페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

The results of this summary table, and those observations at Liverpool, (see vol. viii. page 525, from which it is constructed, would render excusa 2d column) the west wind blew with most rapidity ble a suspicion that the elements were selected to and force, and next to it in violence, were those of support a theory, but so far from such a process the south-west and north-west. These conclusions having been followed, the elements were arranged accord perfectly with the same winds of North as they presented themselves, and many of the most America above N. Lat. 35o, and there can be no important are scattered over the volumes of this risk in stating, that if we suppose the whole power Encyclopædia, in reach of the reader; the correct of the wind to be represented by 1000, and if we ness of our application may therefore be tested. add their force to their occurrence, the western Errors of calculation there may be, bui they are winds comprise at least the seven-eighths of the involuntary, and we trust not of such extent as to whole aerial stream over the space embraced in seriously influence the aggregates.

our estimates. The bending of the trees on both If, as we assume, these tables of the winds are continents, already alluded to, is a phenomenon taken as solid data, the true cause of the great dif- obvious to the most careless observer. Before ference of temperature between given latitudes on drawing our final conclusion, we proceed to give North America, and North-western Europe is de some of the best authenticated results obtained by termined. We find from table 27, that the three observations made with the Thermometer. An western winds over the former section of the earth opinion has long prevailed, and to considerable exare, to all other aerial currents, as 556 to 1000, on tent still prevails, that the valley of Ohio in partia mean from the Pacific to the Atlantic ocean; and cular, and the basin of the Mississippi generally, that, also on a mean, the three western winds pre has an aerial temperature considerably higher than vail over North-western Europe, as 571 to 1000. is experienced on corresponding latitudes along the If the northern winds were included with the wes Atlantic slope of the United States. Such an error, tern, as in reality they might have been correctly, for such it is, is far from being one of those innoon both continents, the result would remain nearly cent conclusions in opposition to obvious facts; it the same as already deduced.

has greatly contributed to emigration; and we shall To the American Almanac for 1832, page 98, the soon see, that so contrary is reality, that what following is appended as a note.

might be expected is true; the mean and extreme “ The number of days required by the packets temperature increase with height and exposure, between Liverpool and New York, to make the over the Mississippi basin, as they do every where passage outwards and homewards, places this (the else on earth. The authorities on which the mean author's observations on the trade wind in the text) temperature is deduced are named in the tables, in a striking point of view:

but we preface those respecting the United States 6. The average of the whole of the passages made by extracts from the preliminary remarks to Lovell's by the packets, in six years, from Liverpool to Meteorological Register, dated Washington, SepNew York, that is from east to west, is 40 days. tember 1826.

" The average, during the sam period, of the “ The posts at which these observations were same vessels, from New York to Liverpool, or from made are situated between 27° 57' and 46° 39' of west to east, is 23 days."

north latitude, and between 67° 04' and 95° 43' of These voyages give a prevalence to west over all longitude west from Greenwich; embracing an exother winds of 606 in a 1000, agreeing in an aston tent of 18° 42' of latitude, and 28° 39' of longitude. ishing manner with the results in table 27.

The elevation of the north-western, or interior, According to Professor Playfair, and other au stations above those on the Atlantic coast has not thorities, the winds blow almost incessantly from been accurately ascertained; the following however the south-eastern coast of Asia towards the Pacific is believed to be near the truth. Fort Brady, situatocean.

ed at the outlet of Lake Superior, is 595 feet above Can there be any farther hesitation in ascribing the level of tide water; Fort Howard, at the southern the intense winters of North America, to that pre extremity of Green Bay, which empties into Lake vailing and powerful current of air borne from an Michigan, 600 feet; Fort Crawford, at Praire du immense snow covered and frozen continent? Or Chien, near the junction of the Wisconsan and Miscan there exist a doubt, but that the comparatively sissippi rivers, 580 feet; Fort Snelling, near the uniform temperature of North-western Europe is junction of the St. Peter and Mississippi rivers, produced by the immense preponderance of western 780 feet; Council Bluffs, a few miles above the juncwinds from a wide and perennially open ocean? tion of the Platte and Missouri rivers, 800 feet. Again, is it not now demonstrated, that the winds Baton Rouge, on the Mississippi, 120 miles above of both continents do not depend for their general New Orleans, and Cantonment Jesup, near the Sacourse, on either land or water?

bine river, 25 miles from Natchitoches, are in It may be also remarked, that the prevalence of Louisiana; Cantonment Clinch near Pensacola, Canwestern and north-western winds is really but very tonment Brooke near 'Fampa Bay, and St. Augusslightly influenced in their respective occurrence tine, in Florida. Fort Moultrie is in the harbour by the seasons of the year. It is not, however, to of Charleston, South Carolina; Fort Johnston near the actual prevalence of the western currents of air Smithville, North Carolina; Fort Severn at Anna. that their overwhelming agency is entirely to be polis, in Maryland; Fort Mifflin in the Delaware, attributed; their relative intensity must be taken 6 miles below Philadelphia; Fort Columbus in the into comparison. According to Mr Hutchinson's harbour of New York; Fort Wolcott in the harbour

of Newport; and Fort Sullivan near Eastport, in Lovell's Register as the hours of observation, and the State of Maine. The observations at the city the results of course too high, particularly in high of Washington are introduced by way of compari- latitudes. In midsummer between Lat. 44°, and 45°, son, as the latitude of this city is very nearly the the sun is upwards of three hours above the horisame with that of the centre of the several military zon at seven o'clock, A.M. and has set only about posts. They were made by the Rev. Mr. Little, one hour and a quarter at nine o'clock, P.M. But by whom they were very politely furnished for the the cause of excess being general, so must be the present purpose.'

excess itself, admitting a common correction. A.M. vii., and P.M. II. and IX., are given in

[blocks in formation]

30 24 E.
18 00 E.

300 W.
13 31 E.
4 32 E.

[ocr errors]

Petersburg,

Russia near the level of the sea,
Stockholm,

Sweden near the level of the sea,
Edinburgh,

Scotland, partially, but not much above,
Berlin,
Leyden,
London,
Rouen,
Paris,
Vienna,

About 500 feet above the ocean,
Nantes,

On the line of France,
Poitiers,

France,
Fort Brady,

Outlet of Lake Superior, 595 fcet,
Padua,

Italy,
Fort Snelling, Mississippi river, 780 feet,
Bourdeaux,

Western part of France,
Fort Sullivan, Near Eastport, Maine,
Fort Howard, Green Bay elevated 600 feet,
Marseilles,
Fort Crawford, On Mississippi river, 580 feet,
Fort Wolcott, Newport, Rhode Island,
Council Bluffs,

Missouri, 800 feet,
Pekin,
Washington,
Algiers,
Fort Johnson,

Near Smithville, mouth of Cape Fear river,
Cantonment Clinch, Near Pensacola,
Grand Cairo,
St. Augustine,

59 56 59 20 55 57 52 32 52 10 51 31 49 26 48 50 48 12 47 13 46 39 46 39 45 23 44 53 44 50 44 44 44 40 43 19 43 03 41 30 41 25 39 54 38 53 36 49 34 00 30 24 30 00 29 50

100 W.
2 25 E.
16 22 E.
1 28 E.
O 30 E.
84 43 W.
12 00 E.
93 08 W.

0 26 W.
67 04 W.
87 00 W.

5 27 E. 90 53 W. 71 18 W. 95 43 W. 116 29 W. 76 55 W.

2 17 E. 78 05 W. 87 14 W. 31 23 E. 81 27 W.

38 80 42 39 47 70 49 00 52 25 51 90 51 00 52 00 51 53 55 53 53 80 4137 52 20 45 00 57 60 42 44 44 50 61 80 45 52 51 02 50 82 55 50 56 56 72 00 66 68 68 77 73 00 72 23

TABLE XXIX.

Comparative view of mean temperature along the Atlantic slope, and interior basin of the United States, as

also of the North American Polar Sea, corrected by the observations of Haines, Little, Brantz and others, on the former, and Lewis and Clark, Captain Parry, Drs. Drake and Troost, &c. of the interior section.

<

PLACE.

PHYSICAL SECTION.

N. Lat.

Long.

Mean Temp.

[blocks in formation]

Eastport,

State of Maine and mouth of St. Croix river,
Boston,

Massachusetts, bottom of the Bay of same name,
Newport,

Near the Atlantic Ocean and mouth of Narragan

sett,
New York city, Mouth of Hudson river,
Philadelphia, On the Delaware, about 60 miles inland,
Baltimore, Baltimore, about 90 miles inland,
Sandy Spring, Sandy Spring, elevated above tide 400 feet, and on

table land between the basins of Potomac and Pa.

tuxent. VOL. XVIII. -PART I.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Washington city,
Annapolis,
Smithville,

[blocks in formation]

Charleston,

[blocks in formation]

St. Augustine,
Pensacola,

[blocks in formation]

New Orleans,

[blocks in formation]

Sixty or seventy feet above tide water in Potomac, 38 53
West shore of Chesapeake Bay,

39 00
North Carolina, and on Atlantic Ocean, mouth
of Cape Fear river,

34 53
About five miles from, and nearly level with the
Atlantic,

32 44
On and nearly level with the Atlantic Ocean, 29 48
Eight miles N. from, and but little above the Mex-
ican Gulf,

30 23
On the left bank of the Mississippi and not above

4 feet in any part above tide water in the Gulf of
Mexico,

30 00
On left bank of Mississippi, and slightly elevated;
50 feet?

30 28
Elevated perhaps sixty feet,

31 30
On right bank of Mississippi; elevation 350 feet, 38 36
Junction of the Misstssippi and Onisconsin rivers, 43 03
Straits of St. Mary,

46 39
Bank of Missouri, elevated 800 feet,

41 30
Near union of Mississippi and St. Peter's rivers, 44 53
Wabash river, and elevated about 450 feet,

38 10
Cincinnati on the Ohio, from 500 to 600 feet, 39 52
Pittsburg, elevated above tide water 648 feet, 40 28
In the North American Arctic Ocean,

Baton Rouge,

Sabine river,
St. Louis,
Fort Crawford,
Fort Brady,
Council Bluffs,
Fort Snelling,
New Harmony,
Cincinnati,
Pittsburg,
North Polar Sea,

[blocks in formation]

TABLE XXX.

Comparative view of mean temperature on Northern Africa, and in Europe as far eastward as St. Peters

burg; compiled from Malte Brun's Geography, Edinburgh Encyclopædia, &-c.

PLACE.

PHYSICAL POSITION.

N.
Lat.

Long.

from London.

Mean Temp. Fahr.

Grand Cairo,
Algiers,
Palermo,
Rome,
Lisbon,
Madrid,
Marseilles,

Vienna, Geneva, Milan, Zurich, Berne, Ratisbon,

On the lower basin of the Nile,

30°03'31 18 E.

73 00 On the northern coast of Africa,

36 49
2 17 E.

72 00 On the northern coast of Sicily,

38 12 13 25 E. 62 18 S. W, slope of Italy, and but little above the sea, 41 52 12 30 E. 59 43 W. side of Spanish Peninsula, and on the Tagus, 38 43 9 10 W. 61 70 Table land of Spain, and basin of the Tagus, 40 23 3 47 W. 53 60 In the middle S. coast of France, and on the Med. iterranean,

43 25 5 30 E. 59 00 Upper sub-basin of the Rhone,

45 33 5 05 E. 54 14 Middle part of the basin of the Rhone,

46 12 6 50 E. 49 62 Middle part of the basin of the Po,

45 30 9 12 E. 55 76 On the Swiss table land, elevated 1200 feet,

47 10 8 So E. 47 71 Swiss table land, elevated 1200 feet,

46 57 7 30 E. 48 27 In the higher Danube basin, 1000 feet above the sea,

48 58 12 05 E. 48 00 On the Danube, elevated 500 feet above the sea, 43 12 16 20 E. 50 54 Basin of Hungary, and on the Danube,

47 32 19 E. 50 81 Northern slope of France,

48 30 2 24 E. 50 52 Northern slope of France and basin of the Seine, 49 25

3 40 E. 47 30 N.W. coast of France, and on the British channel,

48 30 1 46 W. 54 14 W. slope of France and basin of Loire,

47 07 1 45 W. 54 68 On the Garonne river, W. slope of France,

44 50 0 26 W. 56 48 E. foot of Mount D'Or,

45 40 3 10 E. 50 00 Great undulating plain of the Netherlands,

50 51 4 18 E.

50 09 Almost on the shore and level with the German

52 04 4 23

49 64

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Leyden,
Berlin,
Warsaw,
Prague,
Copenhagen,
Stockholm,
Upsala,
St. Petersburg,

Umea,
Abo,

Bergen,
Christiana,
Dover,
London,

Sidmouth,
Liverpool,
Kendal,
Lancaster,
ENGLAND,

Near the German Ocean and a little above it, 52 10 4 25 E. 49 64
Northern plains of Germany,

52 30 113 20

46 76 On the vistula elevated about 600 feet above the sea, 52 12 21 10 48 56 On the table land of Bohemia, 1000 feet,

50 08 14 35 49 46 On the sound between the Baltic and Cattegat seas, 54 40 12 25 45 35 On the Maeler lake, E. slope of Sweden,

59 23 18 00 E. 42 26 E. slope of Sweden,

59 50 (17 30 E. 44 70 On the Neva river, between the gulf of Finland and lake Ladega,

59 56 30 25 E.

38 84 E. slope of Sweden, and on the gulf of Bohemia, 63 05 19 18 E.

33 26 S. W. slope of Finland, and on the E. shore of the Baltic,

60 27 22 18 E. 42 80 W. slope of Norway, and near the Atlantic Ocean, 60 11 6 00 E. 45 00 s. and sheltered valley of Aggerhuys, Norway,

59 58 10 50 E.

42 80 S.E. coast of England, and on the channel,

51 10 1 20 E. 53 00 On the Thames, S.E. slope of England,

51 31 76 55 E.

48 41

W.C.
S. slope of England, and on the British channel, 50 42 3 20 W. 47 00
Western slope of Britain,

53 27 3 05 W. 46 00 Western slope of Britain,

54 20 2 48 W. 46 08 Western slope of Britain,

54 05 2 46

51 80 Island including Wales and Scotland, extending 54 00 1 45 E. 46 33 from S. to N. greatest length to mean breadth, as to

to 4 to I nearly,

58 45 6 20 W. E. coast of Scotland,

55 58 3 00 W. 46 33 440 feet above the sea,

57 24 2 57 W.) 45 93 Near to and exposed to the German Ocean,

57 29 4 12 W. 44 70 78 feet above the Sea; E. slope of Scotland,

56 20 2 49 W. 47 00 1280 feet above the sea,

55 25

43 70 E. slope of Scotland, and near the sea,

56 23 3 12

46 35 Or that part within the scope of the preceding ob- 55 25

45 67 servations,

to

57 29 Near the extreme E. coast of Ireland,

53 20 6 20 W., 49 05 N.E. part of Ireland, 30 miles inland,

54 18 6 45 W. 47 50 N.E. coast of Ireland,

54 38 6 05 W. 53 00 Near the extreme northern coast of Ireland,

55 00 7 30 W. 46 90 Extending from S. S. W. to N.N.E. greatest length 51 10 5 35 W. 48 90 to mean breadth, as 3 to I nearly,

to

to
55 20 10 40 W.

Edinburgh,
Huntley Lodge,
Inverness,
St. Andrews,
Lead Hills,
Kinfauns,
SCOTLAND,

Dublin, Armagh, Belfast, Londonderry, IRELAND,

The first observation which will strike the reader mean of which is N. Lat. 37° 20', and mean of the on comparing the latitudes and mean temperature in individual mean temperatures, is 53° 2' very nearly; Table XXIX. and XXX., will probably be, that the not differing materially from the mean given for latter decreases retiring from the coast on both con Washington City. tinents, and might naturally superinduce a conclu Taking twenty-two places along or near the Eurosion that the cause of high temperature depended pean coast from Lisbon in Portugal to Bergen in Noron proximity to the ocean. The true cause has way, including 214° of latitude, and whose mean been demonstrated under the head of Wind. latitude is 49$ very nearly, the mean temperature

To institute a fair comparison between the re comes out 49° 38', answering in a very remarkable spective temperature on the two opposing shores manner to the latitude and mean temperature along of the Atlantic Ocean, we now take the mean of the British channel. twelve places on or near the coasts of the two con There are, we must premisé, discrepancies in the tinents.

elements from which the tables are constructed On North America, from Eastport in Maine to wbich forbid decisive inductions, but sufficient reSt. Augustine inclusive, there are in Table XXIX. liance may be placed on the aggregates to yield very twelve places along the Atlantic, all situated below satisfactory conclusions. In regard to mean temor at the head of the tides. The extremes include perature we find there is a difference between the a small fraction above 15 degrees of latitude, the North American and European coasts, of about

nine degrees of Fahrenheit, or five degrees of the both continents. We cannot avoid remarking in
centigrade thermometer.

this place, that the extremes of temperature are
Those great extremes of difference, less, how much more decisive of the contrasts of climate than
ever, than generally suposed, are only maintained are the mean terms; and, farther, that in a great
on, or at no considerable distance from the coast. majority of instances, extremes, being phenom-
This truth may be seen by examining, and compar ena out of the ordinary course, are by far more
ing the tables. The plateaus or table lands of Eu correctly observed, than are the more common
rope, such as central Spain, France, Switzerland changes.
and Bohemia, cio not on like latitudes enjoy a niuch, It has already been shown, in this article, that
if any, higher temperature than is found in the the results in Dr Lovell's Register, were too high,
United States.

yet, the following, from these otherwise valuable
We now proceed to close these comparative tables, show the excessive extremes of temperature
views by stating the extremes of temperature on observed in the United States.

TABLE XXXI.

Latitude, Longitude from Washington City, elevation above the Atlantic Ocean, with the mean and ex

treme temperature of places in the United States.

[blocks in formation]

Fort Brady, near Falls of St. Mary, 595 46° 39' 7° 21'W. 90 -33 123 41° 37' In 1823 -30; 1824—33; and in 1825—25.

Mich. Territory,
Fort Howard, S. extremity Green Bay, 600 44 40 110 00 W.100 -38) 138 44 50 In 1822 –23; 1823 -38; 1824 — 18; and

in 1825 25. Fort Crawford on Mississippi, Prairie du 580 43 03 13 58 W. 96 -28 124 45 52 On the point above the junction of OnisChien,

consin and Mississippi rivers. Fort Snelling, junction of St. Peter's and 780 44 53 16 13 W. 96-29 125/45 00 On the point above the junction of St. Mississippi rivers,

Peter's and Mississippi rivers. Council Bluffs, on Missouri river, above 800 41 25 18 48 W. 108–21 129 50.82 Mean temp. inconsistent with the exPlatte,

tremes; -46°? St. Louis, calculated by approximation, 450,38 46 12 58 W.

55 86 Excessively exposed to wind and extremes

of temp.

to

New Harmony, Wabash river, Dr. G. 400 38 11 10 50 W. 96 5 101 56 74

Troost,
Cincinnati, on Ohio river, Dr. D. Drake, 500 39 06 7 25 W. 98-18 116 53 56 The S.W. wind violent every where on

the Ohio. 600 Philadelphia, in the city of, Jas. Young, 50/39 57 | 47. E. 98 2 100 58 41 The local warmth of the city of PhiladelGermantown, Reuben Haines,

200 40 03

1 45 E.

96 -10 10652 03 phia accounts for the great discrepanFort Mifflin, 6 miles below Philadelphia, 39 52 1 43 E. 96+ 690 55 28 cy with the mean at Germantown. The

peculiar course of the two rivers accounts for a similar discrepancy in the

winds of the two places. N. York, Fort Columbus, Fort Wolcott, 40 42 2 53 E. 10443 107 51 60 The course of the North river deflects

the N.W. into a N. wind, and this city.

See Table 27.
Newport, Rhode Island, Fort Wolcott, 41 30

5 37 E.
881-1 89 51 00 Narragansett Bay superinduces a similar

remark to that made respecting the N.

river at New York. Eastport, Maine, Fort Sullivan,

44 44 10 00 E.
94-19 11342 44 The very rapid and great increase of cold

towards the N.E. section of the United
States, must depend on a greater ex-
posure to N. W. wind. See head of

Mountains in this article.
Baltimore, Lewis Brantz,

50 39 18
O 23 E.

98 - 6 10453 00 Mean of eight years. Sandy Spring, Wm. Darby and others, 400 39 10

90-13 103 52 77 There occur but few winters in which

the extreme cold is not very near or be. low the zero of Fahr. At this place, Dec. 16th, 1831, Wm. Darby's thermometer showed a depression -13; Dr. Howard's -12; and James Pleasants' -13. Dr. Palmer's, graduated to 7-, was in the bulb.

« 이전계속 »