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logical knowledge, of which his writings, and es. beloved gloom. This country I am in is not very pecially his posthumous works, afford ample proof; entertaining; no variety but that of woods, and them but what is more to the present purpose, and is we have in abundance. But where is the living very little known, was also endued with poetic taste stream, the airy mountain, and the hanging rock, and genius. We shall have occasion speedily to with twenty other things that elegantly please the refer to this more particularly. In the meantime, lover of nature Nature delights me in every form. we notice it for the purpose of observing that the I am just now painting her in her most lugubrious society of this truly eminent person tended to fos- dress, for my own amusement, describing winter ter his juvenile predilection for the muses. Previ as it presents itself,” &c._" Mr. Rickleton's poem ous to his bidding farewell to Scotland, his acade on winter, which I still have, first put the design into mical progress seems to have been very slow, have my head. In it are some masterly strokes that ing probably suffered seasons of interruption by his awakened me. Being only a present amusement, residence in the country as a family tutor. Of this 'tis ten to one but I drop it whenever another fancy period of his life, few traces can now be found; but comes cross.” The letter of which this extract it is known that he passed a considerable time in forms a part, was first published in the first numthe noble family of Cranston, then resident at Crail ber of the Kelso Mail, from the original, with an ing near Jedburgh, and afterwards in that of Lord introduction from the hand of the present writer, Binning, who was married to the heiress of Mel. stating the circumstances in which it was brought lerstain. This lady, who was the grand-daughter, to light, so as clearly to establish its genuineness on the male side, of the celebrated patriot Robert and authenticity. Much unavailing labour has been Baillie; and on the female side, of Patrick Hume since used to discover the poem of Mr. Riccaltoun of Polwarth, afterwards Earl of Marchmont, was here alluded to. The venerable Dr. Somerville of an early patron and friend of our poet. Thomson Jedburgh, now the father of the Church of Scothad also been distinguished by the friendship of land, and still in advanced age enjoying much of the Elliots of Minto, in Roxburghshire.
the mental vigour of youth, says, he remembers to He appears to have gone to London early in have heard part of it recited by the author, and 1725, in the character of tutor to Lord Binning's thinks he learned from himself that it was printed family. A letter, in Thomson's own hand-writing, in a miscellany about 1718 or 1720, under the title is now before us, dated from East Barnet, where of " Prospect of a Storm from Ruberslaw.” It may Lord Binning's family then resided, in July of that yet, however, be discovered. In the mean time it year. He soon after, in the same season, settled in appears certain, first, that Thomson's Vinter, the London, trusting, for a livelihood to his poetical first of “ The Seasons," was begun, not, as some talents, till his friends should find him some per have alleged, before the poet removed from his namanent situation. Of these friends, one of the most tive land, otherwise Dr. Cranston, his confidential valuable was Mr. Duncan Forbes, then attending friend, must have known it; secondly, that it was his duty in parliament, and whose character as a composed soon after his arrival in London, more scholar and a judge, a patriot and a christian, have with the view of pleasure than of gain; thirdly, that secured for his memory a lasting and well merited the idea originated in his admiration of the congereputation. Though naturally of an easy and indo nial poem of his respected counsellor and friend lent temper, Thomson felt the necessity of exertion, Mr. Riccaltoun; and lastly, that he seems hardly at and was so happy as in his first public enterprise this time to have contemplated the conclusion of to appropriate a theme worthy of all his genius. this part of his plan, far less the extension of the Its origin appears from a most interesting letter to subject to the other “ Seasons.” his beloved companion, Dr. Cranston, then residing Winter was published by Millar, London, in at Ancrum with his father, the amiable and re March 1726, and though at first it excited little spected minister of that parish, which appears, notice, yet it speedily attained such popularity as though without a date, to have been written early to raise its author into the first rank of our national in the winter of the year 1725, not long after he had poets. It secured for him friends and admirers of settled in London. He begins by complaining of every rank, and laid the foundation of an honourhis poverty, and asking a small temporary loan able and enduring fame. In the course of the same from his early friend: he then rises gradually into year, a second edition of it appeared. Summer the sublimity of poetic emotion, and gives a sketch next appeared, in 1727; Spring in the course of the of a part of his Winter, and several appropriate same year, and Autumn not until 1730, when it quotations from the unfinished production of his formed part of the first quarto edition of his works. muse. But what gives the chief interest to this let In 1727, besides his Summer, as already menter is, that he distinctly states the source whence tioned, he published his poem on the then recent he drew the idea of his great yet simple plan of death of Sir Isaac Newton, which Dr. Johnson, in The Seasons. We shall give the passage, in con
his “Life of Thomson," says, the poet was enabled nexion with the chain of associations by which it to perform as an exact philosopher, by the aid of is naturally introduced.
Mr. Gray. This may be a correct statement, though Having finely pourtrayed his friend as contem- it is given without authority. If true, it is by no plating the fading glories of the year, on the ro means discreditable to the author; for a man of promantic banks of the stream where they had spent found knowledge on one class of subjects may, from together many pleasing hours, Thomson thus pro- that very circumstance, be ignorant of others. ceeds, “There I walk
in spirit, and disport in its Nay, the intense application of the mind to works
of imagination, has a tendency to loosen its hold on was performed at Cliefden on the birth-day of the the scientific attainments it had formerly made. Princess Augusta. For several succeeding years But that Thomson, though chiefly occupied with we have little information of his employments. In intellectual and moral themes, was not ignorant of 1745, his tragedy of Tancred and Sigismunda was the principles of Natural Philosophy, as seems to produced, and acted with great applause. Its rebe insinuated, appears from many distinct passages putation continues deservedly high, and it still of the Seasons, and from the general structure of maintains its place among the favorite representathe work. In the same year he published Britan- tions of the stage. nia, in which there are fine passages. Yet, as it The last of his works, which he lived to publish, may be regarded as an opposition political pam was the Castle of Indolence.
This is the most phlet in verse, written for a particular purpose, finished of all his productions, and along with his though under excited feelings, it occasioned but á Seasons, the foundation of his lasting fame. After temporary and a partial interest, and is floated much of the “ limae labor, et mora,” it appeared in down to posterity, only by the buoyancy of his 1746, and is still regarded, particularly the first more finished and popular productions. A short canto, as among the most exquisite productions of time after, he wrote and produced on the stage, un the British Muse. About this time, his steady and der very auspicious circumstances, and high antici- illustrious friend Lyttleton, now advanced to the pations of success, the tragedy of Sophonisba, the peerage and in office, employed his influence in actual popularity of which, however, was brief, and securing for Thomson the appointment of surveyor. seems never to have been great.
general of the Leeward Islands, which, besides supFortune now spread her canvas before him, but porting a resident deputy, yielded him a revenue of he did not long enjoy her prosperous gale. Re 3001. a year, at that time worth twice or thrice its commended formerly to the notice of the Lord present value. But the elegant leisure thus afforded Chancellor Talbot, by Dr. Rundle, Bishop of Der him he did not live long enough to enjoy. For in ry, Thomson was now engaged by that eminent autumn, 1748, returning one evening by water to lawyer and statesman to travel on the continent his house at Richmond, after having overheated with his son, Mr. Charles Talbot. The ardent himself by walking, he was seized with a cold follove of liberty which Thomson seems to have cher- lowed by fever, and died on the 27th of August, or ished as an instinct of his nature, and which glows (7th of September, N. S.) having nearly completed in various parts of his writings, connected with his his 48th year. His remains were interred in Richamor patriae, led him to contrast the advantages of mond church, without any memorial; but a brass his own country with the degraded condition of tablet, with a suitable inscription, was not very other nations. His much loved companion was cut many years ago put up in the wall of that church off by an early death, not long after their return to by the late Eari of Buchan. An edition of his England. He now employed much of his time in works was published by Millar, who with a warmth composing his long and elaborate poem entitled of friendship honourable alike to the poet and the Liberty, in the exordium of which, he bewails in publisher, devoted the whole profits to the erection strains of unaffected tenderness, the loss of that of a handsome monument for him in Westminster friend, whose encouraging praise and congenial Abbey. feelings, he expected would have cheered and ani To increase the fund left by him to his survivmated his exertions. This poem, which occupied ing sisters, Lord Lyttleton, one of his executors, his leisure for several years, was published in got introduced on the stage the tragedy of Coriola1736.
nus, which had been left finished by the author, and In the mean time, and soon after his return to for which his Lordship wrote a prologue, that was England, he had been appointed by the Lord spoken with deep emotion and powerful effect by Chancellor Talbot, his secretary of briefs, an office Quin, who had long been the zealous friend of the which, while it afforded him a respectable income, poet. From this and other sources, after paying left him sufficient leisure to prosecute his favorite his debts, a considerable sum was remitted to these studies. This office he did not long enjoy, as it relatives, to whom, during the course of his life, was lost to him in consequence of the death of the he had given substantial proof of a steady attachChancellor in 1737. He was now again thrown for ment. support on his poetical exchequer; and in 1738 his His works have appeared in numerous forms. tragedy of Agamemnon was performed at Drury. The most elegant edition of the Seasons, which we lane with considerable success. He was introduced have seen, is that of London, 1814, which is illusby Lyttleton to Frederick, Prince of Wales, who trated with beautiful engravings by Bartolozzi and soon after settled upon him a pension of 100l. a Tomkins, from original pictures by Hamilton. year. In 1739 another of his tragedies, Edward An ingenious French translation of the Seasons in and Eleonora, was offered to the stage, but, in con verse by Poulin, was published at Paris in 1803. sequence, as it is believed, of his connexion with In 1790 and 1791, festive meetings in honor of the Prince of Wales, then the avowed head of an the poet, were held on his birth-day at Ednam, his active opposition, and of certain political allusions native village; and a regular club was then formed, in the piece, was refused a license by the Lord consisting chiefly of gentlemen of the counties of Chamberlain. In 1740, Thomson, with some as- Roxburgh and Berwick, who met at that place for sistance from Mallet, wrote, for the amusement of many years on the 22d of September, with the the Prince's Court, The Masque of Alfred, which view of erecting by subscription a suitable monu
ment on some conspicuous place in his native par- ries of experiments on the cohesive strength of difish. The sum of about 300l. was raised for that pur. ferent substances, the communication of which to pose; and an obelisk of about 50 feet in height was Sir Joseph Banks led to his admission as a memat length, in 1819, erected by Mr. William Elliot ber of the Royal Society on the 2d of April, 1779. of Kelso, on Ferney Hill, about a mile from the In the preceding year he began his experiments on village of Ednam. This, though a plain building, the strength of gunpowder, and in order to pursue and, as yet, without any inscription, is a pleasing them successfully, he went in 1779 on board the object from various points of view, and serves to Victory, commanded by Sir Charles Hardy, where associate in the minds of the neighbouring inhabi- he spent the whole campaign. The practical tants, and inquiring strangers, the idea of Thom- knowledge which he thus acquired enabled him to son with the place of his nativity.
furnish a chapter on marine artillery to Stalkart's The limited space allotted to this article, has Treatise on Naval Architecture. In 1780 he was obliged us to be very brief in our statement of appointed Under Secretary of State, and some facts, and now prevents us from offering any thing time afterwards he succeeded, through the influmore than the slightest allusion to his character ence of his American friends, in raising the regias a man and a poet. He appears to have been a ment of the King's American Dragoons. Having dutiful son, a kind and affectionate brother, and a been appointed first colonel commandant of it, he warm and steady friend: benevolent in his affec- went to serve with it in America; and at Charlestions, gentle in his manners, and moderate in his town he received the command of the remains of desires. His ardent love of nature, gives a high the British cavalry, which he often led on successinterest to his writings, and glows through his fully against the enemy. In 1782 he assumed the master-piece, The Seasons, with an intensity that command of his own regiment at New-York, and must excite kindred emotions in every reader of was sent with it to winter at Huntingdon, in Long taste and sensibility. But what constitutes the Island. In 1783 he was appointed to conduct the principal charm of this simple, yet magnificent desence of Jamaica: but the termination of the war work, is the exquisite skill with which he has con led him to the more glorious occupation of adnected in the flowing numbers of his classic muse,
vancing the true interests of his species. the most pleasing and elevated conceptions of the His fondness, however, for a military life inAuthor of Nature, with the contemplation of his duced him to set out for Vienna in 1780, with the works, through the shifting scenery of the year. view of serving in the Austrian army against the The closing Hymn nobly concentrates in the finest Turks. His appearance on parade at Presburg strains of poetry the soundest deductions of the attracted the attention of the late king of Bavaria, understanding, and the most sacred and ennobling then prince Maximilian, who recommended him to impressions of the heart, in reference to this exalt- his uncle the elector, by whom he was received at ed theme. Without this, the finest description of Munich with great kindness. He spent the winter nature falls heavily on the spirit. But the union at Vienna, where he met with a cordial reception; is equally natural and graceful; and leads us to ex• but as the war against the Turks did not take claim in the language of Akenside,
place, he returned again to Munich in 1784, after Mind-mind alone-bear witness, Earth and Heaven, visiting Venice and the Tyrol. The living fountain in itself contains,
Having been invited to enter the service of the Of beauteous and sublime !
Elector, he went to England to obtain leave, which THOMSON, Sır BENJAMIN, Count of Rum- he received from the king along with the honour ford, a celebrated chemist, was born at Rumford, of knighthood. On his return to Bavaria, he was (now Concord,) New Hampshire, in 1753. Hav- appointed aid-de-camp general to the Elector, and ing received, besides the ordinary education which colonel of cavalry, and he devoted the leisure which the village afforded, some instruction in mathe- he now enjoyed to the continuation of his scientific matics from the Rev. Mr. Bernard, he was enabled researches, and to the preparation of those plans of to discharge the duties of a village schoolmaster. reform which he wished to introduce into Bavaria. In the year 1772 he married a widow of the name During a visit to Manheim, in 1786, he began his exof Mrs. Rolfe, through the influence of whose periments on heat. In 1785 he was made chamberfriends he obtained the commission of major of lain to the Elector, and in the same year he was admilitia, and some other advantageous appoint- mitted into the academies of Munich and Manheim. ments. He was hence led to attach himself to the In 1785 he received the order of Stanislaus from the royalist party, but in consequence of the success of king of Poland; in 1787 he was admitted into the the independent forces, he was obliged in 1773 to Academy of Sciences at Berlin during a visit to that quit Boston, where he had taken refuge, leaving capital; in 1788 he was appointed major-general of behind him his wife, whom he never again met, and the Bavarian cavalry, privy counsellor of state, his infant daughter, who about 20 years afterwards and chief of the war department. joined him in Europe.
In 1789 he established the house of industry at At the evacuation of Boston in 1776 he was sent Manheim, and in 1790 that at Munich, which he with dispatches to England, where he acquired the has described in his Essays. He founded the Miliconfidence of Lord George Germaine, by whom he tary Academy at Munich, improved the military was appointed secretary to the province of Georgia, police, and established schools of industry for the an office which he never exercised.
families of the soldiers. These great services to In 1777 he began his scientific labours by a se the state were rewarded by his promotion to be
lieutenant-general of the Bavarian armies, and by ried on their return to Paris; but this connexion a regiment of artillery. He was created in 1791 was not a happy one, and the parties soon sepaa count of the Holy Roman Empire, and obtained rated. The count retired to Auteuil, about four the order of the White Eagle.
miles from Paris, and spent his latter years almost The state of his health induced him to perform in solitude; and though he had been elected one of a tour in Italy, during which he had a severe ill. the eight foreign associates of the Institute, yet he ness at Naples, and on his return to Munich in did not even attend its sittings. He enjoyed a pen1799, he found himself unfit for active duty, and sion of £1200 a year from the Bavarian governdevoted himself to the preparation of the first ment, and spent his time in the improvement of his five of his “ Essays." In 1795 he came over to grounds and in various mechanical and philosophEngland with the view of publishing his Essays, ical pursuits. In the autumn of 1814 he intended and drawing the attention of the country to the to return to England; but he was seized with a low amelioration of the condition of the lower orders. fever, which carried him off on the 21st of August, In 1796, he paid a visit to Lord Pelham, the in the 62d year of his age, leaving behind him an Irish secretary: and such was the value of the im only daughter. provements which he suggested on some of the The following is a list of the principal writings public establishments in Dublin, that he was of Count Rumford: elected a member of the Royal Irish Academy, 1. New Experiments on Gunpowder, Philosophiand received the public thanks of the Lord Lieu cal Transactions, 1781, p. 23. tenant, and of the Lord Mayor of Dublin.
2. New Experiments upon Heat, Id. 1786, p. In 1796 he established two biennial prizes of 273. the value of about 60 guineas, for the most im 3. Experiments on Dephlogisticated Air, Id. portant discoveries on light and heat; the one to 1787, p. 84. be adjudged by the Royal Society of London, and 4. Experiments on the Absorption of Moisture the other by the American Academy of Sciences. from the atmosphere by various substances, Id. p. An account of this prize has already been given 240. in our article SOCIETIES, Vol. XVII.
5. Experiments on heat, Id. 1792, p. 48. In consequence of the advance of General Mo. 6. Description of his Photometer, Id. 1794, p. 67. reau to the confines of Bavaria, the Elector was 7. Experiments on the Force of Gunpowder, id. obliged to fly into Saxony. At such a crisis the 1797, p. 272. services of Count Rumford were required. After 8. On the Source of Heat from Friction, Id. 1798, the battle of Friedberg, he took the command of the Bavarian army, and he succeeded in preventing 9. On the Chemical Properties of Light, id. both the Austrians and the French from entering 1793, p. 449. Munich. When the Elector returned to Munich, 10. On a Phenomenon on the Glaciers of ChaCount Rumford was placed at the head of the gen mouny, Id. 1804, p. 23. eral police of Bavaria, but the duties of his office 11. On the Nature of Heat, and the mode of its made such an inroad upon his health, that he was Communication, Id. 1804. appointed the Bavarian Minister at the British 12. His Essays, in 4 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1795-1800. court, a situation, however, which was found to be These Essays, which are 18 in number, were reincompatible with his character as a British sub printed in France and Germany. ject. He therefore continued his residence in Count Ramford communicated various papers to England as a private individual, where he pro the Meinoirs of the National Institute of France, rejected and established the Royal Institution of lating to heat and light. These papers, which are Great Britain.
nine in number, are published in vols. vi. vii. and In the year 1800, Count Rumford paid a visit to viii., for the years 1806 and 1807. An account of Edinburgh, where he was consulted respecting the several of his discoveries and inventions will be abolition of mendicity, and reformed the culinary found in this work, under the articles GUNPOWDER, establishment of Heriot's Hospital. On this occa Vol. X. p. 191; HEAT, Vol. X. p. 274; METEOROsion he was made an honorary member of the LOGY, Vol. XIII.; Optics, Vol. XIV. p. 760. Royal Society of Edinburgh, and of the Royal Col THRASYBULUS. See ATHENS. lege of Physicians. The American government THRASHING MACHINE. See AGRICULTURE, offered him, about this time, an honorable estab Vol. I. p. 250-256. lishment, but his engagements in Europe were in. THUNDER. See ELECTRICITY, Vol. VIII. p. compatible with the acceptance of it.
311-316. With the view of residing permanently in Eng THURSO, a seaport town of Scotland in Caithland, he fitted up a house at Brompton with every ness-shire. It is situated at the head of a spacious contrivance for hospitality and luxury, but before bay on the estuary of the river Thurso. The town it was finished the serenity of his mind seems to is irregularly built, but very elegant houses have have been disturbed by some imaginary evils. He been erected to the south of the old town. The therefore quitted England in 1802, spending the church is an old Gothic building in tolerably good, spring in Paris and the summer in Munich. In repair, and there are places of worship for the 1803 he made a tour in Switzerland and Bavaria, antiburghers and baptists, and congregationalists. accompanied by Madame Lavoisier, whom he mar. There are two banks in the town. There is a maVOL. XVIII. Part I.
nufacture.of coarse linen cloth and of straw plait, for a profession, he continued for some time to read and there is a tannery, a ropework, a bleachfield, the classics, with the benefit of Dr. Allison's preand two distilleries in the neighbourhood. The dilections. harbour admits, at spring tides, vessels that draw In February 1772 he began the study of the law 14 feet of water. Twenty decked vessels of 1241 in Philadelphia, under the direction of the late tons register belong to the town. They are either Benjamin Chew, then at the head of his profession, coasting vessels or employed in the fisheries. Corn afterwards chief justice of the supreme court of and meal are exported to the amount of £12,000 Pennsylvania, and at the close of the high court of annually, and fish to the amount of £13,824. The errors and appeals, ils venerable president. population of the town and parish, in 1821, was 648 In the office of this gentleman, he continued until houses, 779 families, of whom 268 are employed in December 1776, devoting himself to Littleton and agriculture, 428 in trade, 1786 males, 2259 females, Coke and Plowden, and the other fathers of the and 4045 inhabitants.
common law, at that time the manuals of the legal TIBERIUS. See Roman EMPIRE, Vol. XVI. p. student, and at no time postponed in his estimation 414-416.
and regard to the more popular treatises of later TIDES. See ASTRONOMY, Vol. II. 623-674. days. TILGHMAN, William, was born on the 12th From 1776 to 1783, partly on his father's estate, of August 1756, upon the estate of his father, in and partly at Chestertown, whither his family had Talbot county, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, removed, he continued to pursue his legal studies, about a mile from the town of Easton.
reading deeply and laboriously, as he has himself His paternal great grandfather, Richard Tilgh- recorded, and applying his intervals of leisure to man, emigrated to that province from Kent county, the education of a younger brother. When, therein England, about the year 1662, and settled on fore, in the spring of 1783, he was admitted to the Chester river, in Queen Anne's county.
courts of Maryland, we may infer that an apprenHis father, James Tilghman, a distinguished law. ticeship of eleven years had filled his mind with yer, is well known to the profession in Pennsylva- legal principles sufficient to guide and enlighten nia as secretary of the Proprietary Land-Office, him for the rest of his life. and as having brought that department, by the ac In 1788, and for some successive years, he was curacy of his mind and the steadiness of his pur- elected a representative to the legislature of Marypose, into a system as much remarked for order land. His temper and habits were not perfectly and equity, as from its early defects it threatened congenial with active political life, nor was he at to be otherwise.
any time attracted by that career; but he was a reHis maternal grandfather was Tench Francis the publican, in the catholic sense, and took an active elder, of Philadelphia, one of the most eminent part in procuring the adoption of the federal conlawyers of the province, the brother of Richard stitution, to which, as well as to its founders and Francis, author of " Maxims of Equity,” and of great first administrator, he felt and uniformly deDr. Philip Francis, the translator of Horace. clared the most profound attachment.
It is not surprising to find among the collateral In 1793, he returned to Philadelphia, and comancestors of the late chief justice, the author of menced the practice of the law, which he proseone of the earliest compends of scientific equity, cuted until his appointment by President Adams, and a scholar accomplished in the literature of the on the 3d of March 1801, chief judge of the cir. age of Augustus.
cuit court of the United States for this circuit.* In 1762, his family removed from Maryland to His powers as an advocate, but more especially Philadelphia.
his learning and judgment, were held in great reIn the succeeding year he was placed at the Aca- spect by the community, surrounded notwithstanddemy, and, in the regular progress of the classes, ing as he was, by men of the first eminence in the came under the instruction of Mr. Beveridge, from land. His law arguments, which some now present whom he received his foundation in Latin and may recollect, were remarkable for the distinctness Greek.
with which be presented his case, and for the perUpon the death of Beveridge his place was filled spicuity and accuracy with which his legal referprovisionally by Mr. Wallis, who was perfectly ences were made to sustain it. He was concise, skilled in the prosody of those languages, and who simple, occasionally nervous, and uniformly faithimparted to his pupils an accuracy, of which the ful to the court, as he was to the client. But the chief justice was a striking example.
force of his intellect resided in his judgment; and Dr. Davidson, the author of the grammar, suc even higher faculties than his as an advocate, would ceeded Beveridge, and with him the subject of this have been thrown comparatively into the shade by discourse remained till he entered the college in the more striking light which surrounded his path the year 1769, Dr. Smith being then the provost, as a judge. and Dr. Francis Allison the vice-provost, the latter The court in which his judicial ability was first of whom instructed the students in the higher Greek made known, had but a short existence. In a year and Latin classics; and such was the devotion to after its enactment, the law which erected this court literature of the eminent pupil of whom we are was repealed; and the judges, who had received their speaking, that after he had received the bachelor's commissions during good behaviour, were deprived degree, and was, in the ordinary sense, prepared of their offices without the imputation of a fault.
* Third Circuit-for New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.