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mense regions, on the 20th of December 1803, by of the first legislative opposition to the encroachthe French colonial prefect, M. Lausatt, to the ments of Great Britain; but from the best evidence, United States commissioners, General James Wil. it seems to have been made by the house of bur. kinson and governor William C. C. Claiborne.

gesses of Virginia. South Carolina first, however, The introduction of the new states and territories acceded to the proposal of a congress in 1765, which formed out of the Virginia, Georgia, and North was followed by all the other colonies, except Vir. Carolina cessions, may be considered coeval with ginia, North Carolina, and Georgia, whose govthe date of the respective constitutions of the ernors prevented the election of delegates; and states, and of that of the formation of the territo- New Hampshire, which dissented from the plan. ries. In order of time,

This congress met in the city of New York, in the Tennessee ratified its constitution on the 6th of latter part of 1765; James Otis, of Massachusetis, February, 1796.

taking the lead in opposition to ministerial measures. Kentucky 17th of August 1799.

Though the language and policy of the congress of Ohio, 1st of November 1802.

1765, were strong, still the proceediugs were conLouisiana, 22d of January 1812.

sonant with the principles of English whigs; and if Indiana, 10th of June 1816.

actual secession from the parent or paramount Mississippi, 15th of August. 1817.

state was conceived by a few, their views or antiIllinois, 6th of August 18 18.

cipations were not avowed. Alabama, 2d of August 1819.

1766. Siamp Act repealed, but with such expressMaine formed its constitution at Portland, on the ions on the part of the British goveromeni, as 29th of October 1819; but as her admission into evinced a conviction on the minds of a majority of the Union had become involved with that of Mis- its administrators, that they had the constitutional souri, neither was admitted until March 1820.

right to tax the colonies, without giving them a Missouri, coustitution of, was formed at St. Louis, representation in the British Parliament. June 12th, 1820.

1770. Discontent on the part of the colonies, The formation of a territorial government in and pretension on that of Great Britain continued Michigan followed the admission of Ohio and In

until this year, when an affray occurred at Boston, diana as states. The territory of Arkansas was between the people and the royal troops.

This formed subsequent to and in consequence of the ad.. event, which, although it caused the death of a few mission of Missouri as a state.

citizens, would, in other circumstances, have been Florida, as has been already noticed, came under of small national importance, was, under the cirthe government of the United States by virtue of an cumstances of the times, a strong mark of the true original cession from Spain, and was delivered up to state of feeling on both sides. General Andrew Jackson, United States com 1773. With a view to test their own power, and missioner, in July 1821, since which it has been the extent to which the colonists would carry direct governed as a territory.

resistance, a heavy tariff duty was laid on tea, and Chronological Review.

a considerable quantity sent over to America. At

Boston, a body of men disguised as Indians threw 1765. There is some difficulty in determining a the commodity into the harbour, while in Pennsylpoint of outset, from which the history of the vania and other places the cargoes were returned. United States naturally emanates from that of the 1774. This was a most eventful year in the Anglo-American colonies. We have adopted the history of the United States or British Colonies. year of the passage of the stamp act. The English The act of throwing the tea into the harbour, was colonies in North America were formed by indi. a pretext under which the port of Boston was closed vidual, and not by national enterprise. A spirit of by the British government. The place became inliberty on one side, and of encroachment on the deed a garrison-town, and the provincial assembly, other, produced resistance to power from the very disregarding the orders of the governor, met át infancy of each colony. The events which arose Concord. This was, in fact, the true point of time from this opposition to royal power, were more at which any colony exercised full sovereignty, and marked in some than in others of the colonies; but was the real commencement of that unparalleled they were more or less exhibited in e'ery one, and revolution which gave a new and powerful nation to the great catastrophe, the revolution, was only a

the earth. At Portsmouth, the British military concentrated effort and successful termination of a stores were seized, as were also the royal artillery state of things coeval with the first arrival of Brit- and military stores in the colony of Rhode Island. ish colonies on the shores of North America. In A Continental Congress was called, and met in 1765, when the promulgation and enforcement of Philadelphia on the 5th of September; of which the stamp act was attempted at Boston, the resent- Peyton Randolph of Virginia was elected president. ment of the people burst into a fame, wliich ex Twelve colonies were represented, Georgia alone tended its heat along the whole coast. A congress

not sending delegates. of delegates from each colony, to meet at some 1775. Affairs now rapidly advanced to a crisis. nearly central point, was not an unprecedented The assembly of Massachusetts had formed a depot assembly. A convention or congress had met in of munitions of war .at Concord, 20 miles fronı Albany in 1754; and was adduced as an example in Boston; to destroy which, a detachment of 800 1765, when one was proposed by Massachusetts. men was sent from the latter place on the morning

There is some obscurity reigning over the claim of the 5th September. This corps finding a few

militia in arms at Lexington, the officer at the isted a native American most admirably endowed bead of the royal advanced guard ordered the pro with those talents and faculties which suited the vincials to disperse, and his troops to fire, on being crisis. Then of mature age, George Washington disobeyed. The British regulars did fire, and the was cool and calm, and had acquired habits of rereport of their musquets, and the groans of seven flection; he undertook nothing rashly; and such a or eight citizens slain, sounded a death knell to man openly taking part with his country, gave a British power in Massachusetts. The stores at presage of success.

When the all absording qucs. Concord were reached and destroyed, but the whole tion was discussing, other names were proposed, intermediate country was in arms, and the British but as quickly rejected, and this truly great man bad to commence a hasty retreat, assailed by two was commissioned. On the 3d of July, he joined hostile lines of irregular, but terrible militia. At the army at Cambridge near Boston. Washington Concord, lord Percy met the returning and harass. found himself at the head of 14000 men; but could ed troops with a reinforcement of 900 men and two a body of volunteers, without arms, experience, pieces of field artillery. Nearly worn down with munitions of war, officers, or engineers, be called an fatigue, the British reached Charleston in the even- army? ing, and Boston on the next morning, with the loss Though Canada was invaded by the Americans of 65' killed and upwards of 200 wounded and towards the end of this year, the war languished. missing.

The attack on Canada was ultimately unsuccessful. Intelligence of the events at Boston flew like a General Montgomery was killed in an attempt to tempest along the whole colonial coast of British storm Quebec on the first day of the ensuing year, North America, and produced a unanimity of sen and the British retained that immense and valuable timent and action seldom equalled in the great province. movements of mankind. Weak men are as notori In the course of this year, Ticonderoga was taken ous for their lust of power, as for their utter disre- by the provincials. Georgia joined the confederacy, gard of the means to secure their authority. They thus .completing the THIRTEEN states of the union, claim power, and expect obedience, and when and the first constitution of Delaware was formed. resisted stand confounded at the arrogance which 1776. This eventful year opened with the procould set an unsupported mandate at defiance. vincials being in possession of New York, and the When the British government shut the port of British of Boston. This order was reversed in the Boston, and provoked actual hostilities in arms, course of the year. March 171h, Boston was finally there were not, from Hudson's Bay to Florida, and forever evacuated by the British army, which twenty thousand British regular troops. The only was replaced by that under General Washingtos. body that deserved the name of an army, then, in There were at that epoch, besides many of lesser what is now the United States, was, within one note, three very exposed maritime cities on the comonth after the battle of Lexington, cooped up in lonial coast-Boston, New York, and Charleston Boston by a force of superior number.

in South Carolina. Forced to quit the first, the In the provincial assemblies and the continental British made an attempt to gain possession of the congress, actual sccession was not yet openly pro- third. In June, Sir Peter Parker sailed for Charlesposed, though war had commenced. In an attempt ton with a strong armament, but on the 28th of to approach nearer to Boston, June 17th, the Ame that month was signally defeated before Sullivan's rican forces entrenched themselves on Breed's Hill, Island at the entrance of the harbour. In May, the near Charleston. A body of 3000 men from Boston American army had evacuated Canada, and as far attempted to dislodge the provincials, and a sangui- as mere inilitary operations were concerned, the acnary conflict ensued. The provincials were finally count of profit and loss was nearly balanced.between compelled to retreat, with the loss of General the hostile parties. The cause of independence Warren and 450 men. The British lost 19 officers was, however, advancing at no tardy pace. New killed and 70 wounded, with 1054 rank and file Jersey framed a constitution of government on the killed and wounded.

2d of July, and Virginia on the 5th of the same Congress was then in session, having met at month. On the 14th of August, Maryland also Philadelphia on the 10th of May. Peyton Randolph adopted a constitution. It is obvious, therefore, was again chosen president, but, returning soon that what is called emphatically “The Declaration afterwards to Virginia, that very important office of Independence,” on the 4th of July 1776, was only was confided to John Hancock of Massachusetts, the expression of concentrated public will. The by whom its duties were effectually discharged. individual states were one after another deciding Without finances or even the semblance of a navy, their separation from the parent country. Another without a single regular regiment, and without proceeding of congress of this year, was of little either the possession or a well founded hope of ob- less moral influence than the Declaration of Inde: caining foreign aid, did thirteen small distinct sove pendence; the name of UNITED STATES was given as reignties enter into a deadly contest with the most a general term for the whole confederacy. powerful maritime nation of the carth. But, under August 22d, the British landed on Long Island, all the circumstances of danger, destitution of re and on the 27th defeated the United States arıny at source, and slender tie of union, the most important Flatbush near New York; and on the 14th of Sepduty that devolved upon the members of that con. tember, that city was evacuated by General Washgress who received the news of actual war, was the ington and taken by the British, who held poschoice of a commander in chief. Happy was it for session of it until the end of the war. the civil rights of all mankind, that there then ex. Great confidence was now publicly expressed by

congress and the people of the United States, but with his unprovided troops, Washington out-madiscerning and reflecting men secretly saw much to neuvred the British officers, got into the rear of fear. The union was nominal. The first fervour be- Trenton, and on the morning of the 3d of January came evidently less warm. The military and finan- carried their post at Princeton, made three hundred cial supplies were procured with difficulty and ruin- prisoners, and compelled their force on the Delaous delay, and in some instances entirely withheld. ware to retreat to New Brunswick. The operaThe continental Congress was really a diet, assem tions of war were, in the early part of the year, bled in one house, with only one deliberative course however, rather skirmishes or predatory, and proof proceedings, and with no subordinate depart. ductive of but little effect on the real issue of the ments or executive officers. The President of dispute. The adoption of the constitution of Congress was in effect only a chairman. The New York on the 20th of April, and that of North present system was the fruit of time. From the Carolina on the 18th of December, formed indeed the Declaration of Independence, all idea of reconcilia- most important events in the history of the Unsted tion being abandoned, it was natural to seek in the States during this year. The military events benations of Europe an ally or allies against Great came important as the year advanced. March 23d, Britain, and as naturally France presented herself, the stores at Peak's Kill on the Hudson were.de. as the power, which from ancient rivalry, recent stroyed by the British. April 26, a similar disaster and lasting causes of enmity, and her immense took place at Danbury in Connecticut. July 6th, resources and warlike character, was the most the British General Burgoyne took Ticonderoga; likely to give aid to the revolted colonies. To open the first operation in his eventful and finally disasa correspondence with Europe, “ The Secret Com trous campaign. Early in September, another mittee of Foreign Correspondence” was appointed British force advanced by water to the head of Elk, in 1775. It was afterwards called “ The Committee there landed, and on the 11th defeated the United of Foreign Affairs”—“. The Department of Foreign States army at Brandywine, and on the 27th took Affairs,” and finally eventuated in the Department possession of Philadelphia. of State.

Burgoyne advanced towards Albany, and reached “ It is not likely that the American provinces in Stillwater near Saratoga, where a sanguinary battle the outset,” says Lyman, "expected assistance from with the United States army under General Gates abroad.” This may have been the case before the took place on the 19th of September. A detachDeclaration of Independence with the people, gene- ment of the British army, chiefly Hessians, had rally, but could not have been so with the leaders in been defeated, on the 16th of August, near Benthe revolution. A letter of M. de Vergennes, dated nington in Vermont, by a body of militia under May 2, 1776, translated and given by Lyman him- General Stark. Embarrassed thus by defeat on his self,* shows that not only Frenchmen, but France left, and a superior and increasing army in his herself, though in secret, had made important ad. front, Burgoyne found advance or retreat equally vances in aid of the revolted colonies.

difficult, but persevered in the former attempt September 26th, Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane until the 7th of October, when his army was deand Thomas Jefferson, were elected by Congress as feated in the second battle of Stillwater. This was Commissioners to the Court of France. Mr Jeffer decisive, and on the 17th of October the British son was subsequently excused, and Arthur Lee of General surrendered his army prisoners of war. Virginia named in his place. These, though not so National and individual pride alone on the part styled, were the first ambassadors from the United of the British ministers and people, instigated a States.

continuation of the attempt to coerce their colonies The military affairs of the United States declined after the surrender of Burgoyne and his army. towards the end of this year; post after post in New One of the natural and inevitable consequences of York and New Jersey were lost, until, on the 28th such success on the part of the colònies, was an of November, General Washington retreated over alliance with France. Before the news of this great the Delaware. On the 8th of December the British event reached Paris, the expressions of the French occupied Rhode Island; on the 12th of the same ministry to the American commissioners denoted, month, Congress adjourned from Philadelphia to in the language of Arthur Lee, “ A kind of trembBaltimore; and on the 13th General Lee was taken ling hesitation. It is in consequence of this, that prisoner in New Jersey, by the British. An the promises, which were made me by the French intensely cold winter had set in; but, in defiance of agent in London, have not been entirely fulfilled.” its rigours, and the ice of the Delaware, General: This state of hesitation terminated early in DeWashington, with an apparently inadequate force, cember, when despatches reached the United States' crossed that river, and on the morning of the 26th commissioners, containing a detail of the surrender broke up the Hessian cantonments at Trenton, of Burgoyne and his army. Almost immediately killed their commander, and made 900 prisoners. on the receipt of this account, M. Gerard, by

1777. The first day of this year dawned on what direction of his government, formally communicatmight be called the forlorn hope of the liberties of ed to the commissioners that the French monarch mankind. With any commander that deserved the had come to the determination to acknowledge the title of General, at the head of the British army independence of “ The United States of America," in New Jersey at that moment, all was lost, but, and enter into negotiations preparatory to treaties

• Vol. i. page 25.

of alliance and commerce with them. This pro

This pro- cere joy and unfeigned solemnity. It was, indeed, ceeding was in effect acknowledging their inde a most solemn and momentous occasion; it was the pendence, and was followed on the 28th of the same reception of the first ambassador that had ever month by a formal conference with Count de Ver- come from Europe to an independent nation of gennes, at Paris.

America. 1778. Diplomatic proceedings advanced rapidly, The compliment paid to the United States by the and on the 6th of February two treaties were sign- sending out of the Sieur Gerard as minister plenied; one a " Treaty of Amity and Commerce;" the potentiary, under the sign manual of the king, was other a " Treaty of Alliance." Both instruments returned in the person of Benjamin Franklin, who were signed on the part of France by C. A. Gerard; was appointed by congress minister to the court and on that of the United States by Benjamin of France on the 21st of October 1778. He was Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee. These trea the first minister plenipotentiary appointed to a ties introduced the new nation into the great family foreign government by the United States; and he of civilized states, though many of those states was more; he was the first minister, with full were rather reluctant to acknowledge the affinity. powers, sent by an independent civilized nation of Their completion, a matter of most deep import the western, to a government of the eastern conance to them, was quickly made known to the tinent. It may be here remarked, that Benjamin British ministers; who, we are now fully informed, Franklin, when appointed ambassador to France, considered the contest. hopeless. In another part was approaching the completion of his 73d year, of this article, we have noticed, that, from the and that this man had the unequalled felicity to put year 1778, the United States could have had peace his name to the first two treaties with France, and with Great Britain, on the terms demanded by the to that of 1783 with Great Britain. former in 1774–75, but that independence having The prosperous events of 1778; the alliance with been once declared, the latter retracted its offer, France; the arrival of a powerful French fleet; and and the colonies, secure of nationality, refused to re the evacuation of Philadelphia by the British; were, turn to subjection to proconsuls, under any disguise. towards the end of the year, in some measure coun

In February, Lord North proposed, and succeed- terbalanced by the invasion and momentary coned in obtaining an act of parliament to appoint quest of Georgia by a British army. In December, commissioners * to treat with congress; to grant Colonel Campbell was detached to the southward, pardons and immunities; to restore to the colonics and on the 29th, he captured Savannah from the iheir ancient charters; to exempt them from tax American forces. ation, and not to require them to renounce inde 1779. With 1779, the war of the revolution pendence, till the treaty had been ratified by the may, with some very partial exceptions, be said to king and parliament.”

have terminated northward of the Delaware; but, In a philosophical view of history, we are arrest on the other hand, it raged with fury in the southed at every pagc, and compelled to pause and reflect ern states. The conquest of Savannah suggested on human crimes and human folly. Not one de- and aided the British in their attempts upon South mand of the insulted colonies could be even exam. Carolina. Early in this year the command of the ined in the British legislature in 1775; and at the southern United States' army was given to General same time, there was not a sane-minded individual Lincoln. The British extended their posts along who really made himself moderately acquainted the Savannah river, and on the 3d of March dewith the circumstances and state of the world, that feated the Americans, under General Ash, at Briar must not have foreseen the event.

creek, and made a bold but abortive attempt to Commissioners under Lord North's act were surprise the city of Charleston. Along the coast, named, and sent to the United States. Congress a war of depredation and ruin was adopted by the refused to receive them, and the attempt to regain British commanders, now, hopeless of permanent the colonies became abortive, as it is probable it conquest. In May, Norfolk, in Virginia, was had been expected by the projector.

taken and sacked. On the 5th of July, New Haven, The British commissioners were dismissed in in Connecticut, was plundered; and two days afterJune, and on the 18th of that month the British. wards the villages of Fairfield, Green Farm, and army evacuated Philadelphia, retreated through Norwalk, were plundered and burned. The taking New Jersey, where, on the 28th, they were over of Stony Point, by a force under the command of taken at Monmouth, and defeated by the United General Wayne, on the 16th of July, afforded the States army under General Washington.

United States some compensation. A much more Events of more importance than partial and in- solid success was, however, obtained on the 23d of decisive affairs in the field, now rapidly followed September, because it was so far wounding the each other. The treaties of February were pro- right arm of the British-their navy. On that mulgated in March, and their signature communi. day, Conimodore Paul Jones captured two of their cated to the British government by the French frigates off_Flamborough Head, on the coast of ambassador, the Marquis de Noailles. In April, Yorkshire, England. Count d'Estaing sailed from Toulon, with a power The French fleet had been in the waters of the ful squadron for the American coast; bringing out United States more than a year, without having in his flag-ship M. Gerard, as ambassador from visibly influenced the issue of the dispute in which France to the United States. This minister. was the ally of France was engaged. Towards the end received by Congress on the 14th of July, with sin- of 1779, Admiral d'Estaing was induced to sail to

the southward, in order to aid in an attempt upon North Carolina and South Carolina, with 1600 Savannah. From want of concert, probably, this men. These warriors, to whom individually a bed expedition had a fatal termination. Contrary, it or board was a luxury, and for whom a roasted ear is said, to the opinion of General Lincoln, it was of corn was sufficient for a dinner, were by far the determined to make an assault. After the arrival most formidable foes a British regular force could of the French and Americans, the British had mcet. This dreadful corps encountered Colonel strengthened their works, and they repulsed the Ferguson and his regulars and tories at King's assailants, who left about a thousand men dead or Mountain, on the 7th of October, Ferguson fell, wounded before the place. It was on this san. as did a great part of his men, killed or wounded, guinary occasion, that the celebrated Count Pu- and few escaped. laski was slain. The attack was made on the 9th The southern war vas murderous and vexatious, of October, and closed the campaign.

without producing any of those decisive events The moral influence which time was increasing, which determine a contest. Gates, though not did infinitely more for the United States, than charged with any act of great weakness, or suspectpetty warfare, which it is disgusting to record. ed of defection, and preserving a character in a In another part of this article, we have noticed the high degree honourable, was superseded by Greene, incipient stage of commercial negotiation between who, with Morgan, arrived at Charlotte on the the United States and the republic of the Dutch 2d of December, and assumed the command of the Netherlands. Congress made no open prepara- southern army. tions before the month of October 1779, to form a The year 1780 was rendered remarkable by the direct communication with the Dutch Republic; depreciation of the paper money. Attempts were bui it is an extraordinary fact, that a treaty had made, and in part were successful, to borrow money been actually formed and signed between the United in Europe. With something of hesitation in the States and the Dutch Republic at Aix-la-Chapelle, manner, France was an active and effective ally; on the 4th of September 1778, by the United States and her aid in finance was perhaps of more real commissioner, William Lee, and John de Neufville, utility than in arms. The Bank of North America, but without the authority of either government. the most ancient chartered institution in the United Neufville acted by the authority of M. Engelbert States, was this year projected in Philadelphia, Francis Van Berckel, pensionary of the city of under the auspices of Robert Morris and others. Amsterdam. The Dutch government disavowed This institution was of great national service. But the treaty, but refused to punish the framers. nothing, it seems, could save public credit or the

1780. Their success at Savannah, and the obvious paper money. Individuals were ruined; but the necessity of their gaining possession of Charleston evil day passed, and with it the calamities which it to secure permanent authority in the south, in produced. duced the British to send, early in January, Sir 1781. Though Greene, Morgan, Sumpter, MaHenry Clinton, with a large land and naval force, rion, and many others, were officers worthy of the against South Carolina; and while war and deso cause which they sustained, yet the southern seclation reigned in the south, the constitution of tion of the United States could scarcely be said to Massachusetts was formed on the 2d of March.

possess an army to oppose the British at the be. On the 21st of the same month, Charleston having ginning of this year. The British army was well been closely invested, it was forced to surrender on

appointed, and little could be anticipated as to the the 12th of May. In June, Lord Cornwallis suc issue. Greene gave the command of his left to ceeded Sir Henry Clinton as British commander Morgan, who first advanced to Ninety Six (now in the south, and General Gates succeeded General called Camden), in South Carolina; then slowly Lincoln on the part of the United States. The and cautiously retreated before the impetuous latter reached South Carolina in August, and was Tarleton, until the British were drawn into an adalmost instantly met and defeated, on the 16th, at vantageous position for their enemy, and were deCamden. Here fell Baron de Kalb, a foreign offi- feated, on the 17th of January, at the Cowpens, cer of great merit.

Spartanburg district, South Carolina. Henceforth The British, in possession of South Carolina and events crowd upon each other. Active as was Georgia, regarded the south as restored to the Cornwallis, he found enemies not less vigilant. British crown; but amid defeat and extensive de. Inferior in number and discipline, the provincials fection, two men arose who supported the cause of counterbalanced their disadvantages by extreme their country, when despair hung heavy around activity. Aster severe . marching and counterthem. These men were Generals Sumpter and marching, in the spring months, the two armies reMarion. There was also a war in the interior, be spectively under Greene and Cornwallis, met on yond the head of tide-water, against which British the 15th of March at Guilford Court House, North power could not efficiently act. This war was Carolina. The victory was gained by the British, maintained by men who, in the rough garb of but with the loss, by death or wounds, of half hunters, sallied forth on many occasions as the

The active and ablc partizan operachampions of a depressed cause. While such men tions of Sumpter, Marion, and their associates, as Sumpter and Marion kept up the public spirit were, it is probable, really more effective on the in the east, Colonels Campbell, Cleveland, Shelby, general result, than the more splendid movements Sevier, M’Dowell, Lacey, Hawthorne and Hill, of the main army. On the 25th of April, General issued from the back settlements of Virginia, Greene was defeated at Hobkirk Hill, near Cam

their army

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