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+18 Baton Rouge, first high land ascending 30 30 28 14 18 W. 99 Mississippi,

+ 7 Sabine cavity, banks of,

602 31 30 16 42 W. 97

66 50 The writer of this has seen ice nearly an

inch thick at New Orleans; snow occasionally; and more or less frost nearly

every winter. 81165 00 Similar to New Orleans, except colder

and more snow. 9064 00 Too high, no doubt. I have seen very severe

frost at the mouth of Sabine, at 29° 18' N.

35.63

58.14

It was our intention to have given a general table winter solstice 1829, to vernal equinox
of the monthly mean temperature, but such are the 1830,
inequalities of the same month in different years as Spring of 1830.—Mean temp. from vernal
to render generalisation on the subject very unsatis equinox, to summer solstice 1830,
factory. So unlike indeed are the years both as to Summer of 1830.—Mean temp. from sumi-
extremes of temperature, and moisture, that to mer solstice, to autumnal equinox 1830,
reach any decided conclusion demands a mean of a Autumn of 1830.- Mean temp. from au-
long cycle. The last three years have for so short tumnal equinox, to winter solstice 1830,
a period, afforded very wide extremes, therefore Winter of 1830—31.—Mean temp. from
we present the following comparative tables of the winter solstice 1830, to vernal equinox

71.46

49.23

seasons.

1831,

29.88

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59.64

Spring of 1831.—Mean temp. from vernal

equinox, to summer solstice 1831, TABLE XXXII.

Summer of 1831.—Mean temp. from sum

mer solstice, to autumnal equinox 1831, Table of Mean Temperature of the Seasons at Sandy Autumn of 1831.—Mean temp. from auSpring, N. Lat. 39° 10'.

tumnal equinox, to winter solstice 1831,

69.95

41.81

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TABLE XXXIII.

Mean temperature of the Seasons at several places in Europe. Malte Brun, Vol. VI. p. 69, Boston octavo

edition, Wells and Lilly. Degrees of the original Centigrade reduced to Fahrenheits Scale.

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There will be found discrepancies between this table and others in the head of Climate, but not of such magnitude as to defeat the object of the tables, which was to give a comparative view of the climates of Europe and North America. It will be seen by inspection of tables XXXII. and XXXIII., that, as has been already observed, the difference of mean temperature decreases on Europe, leaving the western coast and advancing to ihe interior table lands, and the following table exhibits similar phe. nomena as respects extreme cold.

TABLE XXXIV.

Extreme cold in Europe. From Malte Brun, Vol.

VI.

page 62–68, Fahr. Ther. North-eastern part of Europe, beyond the

Onega river. - Mercury is often mallea-
ble at Usting--Welecki. Rivers frozen
from November to April, inclusive.
Agriculture ceases about N. Lat. 60°.

Pine trees cease at 61 or 62o.
Between the Gulf of Bothnia and White

Sea.-Greatest cold at St Petersburg, – 12.100
Rye, barley, and wheat cultivated. The

latter frequently ripens in Finland at 60°. Lapland.-Mean temperature of summer

at Cape North, Lat. 72°, 43}, and at

Enontikies, Lat. 69° 54.8°. Scandinavia:- lowest temperature at Ber: gen,

-10.40 Upsal,

-22.00 Pine and Fir to Lat. 66°; oaks to 60°.

Grain every where cultivated.
Central table land of Russia, or the Valday

region.—Mercury was malleable the 3d
of February 1803, at Saralov, on the
Wolga, N. Lat. 531°. Wolga and other
rivers frozen from the month of Decem-
ber to April inclusive. Apple and pear

trees to N. Lat. 55o. Lower Wolga, or northern Caspian region.

At Astrachan, N. Lat. 461°, highest temperature, 96.8°, and lowest,

10.66 North side of Black Sea.-Lowest tem.

perature at Odessa, and vicinity, N. Lat. 461.

-23.80 Poland and Eastern Germany. -Lowest

temperature at Warsaw,

+ 3.38 Lemburg or Leopol,

-18.40 Prague, on the basin of Bohemia,

6.70 Great north-western slope of Germany,

including the Delta of the Rhine, Jut-
land, and the Danish Islands.
Brussels, lowest temp.

+ 13.20 Franeker in Friesland, near the German Sea, N. Lat. 53° U',

- 11.20 Berlin on the Spree, northern great plain of Germany,

+ 9.32 Copenhagen,

+10.58 Either to the southward of the great chains

of the Pyrenees, Alps, and Hæmus, or to the westward of the German Ocean, does the scale of Fahrenheit, except on mountains, or at extraordinary times, indicate a cold as iow as zero. But the north-western part of Europe is subject to great and rapid changes of temp. See

Art. ENGLAND, in this Encyclopædia. Bourdeaux, coldest month,

+23 Nantes, coldest month,

+25 Clermont, near the centre of France, coldest month,

+30 Rome, coldest month,

+ 42.26 Montpelier, very nearly same,

+42.26 Spanish base of the Pyrenees, lowest temp. +22 Madrid, lowest temp.

+26 Cadiz, lowest temp.

+44.6 Some may deem us too minute in the selection of comparative element, but those who reflect on the erroneous opinions prevalent on the real and comparative climate of the United States, will not blame a condensation of evidence.

It may be well to state the manner in which our own element was collected. A good Fahrenheit was suspended on small iron wire, in a recess facing the north-west, and defended from the local influences of the dwelling-house, or the radiated heat of the sun. This instrument, in perhaps ninely days in an hundred, was examined in the morning as soon as the light was sufficient, and the degree indicated put on record. At, or after mid-day, the highest degree was recorded; and finally at nine or len at night. These three observations entered in a tabular manner enabled the observer to enter a mean. The state of the weather was each day carefully recorded.

The observer, the writer of this article, from the adequate attention, and once or twice monthly dur. 6th day of November 1828 to the moment of writ. ing one or more years, a very satisfactory mean ing, January 1832, with the exception of about fif- may be produced.

may be produced. Observations of this kind, simileen days, made every entry from his own observa lar to all other experiments accurately made, have a tions.

tendency to remove popular error; as may be seen The prevailing wind was also carefully observed by reference to article METEOROLOGY, Vol. XIII., and recorded.

page 173, 174 of this Encyclopædia. Four very fine perennial fountains were chosen, The observations there made on the great changes and their temperature taken at intervals of 30 days of temperature in the water of wells and fountains nearly. On this latter mode of ascertaining mean accord with the results obtained in the same manner temperature we have to observe, that if done with at Sandy Spring.

TABLE XXXV.

Mean Monthly temperature of water at the head of perennial fountains in the vicinity of Sandy Spring.

Jan. Feb. Mar. | Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

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One primary object in inserting this table, is to of forests, widens the extremes, but leaves the mean call the attention of observers to this elegant and term nearly what it would be from like position or easy mode of determining the mean temperature of difference of position. The popular error of a supthe earth; which will in a period of a few years posed melioration has prevailed on both sides of correspond remarkably with the mean of the air the Atlantic, and is about as well and no better found by the thermometer. By reference to the supported by real observation, than the other popuhead of climate in the article Meteorology, the iar error, that the valley of Ohio was warmer in method by the water is preferred by the writer. winter than it was on like latitudes on the Atlantic Professor Lesley has thrown some discredit on such coast. The tables in this article will place the lat. observations, by ascribing more to its results than ter theory on its proper basis. In the article Scotthey are calculated to produce; but in judicious LAND, there are both observation and induction, hands they afford much the least expensive mode rationally speaking, to place the alleged meteoroloof determining the mean temperature.

gical revolution of western Europe in its true light. In the American Almanac for 1832, page 85, are 6 There seems to be little doubt that the climate two expressions which our element and that under of Scotland was considerably MILDER in ancient the head of Meteorology are far from supporting. times, than it is at present (1825); and indeed this " At the depth of eighty or a hundred feet, the appears too true of all the WESTERN KINGDOMS OF most sensible thermometer will hardly exhibit any EUROPE.change throughout the year."-" The question has The present winter, 1831-32, has afforded mebeen much discussed, whether the winters in the teorological phenomena of incalculable importance temperate latitudes have become milder or not. on this subject. To place the early and severe cold There is abundant evidence, it seems to us, in fa of this winter on record, and enable the reader to vour of the alleged change.'

compare the results with his own or the observa. In the same valuable manual, page 86, it is again tion's of others, we insert the following comparasuggested, that “the change, whatever it be, seems tive table; premising that two of the observers are 10 belong to the autumn and early part of winter. professional men, Drs. Howard and Palmer, thereThe spring, we are inclined to believe, is even fore could not be expected to have it in their power more cold and backward than it used to be.to record regularly, as a person who made meteor

The writer of the article United States has ological observations part of his business. Mr. long considered the idea of the supposed change Edward Stabler is an intelligent farmer, who merely illusory, and increasing document from actual ob. placed the extremes on record. The four ther. servation demonstrates its impossibility, unless it mometers yield, by taking the days when an obser. was preceded and produced by a change in that vation was made by each, which was the case on order of nature which has prevailed coeval, and no 34 days between Nov. 23d and Dec. 31st inclusive; doubt long anterior to all human observation. In Dr. Howard's* 17o; Dr. Palmer's* 17.35°; Edward fact, the best evidence proves that the destruction Stabler's 17.1°, and William Darby's 17.099.

* See this Encyclopædia, Vol. XVI. pages 738—747.

TABLE XXXVI.

Comparative temperature in the vicinity of Sandy Spring, as observed with four separate thermometers.

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47
51
49
53
54
50
64
54
54
62
58
49
50
48
48
48
47.5
47
45

42.66 43. 40.66 39.5 39.66 39.33 46.33 42.83 47.83 56.06 53.83

62

40
45
39
37
35
40
44
38
41.5
59
47
39
40
41
38
36
40
46.5
33
33
33

40

42 46 36 39 36 40 45 38 44 60 48 38 37 44 36 36 44 45 30 30 32 30 • 21 29

42.

14

39 42 38 32 28 47

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

42

50 51 50 50 48 56 49 48 48 54 35 38 40 41 36 44 34 26

23

47 52

29

25

30 31 32 28 30

24 32 26 25 19 32 36

32
34
36
36.5

24 25

26 31 23

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36

40 31

30

44.33 41
44.

33
43.66 34
40.66

28.5 41.33 30 41.33 28 45.33 31 41.66 36.5 50.66 48 57.00 47.5 46.

56.5 40.

38 42.33 37 45.33

40 41.33 38 38.66 32 42.66 28 47.

46
40.

40.5
33.66 23
36.66 23.5
32.33 30.5
28.33
31.33 26.5
28.66
34.33 30
39.33 34
29.

28
22.33 20
24.5 16
25.66 28
24.66
30.

18
22.3 24
17.

10 17.33 12 19.33 14 20.66 11 28.

24 24.66 20 20.33 10 1 5.66 20 19.

18 23.33 16 9.33 14

-13 16.

23 10.33 + .75 26.

15.5
20.33

13
29.
17.

16
17.33

.75 35.66 27

26 27 28 29 30

1 2 3

35 38 23 21 26 17 26

23 32 36 29 21 17

24

31

Dec.

20
163
29
11
22
24
11
11
16

30 22 161 26 10 181

10.5

27
29
27
35
36
28
20
27
16.5
25
29
14
16
16.5
17.5
19
24

2 21

30

14

42.33 43. 41.33 38.66 38.5 46.5 39.5 34.33 36.16 30.5 28.66 30.5 28.83 33.66 36.66 29. 21.33 23.66 23.83 23.16 26.66 21. 16.66 17.33 17. 19.33 26. 22.66 20. 16.66 19. 18.66 9.33 9.66 15.33

8.58 22.5 20.66 28.66 14.66 17.75 33.

31 37 38 29 24 25 26 30 34

25

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

11

28
27
34
33
25
24
23.5
19.5
28
30
30
32
20
26
22
16
22

9 111 13 121 24 20 113 16

26

10 12 14 101 25 21 13 19 14 15

34

18

18

22 10 20 19

18

14 15

16 16 16 21 24 18 15 04 08 25

5 16

8 14 24 20 29 12 25 36

12)

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

16

36 23 30 27 20 23 20 16 36 28 46 22 26 42

13 -12 20

1 18 13 12 17

1 29

10
13
18

2
20

7 13 22 23 28

15 14 12 23

1 161 14 171 17

12 30 26 42 20 27 40

23 + of

15 13 15 15

16

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Summary.-Combined mean by adding

by Dr Wm. Palmer, on the foliage and inftorescence together Howard's and Dar

of indigenous forest trees. We may merely state, by's observations, Morn. 24.92° that from these documents and our own observa.

Noon, 37.33 tion, there is frequently not much short of a month

Even. 27.68 between the opening of spring in two succeeding Night lemp. by adding those

years. The ripening of fruit and the fall of the of morning and evening, mean

leaf, though not liable to so great a difference in of

26.3 time, are, however, phenomena, which have really

no fixed day. Thus in a period of 65 consecutive days, com Every season, indeed every day of the year is liamencing with the first of November, the mean of ble to present features very distinct from like sea. the warmest time of the day was only 37.33°; and sons, or days, of other years. If any months could the mean of the two extremes of morning and even be chosen, which differ most from each other, these ing 261° very nearly. During the same period the would be March and December. The following mercury for several days ranged near, and once fell, notes made at Sandy Spring will place this in a strong at the lowest, 13° below zero.

light. Taking the whole of the thermometrical tables March 1829.-It will be observed that the surinto view, we find the climate of the United States face of the earth in this vicinity was not clear of liable to the extremes of 108° above, and 38° helow lying snow until the 27th of this month; and at its zero. Commencing with the Atlantic coast, and close indications of vegetation were very slight, and advancing into the great central plains of the con confined to the grasses. tinent, the extremes increase in a greater ratio than March 1830.-On the 20th, peach bud swelling; would be produced by an increase in height; an 26th, red maple in bloom, and weeping willow in effect produced no doubt by an immense open full leaf. At the end of the month black haw, and surface, exposed in summer io intense radiation, crab apple leaf unfolding; peach flowers nearly exand in winter to prevalent western winds from the panded; and vegetation generally so far advanced frozen regions along, and on both sides of a con ihat pasture was sufficiently abundant in the fields. tinuous chain of mountains. By table 32, we, dis. Red clover had covered the ground; flower of the cover, that near the Atlantic coast, and as low as field, cherry tree opening; ploughing had been com39° N. there are, in winter, in ordinary seasons, menced. 90 days on which the thermometer ranges below March 1831.–At the end of this month, red mathe freezing of water, and it is a fair inference that ple in bloom; peach bloom opening; weeping willow sew winters occur on which there will not also in leaf; clover and grasses in a vigorous state of occur sixty consecutive days during which the growth, though pasture still scarce; ploughing mean temperature will not be below the freezing of merely commenced. water.

December 1829.—This month presents the curiThe head of Climate has extended beyond the ex ous phenomenon of a mean temperature of 42}° pectations of the writer, and therefore the insertion Fahrenheit three degrees above that of the previous is precluded of some valuable documents supplied November. In December 1829, also much less VOL. XVIII.- Part I.

3 C*

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