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snow or rain fell than did on the November. At

snow, the best estimates must be in great part conthe beginning of the new year, red clover was in a jectural, as snow is of such very unequal density, state of not slight vegetation.

or, in plainer terms, the real quantity of water conDecember 1830. The mean temperature of this tained in a given depth of snow, is seldom determonth was almost seven degrees lower than that of minable to any great degree of certainty. With the same month 1829. The month was remarka- these observations, we insert the tables as ap2le for heavy, cloudy and rainy weather, and on the proaches towards a theory of the rain of the middle b2d, for severe cold. But the most peculiar phe Atlantic states of the United States; with a comnomenon of the month was, that the highest range parative table of the rains of north-western Euof the thermometer was on the morning of the last rope. day, 58°, and in the midst of a thunder storm.

December 1831.-Commenced with 7 or 8 inches lying snow, and presented throughout, the tempera

TABLE XXXVII. ture of severe winter, with an extreme 13° below zero of Fahrenheit, or 45° below the freezing of wa

Annual and monthly rain at Baltimore;- Observer, ter. Sleighing was good in this vicinity during the

Lewis Brantz. whole month. Rain.-Great as are the extremes of aerial tempe

11817 1818 1819) 1820 1921 1922 1923 1824 Mean. rature in the United States, there is also another

January 2.25

2.8 3.3 1.8 5.6 2.3 2.85 class of meteorological phenomena, if possible, more

February 2.8 2.0

2.2
4.3 .7

3.225 irregular. The quantity of water which falls in the March

3.0 4.55 3.3

3.71 form of rain, hail, sleet, and snow, differs greatly

April

1.5

2.7
1.1 2.1 2.1

2.20 May

6.45 4.1 4.4 5.1 1.5 in different years, but still more in the months of

2.95 3.65 June 9.1 1.15 1.3 4.6

5.03 3.66 the same year. We present the reader with the

July

3.5 4.1 2.2 2.2 7.5 4.35 3.6 3.37 3.85 following as the best data we possess on the rain August 10.4 2.0

8.0

4.1 4.5 4.3

September 3.3 3.2 3.0 1.5 10.7 2.25 5.8 of the United States, premising that there are more

2.94 4.45 October 1.8

.7 7.8
3.4

28 1.77 2 975 difficulties opposed to a correct result on this part

November 3.7

2.0
1.1 2.7 5.6

2.27 32 of our subject, than we encounter with observa December 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.9 3.3 1.2

6.25 2.25 2.9 tions on temperature. Rain itself is far from be. ing easily measured as it falls, and in the state of

Amount. 148.55 32.6 128.75 40.5 50.2 29.2 44.55 42.28 39.97

.7 1.9

5.4

4.5

1.7

1.3

5.9
4.3
4.7

2.1

7.1 1.8 2.1 1.6

2.6

1.8

1.5

4.3

0.3

.8

3.1

2.5 5.1

3.1

TABLE XXXVIII.

Monthly and annual rains at Germantown, near Philadelphia; -Observer, Reuben Haines.

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TABLE XXXIX.

Inches. Peebles, mean of 14 years,

28.7 Statement of the Rain fallen from 1810 to 1830, in- Dalkeith, mean of eight years,

22.6 clusive, the first 14 years by the gauge of P. Le- Dundee, average of nine years,

22.6 goux, of Spring Mii, the following seven years by Belmont, in Strathmore, mean of 10 years, 50.4 that kept at the Pennsylvania Hospital.

Longforgan, on the Tay, mean of 12 years, 24.5

Branxholm, in Roxburghshire, mean of five
Inches.

Inches.
,

31.3
1810
32.656

1821 32.182 Mount"Stewart, in Bute, mean of seven
1811
34.968
1822

29.864
years,

46.6
1812
39.3
1823
41.815 Carbeth, Stirlingshire, mean of eight years, 42.93

mean
1813
35.625
1824

38.74
1814
43.135
1825

29.57
Mean of the 21 examples in this table,

31.2 +
1815
34.666
1826

35.14
1816
27.947
1827

38.50

Placing equal confidence in the American and 1817 36.005 1828

37.97

European tables, a result comes out, which will no 1818 30. 177 1829

41.85

doubt surprise many readers; that is, that more 1819 23.354 1830

45.07

rain falls annually on the former, than on the latter 1820 39.609

part of the earth. If we examine the different places Rain fallen in each month of 1830.

named in table 57, we find that along the eastern

coasts of Ireland and Britain, not more than two Inches.

Inches.

thirds as much moisture falls in the form of rain, Ist month 1.63

7th month 4.07

as does on the ited States, in a given time. 2d 2.06 8th

3.87

We now reach the far most important difference 3d 4.115 9th

2.93

between the climate of the United States and north4th 1.815 10th

4.31

western Europe, the distribution of moisture. If 5th

3.75
Ilth

5.85

the reader will refer to the articles England and 6th

5.99
12th

5.18

Scotland, he will discover, that in many places, on

both countries, days of rain and snow very nearly 45.07

equal those of fair weather; and under the article The whole quantity fallen for 21 years is 748. 143

Scotland it is expressly stated, that “among the inches, which divided by 21 years, gives 35.626 foggy, and among the rainy days, those that were

fair days are included, those that are gloomy and inches as the usual average for that time. The mean of these three tables, taking the years

showery.” in which the monthly observations are complete, number of days in a great majority of years in the

On every comparison we are able to make, the is 37.26 inches, Though much discrepancy is certainly visible on their faces, yet their coincidence

United States, are completely fair; that is, pass is sufficient to determine the mean annual rains of without any falling meteor which can come under the region they embrace, to be between 35 and 40

any other denomination except those of dew or hoar inches.

frost. The following table, formed from the summary tables in Lovell's Register, is inserted as em

bracing a very wide extent, and consequently, not TABLE XL.

giving a limited view.

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TABLE XLI.

Relative state of the weather in the United States

mean of the months, four years.

WEATHER.

Places of Obser

vation.

Abstract of the rains of north-western Europe.

Inches.
Dublin, Ireland, mean of 13 years,

24.64
Londonderry, Ireland, mean of seven years, 31.118
Cork, mean of 11 years,

38.93
Staffordshire, England, the annual rains ex-
ceed,

36.00
Worcestershire, the annual rains fall short
of,

30.00
Liverpool, mean of 18 years,

34.41
Chatsworth, in Devonshire, mean of seven
years,

27.34
Kendal, in Westmoreland,

60.00
Lyndon, Rutlandshire, mean of 45 years, 22.21
Ounelle, in Northamptonshire, mean
years,

23.00
London, mean of seven years,

23.00 Kiufauns, in Scotland, mean of 13 years, 25.21 Glasgow, mean of 30 years,

29.6

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It may be noted as not a little interesting, how very near the proportion of fair days is to that of prevailing winds in the United States. In table 41, the fair days are within an insignificant fraction of 600 in a thousand, or six-tenths. The writer of this article for a long series of years pursued the profession of surveyor, which enforced observation on the weather, and has, in fact, been exposed to the vicissitude of open air, from Canada to Louisiana and Florida, which means of experience added to recent observation of others and his own, risks the conclusion, that in the year there are from 200 to 230 or 240 days, during which, man is relieved from annoyance by falling meteor.

The direct reverse is the case, and in very nearly the same proportions, on the Atlantic coast of Europe, as far south as Portugal, if not even to the coast of Africa. But the rains on the two sides of the Atlantic Ocean present other remarkable contrasts. By combining the results of tables XXXVII., XXXVIII. and XXXIX., the mean annual rains of the United States come out about 373 inches; whilst in table XL. the mean annual rains on north-western Europe, are only 31 1 inches. The mean annual rains of England according to Mr. Dalton, are 31š ir ches. From the whole elementit appears, therefore, that on the United States, in from about 140 to 150 days there fall two-tenths more rain than falls on north-western Europe in from at the lowest term 180, and thence to 220 days.

The preceding extremes, great as they are, do not, however, represent the entire inequality in the times of an equal quantity of rain falling on the respective continents. Summer droughts so long, so severe, and so common, from the St. Lawrence to the West Indian seas, and it is true occasional on the coast of Europe, but, seasons without them are perhaps more rare on the western, than with them on the eastern shore of the Atlantic Ocean.

In brief, the climate of north-western Europe and that of the United States is alike, in the general and special course of the winds, but from the relative position of the two continents with the Atlantic Ocean, strongly contrasted in every other pheno

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Deep and permanent snow is a strong feature in the climate of the United States, and uncertain as are the occurrence of meteorological changes, none other differ so much as does snow. Some winters pass with slight snow; indeed there are years in which almost none of that meteor of any consequence falls, whilst perhaps the ensuing year is remarkable for excessive falls of snow. Within the last three years the snow storms have mostly come from the western points, and attended with high and steady winds which drifted the meteor excess. ively. This latter circumstance is amongst the revolutions in the meteorology of the United States, which must increase with the destruction of the forests. The deep and drifted snows often render the roads extremely difficult to pass, and contribute most powerfully to fill up and increase the masses of ice in rivers and canals. In fact rivers are frozen sooner and longer about in proportion to the excess of snow.

If the eye could be raised above, and powers of vision enlarged so much as to embrace the entire

continent of North America, and the extreme south- ing 4° above, and about 10 o'clock P.M. 4° below ern lipe of snow so marked as to be easily traced, zero. it would present, beside many partial two vast This morning (16th) at sun-rise, it was 10° below curves.

zero. The snow which fell last week, continues of If we turn in mind to such a range of vision, and course on the ground.” commence on the Pacific Ocean, we should find the See National Intelligencer, Jan. 3d, 1832. snow line commencing about N. Lat. 40°, but in See also our Table XXXVI. clining southwardly as we rose the great western The great severity of snow and frost experienced spine of mountains, and again inclining northward at Nashville, N. Lat. 36° 05', extended to Opely as we passed that system into the central basin lousas in N. Lat. 30° 30', as noticed in the Naof the Mississippi. In the latter region, the ex tional Intelligencer, January 10th, 1832. treme snow line is in fact that of the gulf of Mexico, During this season of intense cold the Ohio river though that meteor is rare so far south. The per was frozen and passable on the ice, and the ther. manent line along which snow occurs annually, is mometer sunk to 16 degrees below zero at Cincinabout N. Lat. 34°, but sweeps southwardly once nati; the Ohio river of course frozen in all its more round the extreme Appalachian, opens, and is branches above, and in the main stream far below withdrawn one or two degrees farther north along

that city. the Atlantic coast, than on the Mississippi basin. The New York canals were closed in the second

On the Atlantic Slope, deep and abiding snows week of December, and at Norridgewock in Maine, are not unknown, but they are not annual below the the thermometer sunk to 20 degrees below zero. Chesapeake basin.

The severe cold over the plains of Louisiana in the Beyond the general limits we have sketched, the vicinity of Opelousas, is not a very rare phenomecontinent of North America presents from Decem non.

The writer of this article resided many years ber to March, with very partial exceptions, one at St. Landre, in Opelousas, and can assert that few vast expanse of snow on the land, and ice on the winters pass there entirely without snow, and none rivers and lakes. Over these frozen regions the without less or more hard frost. In the month of prevalent winds range along, or within 45 degrees January 1813, snow fell to the depth of 11 inches at of an axis which would be very nearly represented St. Landre, and was not entirely melted in eight by a line drawn from Bhering?s Strait to the Capes days afterwards. Cotton, and other tender vegeof the Carolinas.

tables are frequently nipped by frost in Opelousas Since the above was written the following docu- late in April. ment has been published, which we insert, as it On the 12th of December 1800, near Natchez, shows the wide extent of the cold of December Fahrenheit's thermometer showed a cold of 12° 1831; and proves the position we have taken, that above zero, as recorded by Mr. William Dunbar, the winters of the United States are still liable to in the Transactions of the American Philosophical present as great, if not greater extremes of cold Society, Vol. VI. p. 40. ihan have been recorded of any previous like season. Such quotations might, indeed, be multiplied to

“ For the last 12 days the thermometer at Nash- volumes, but we trust enough has been given to ville, in Tennessee, has scarcely risen above the awaken the inquiring reader to an investigation of freezing point, and has usually fallen to the neigh- that atmosphere he breathes, and to the real chabourhood of zero about day-break. On Tuesday racter of a climate, upon a knowledge of which so morning last, (the 13th) it was 1° below zero, on much of human labour depends for a right or wrong Wednesday morning 20 above, on Thursday morn- application.

VOL. XVIII.-PART 1.

3 D*

POPULATION.

ation in 1790, up to that of 1830; but from the non

completion of the returns of the latter, our purpose It was our intention at this part of the article is completely frustrated. The following tables give United States to have inserted a full analysis of the an exhibit of the advance of population, however, census of the United States, from the first enumer. in the aggregate, and may serve as a general view.

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Maine
New Hampshire
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
Vermont
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Delaware
Maryland
District of Columbia
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Kentucky
Tennessee
Ohio
Indiana
Mississippi
Illinois
Louisiana
Missouri
Alabama
Michigan
Arkansas

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RECAPITULATION.
Free white males, under sixteen years,

813,298
Free white males, over sixteen,

802,327 Free white females,

1,556,839 All other free persons,

59,466 Slaves,

697,897 Whole number in 1790, 3,929,827

When the census of 1790 was taken, all that im 109,000 persons existed. All beyond the Missis. mense region now occupied by Ohio, Indiana, Illi- sippi belonged to another government. The mass nois, and Michigan, was an almost unbroken waste, of inhabitants yet stood east from the Appalachian

over Kentucky and Tennessee, not quite chains.

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