“ The rail-way is not uniform, stone sills, stone with two exceptions; namely, the mode of oiling blocks, and wooden sleepers being used on different the friction wheel of the wagon, claimed by parts of the line. Forty miles of single track Winans, and the plan of oiling common axles by (equivalent to twenty of double track) are compos- means of a cork floating in oil; the latter was ined of granite sills, eight inches thick, 15 wide, and troduced by Colonel Long. Notwiths:anding the of various lengths: these are laid in trenches, filled frequent introduction of "modern antiques," to with broken stone. This species of rail-way is public notice, through the medium of the Baltiused, at intervals, on the eastern slope of the road. more papers, the press of that city has rendered The cost of it when completed, including iron, &c. services of the greatest value and importance to the will be about $12,500 per mile for the double track. community, in sustaining the cause of rail-roads by The iron rail'is attached too near to the inner edge much sound argument, and the promulgation of of the stone, the bearing is not uniform, and the numerous facts. stability of the rail-way is impaired. On part of “ The rail-road which has been described, is desthe Pennsylvania rail-road, where stone sills are tined to confer as much prosperity on the city of used, this defect also exists; but it has been lessen- Baltimore, as the enterprise of the company has ed by placing the iron rail nearer to the centre of already conferred reputation on her public-spirited the stone sill.

citizens. 66 Six miles of single track are composed of stone blocks and wooden string-pieces, &c. similar to " In addition to the works already mentioned, the Mauch Chunk and Cold Run rail-road, in Penn- many rail-roads are in rapid progress. The first sylvania; the blocks on the former contain from one number in the list below indicates the extent proto two cubic feet, and are not one-third the size of posed, the second, the number of miles finished, or those used on the latter, and they are laid in small that will be finished in the course of this year. detached pits, filled with broken stone, in lieu of “ In Pennsylvania.-1. Philadelphia, Germantrenches. The latter plan facilitates drainage. town, and Norristown rail-road, 181 (6 f.). The pits, when unconnected with side drains, form

“ 2. Little Schuylkill, 275 (22) f.). receptacles for water in some soils. The blocks 6 3. Danville and Pottsville, 47% (11 f.). are four feet apart, from centre to centre. The " 4. Mine Hill and Schuylkill Haven, 15} f. whole of the residue of the line rests on wooden 6 5. Mount Carbon, 8 f. sleepers, which are not less than five inches thick 66 6. Schuylkill Valley, 10} f. at the smaller end, and frequently they are larger: 667. Rooi Run, 5} f. they are also four feet apart, and are placed on “8. Lykin's Valley, 16} f. broken stone, contained in pits, in the same man "9. Carbondale and Honesdale, 163 f. ner as the blocks. The earth between the pits is 6. These roads have numerous small branches, not protected by broken stone: the action of the which latter are not included. frost on it must, therefore, impair the stability of New Jersey.-10. Camden and Amboy, 61(34 f.). the sleepers. The wooden rails are secured by 66 11. Patterson and Hudson, 16 (16 f.). wedges, in the usual manner. The notches are, of " Delaware.-12. Newcastle and Frenchtown course, wider at one end, but they are cut vertically. (16} f.). On the Little Schuylkill rail-way the notches are 13. Baltimore and Susquehannah, 70 (21} f.). wider below than above; the wedges are less sub Virginia, G.C.--14. Chesterfield (13 f.). ject to displacement on the latter. The sleepers " 15. Petersburg and Roanoke, 60 (30 f.). on the Baltimore and Ohio road are hewn out in the “South Carolina.-16. Charleston and Hamburg, centre, to make room for the horse-path, and the 135 (135 f.). greater portion of the wood work is covered by bro 6. New York.-17. Harlæm, 8 (8 f.). ken stone, earth, &c. The rail-way is thus rendered 18. Hudson and Mohawk (15} f.). firmer, but the materials are more subject to decay. “ 19. Schenectady and Saratoga (22 f.).

“ The string-pieces are, throughout the line, six “ 20. Ithaca and Owego, 29.5 (29] f.). inches square, and the iron bars are 15 feet long, “ Massachusetts.-21. Boston and Lowell (- f.). (pierced by 11 oblong holes) 2 inches wide, five " Kentucky.-22. Lexington and Louisville, 96 eighths of an inch thick, and are cut off obliquely (15 f.). at the extremities.

" Many rail-roads will be commenced during this “ The wheels of the wagons are made in accord- and the ensuing year; and every day adds to the ance with the old fashioned plan formerly pursued number and magnitude of these popular projects. on some of the colliery rail-roads in Great Britain Charters have been granted for rail-roads extending -ihe felloe being slightly conical, and curving to. in the aggregate 5460 miles, of which 1350 will be wards the flange: this has, however, been claimed finished by 1833; but many of the works thus auas a new and important invention. The novelty of thorised will not be commenced.

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