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it was agreed that commissioners should assemble swamp, with a wet ditch in front; cotton bales of a at Ghent. Henry Clay and Jonathan Russel were square form being used as the cheeks of the cmappointed on the part of the United States, to pro- brasures. Meanwhile the British commander in ceed to Europe, and with John Quincy Adams, chief having landed the main body of his army, on James A. Bayard, and Albert Gallatin-diplomat- the 28th of December, made an unsuccessful atists already there to commence the pleasing busi- tempt to drive the American general from his en. ness of conciliation. It required the brilliant victory trenchments. on lake Champlain, and the equally splendid de 1815. January 1st, another unsuccessful attempt fence of Plattsburg, on the 11th of September, to was made upon the American lines. On the 4th, remove the unfavourable impression made on those General Jackson received an increase of 2500 militia negotiations by the unfortunate surrender of the cap- from Kentucky, under generals Thomas and Adair; ital to the British army. But it might reasonably and on the 6th, the British were reinforced by the have been supposed that the war would before this arrival of General Lambert. Their whole numperiod have ceased. Sufficient evidence had been ber was now 14,000. General Jackson command. offered to the enemy that no serious impression ed about 6000. The lines on the right bank were could be made upon the United States: the pacifi- intrusted to General Morgan, with the Louisiana cation of Europe had withdrawn the immediate and detachments of New Orleans and Kentucky causes of dispute, and the American commissioners militia. The works on the left bank, covering the had been instructed to allow the subject of impress- main body, were occupied by General Jackson him. ment to remain unsettled. But the English govern- self, with the Tennessee forces, under generals ment, not equally desirous of peace, proposed as a Coffee and Carroll; also a part of the Kentucky and sine qua non, a most insulting relinquishment of New Orleans militia; the 7th and 44th regiments this ground of controversy, -a surrender of a large of United States infantry, with corps of active sail. portion of the American territory, and the total ors and marines. abandonment of the coast along the lakes.
Early in the morning of the 8th of January, the Early in September it became known that the British columns moved forward simultaneously enemy were preparing to make a formidable inva- against the right and left of the American batteries. sion of Louisiana. The majority of the planters The American artillery opened a tremendous fire there, at least, of French extraction, had felt little at the distance of 900 yards, and mowed them down interest in the war: the militia, therefore, were with terrible slaughter: at length they came in scarcely organized, instead of being disciplined and reach of the American small arms, when there was armed. But the chief safety of the inhabitants was exhibited on the side of the assailants rather an exin the nature of their country. It was exceedingly tensive scene of carnage, than a battle in which difficult of access by sea. In front was a shallow one party was enabled to return with something coast, and the principal entrance was a river; like an equivalent effect the shot poured against which, after crossing the bar, is narrow, deep and them by the other. All the efforts of the British rapid, and of a course so winding as to render it officers succeeded only in leading their veteran soleasily susceptible of being fortified. On the west diers to destruction: the men shrunk from a con are impassable swamps; and on the east the low, test in which they saw nothing but immediate marshy coast can be approached only through a slaughter; the columns at length broke, and retreatshallow lake. Gun-boats, the most appropriate ed in confusion. The loss of the British army on means of annoyance, had, notwithstanding, been this memorable day was 700 killed, 1400 wounded, neglected. As regarded men, arms, and military and 500 captured.' That of the Americans on the works, Louisiana was in a most defenceless situa- lest bank of the Mississippi, was no more than six tion. Happily for New Orleans, the commander of killed and nine wounded: on both banks it was the district, General Jackson, arrived there on the irteen killed, thirty-nine wounded and nineteen 2d of December, from Mobile; to which place he missing. The invaders had to regret the death of had returned, after performing an important mili. many experienced and gallant offlcers. General tary service at Pensacola, and at an earlier period Packenham fell early in the engagement; and genof ihe war rendering himself conspicuous by the eral Keane received a mortal wound. almost total annihilation of the Creek Indians.' His · This is the last military subject, in what may be presence was instantly felt in the confidence which termed the Three Years War, material to be noticed. it inspired, and in the unanimity with which the The defeat of the British before Plattsburg having people seconded his prompt arrangements. given a new turn to the negotiation, a treaty of
Three days had not elapsed after the arrival of peace was signed at Ghent, on the 24th of DecemGeneral Jackson, when intelligence was received ber 1814, ratified by the prince regent of England, that the British fleet, consisting of at least sixty on the 28th, and by the president of the United sail, was off the coast. Guided by some traitors, States, with the approbation of the senate, on the the van of the invading army, on the 22d of Decem- last day of February 1815. Both governments ber, was enabled to penetrate the country through agreed to restore their respective conquests, to apa-secret passage, called the Bayou Bienvenu, and point commissioners for setiling disputed boundafor a moment surprise the American guard; but ries, and pledged themselves to use their utmost the assailants were quickly repulsed, and General endeavours towards accomplishing the entire aboliJackson lost no time in fortifying his post for the tion of the slave trade; but no allusion was made to protection of the city. This was effected by a the causes of the war. This contest, at the same simple breast-work, from the Mississippi to the tine that it elevated the military and naval charac
ter of the American nation, increased the public December 4th, Illinois admitted as a state. debt one hundred millions of dollars, and made 1819. A negotiation, commenced with Spain for the whole arrears about one hundred and fifty mil. the remainder of that portion of her territory named lions.
Florida, which had been interrupted by the tempoPeace having been now restored with England, rary overthrow of the old Spanish dynasty by Nathe establishment of the regular army was fixed poleon, was, on the return of Ferdinand vil. to at ten thousand men. The naval power, as regard- Madrid, renewed. That region was at length ased the larger vessels, was not diminished; but on signed to the United States. A treaty was conthe contrary, was allowed gradually to be increased. cluded at Washington, on the 22d of February, On the Atlantic frontier, there were now afloat one which, after many vexatious delays on the part of ship of 74 guns, seven frigates, nine sloops of war, Spain, was ratified by Ferdinand on the 24th and fourteen schooners: on the lakes were twenty of October, in the succeeding year, approved by nine vessels, carrying 360 guns; making the whole the senate of the United States on the 19th, and naval force, including gun-boats, 274 vessels, with by the president on the 22d of February 1821. Five 1500 guns.
millions of dollars were named as the price of March 3d, war was declared against Algiers. On Florida. This sum was not, however, to be paid to the 30th of June, a treaty of peace and amity was Spain. It was afterwards apportioned amongst signed in the city of Algiers; the negotiators on those American citizens whose property was illethe part of the United States being commodore De- gally seized in Spanish ports, when under the uncatur and William Shaler; and on the part of controllable influence of France. Florida is partiAlgiers, the dey Omar Pacha. This treaty was cularly desirable, from its placing the southern ratified by the United States government, on the boundary of the United States on the gulf of Mex26th of December.
ico; and consequently removing the disagreeable 1816. April 10th, the second bank of the United jealousies which had frequently irritated the feelStates was established by Congress, to continue ings of the two nations, caused by the occupation twenty-one years from the first of July; the capital of Amelia Island and other places by disorderly to be thirty-five millions of dollars.
troops, under commissions from the South Amer. September 4th, a treaty of commerce between the ican republics; as well as by the inroads of the United States and Sweden was signed at Stockholm. Seminole and other nations, when stimulated either · December 11th, Indiana was admitted into the by their own chiefs, or foreign white people who Union as a state.
had visited them for trade: and the treaty desig. 1817. One of the most important subjects that nates the boundary on the side of Mexico (as dein this year occupied the attention of congress was lineated in the map of the United States by Melish), a revision of the duties on goods imported. In which had been undefined in the cession of Florida. forming the new tariff, a judicious attention was The negotiator on the part of the United States, given to protect domestic manufactures, without, was John Quincy Adams; on the part of Spain, at the same time, injuring the national revenue by Don Louis de Onis. the consequent decrease of the quantity imported, December 14th, Alabama admitted as a state. or lessening, by over-indulgence, the industry and 1820. March 3d, act of congress passed by which economy requisite to their full success. The double Maine was admitted into the Union as a state on war imposts were with few exceptions reduced; but the 15th of that month. a large increase was made to the duties upon some March 6th, congress passed an act authorising fabrics, particularly cotton cloths of a coarse de. the people of Missouri to form a constitution and scription, especially when imported from the East state government;—by the 8th section of this act, Indies; where these articles are manufactured by slavery is, forever prohibited in all the territory persons contented with daily wages not exceeding a ceded by France to the United States under the few cents, and from a material not grown in the name of Louisiana, which lies north of 36° 30' north United States.
latitude, not included in the contemplated state. March 4th, James Madison, having filled the 1821. March 2d, congress passed a resolution for office of president for a second term of four years, the admission of Missouri as a state so soon as the was succeeded by James Monroe; and the newly legislature thereof should declare its assent to cerelected vice-president was Daniel D. Tompkins, of tain conditions therein expressed, which having New York.
been complied with, the president of the United December 10th, Mississippi admitted into the States announced the fact by proclamation on the Union as a state.
10th of August, when Missouri was admitted as the 1818. October 20th, convention of London be. 24th state of the federal Union. tween the United States and Great Britain, respecto July 7th, Florida was delivered to the United ing fisheries and boundaries; negotiators on the States. part of the United States, Albert Gallatin and 1822. Soon after the accession of Mr. Monroe to Richard Rush, and on the part of Great Britain, the presidential chair, in 1817, he commissioned Frederick J. Robinson and Henry Goulbourn, The Messrs Bayard, Graham, and Forbes, with instrucratifications were exchanged at Washington on the tions to visit the southern republics, and express to 30th of June 1819. By the provisions of this con. them the kind feelings of their brethren of the vention, the differences under the first article of the north; and aiso to abtain information respecting treaty of Ghent, are referred to a power friendly to their military force, their strength and resources, the contracting parties.
their moral and political condition, and the proba
bility of their ultimate success. These commiss. the vessels of Spain, under a Buenos Ayrean comioners were cordially received, and assisted in their mission, readily engaged in the same enterprise researches. Their report placed the question of against the vessels of all nations, without any comtheir final emancipation beyond a doubt: but the mission. Desperate gangs of this description, of view given by the commissioners of their state of various nations and of all colours, infested the society, was not so favourable, and rendered the American seas, from the year 1818 to 1823, to so question of their capacity for self-government, on great an extent, as to render the navigation exthe principles of republican freedom, extremely tremely perilous; their robberies being often acdoubtful. At what period they were to be ad- panied with the most cold-blooded and barbarous mitted into the family of nations as independent murder. Their principal haunts were on the northstates; and when this could be done, without de ern coast of Cuba, from one hundred to two hunparting from a neutral course with regard to dred miles distant from Havana. There they found Spain; were very delicate questions. On this sub a region uninhabited, beyond the operations of the ject, the feelings of the people and of congress, Spanish authorities, indented with numerous narwere much in advance of the executive. In January row inlets, affording secure places of retreat for 1818, a motion was ineffectually made in the house their small vessels, and inaccessible to ships of any of representatives, to introduce into an appropria- considerable size. The pirates had their agents at tion bill, a sum for the support of a minister at Havana and Matanzas, to give them notice of the Buenos Ayres, as soon as the president should deem sailing of merchant vessels from those ports; and it expedient to appoint one. A few years after any that ventured to sail without convoy, almost wards the subject was resumed, under circum- invariably became their prey. To protect their stances more favourable to the recognition of the commerce in these seas, the measure first pursued infant republics. On the 30th of January 1822, by the United States was to station there the Conthe house of representatives passed a resolution, gress frigate and eight small vessels. This force requesting the president to communicate to them in one year captured and destroyed more than such information as he possessed in relation to the twenty piratical vessels on the coast of Cuba; but political state of South America; and that officer it did not fully effectuate the purpose, not being having complied with the requisition, and recom- provided with the means of following them into mended that their independence should be acknow their recesses and breaking up their haunts. The ledged, the independence of Colombia, Mexico, and proper species of vessels was, however, at length Peru, was accordingly recognized, on the 19th of supplied; and an additional forcé, consisting of the March, with only one dissenting voice, and an ap- Peacock sloop of war, a steam galliot, and ten small propriation made to establish with them a diplo. vessels, carrying three or four guns each, was dematic intercourse.
spatched to the West India seas, and with the feet June 24th, a convention of navigation and com then on that station, placed under the command of merce was signed at Washington, between France Comm ore P er. Seldom was there undertaken and the United States; the negotiator on the part a more harassing service: yet it was performed of France being Hyde de Neuville, and on that of with such remarkable zeal and success, that at the the United States, John Quincy Adams. It was end of sixty days from the commencement of his ratified on the 12th of February 1823.
operations, the commodore, in his official despatches July 12th, convention of St. Petersburg, between to the secretary of the navy, was enabled to say, the United States and Great Britain: negotiators that in the region of Matanzas, the scene of their on the part of Russia as mediator, Count Nessel- greatest depredations, there was not a pirate afloat rode and Capo d'Istrias; on the part of the United larger than an open boat; and that not a single States, Henry Middleton; and on the part of Great piratical act had been committed on the coast of Britain, Charles Bagot. The provisions of this Cuba, since he had organized and arranged his treaty regarded the just meaning of the first article forces. of the treaty of Ghent, in relation to an indemnifi 1824. February 25th, a treaty was signed becation for slaves taken from the United States dur. tween the United States and Tunis. ing the last war with Great Britain. Ratifications April 17th, a convention between the United States were exchanged on the 10th of January 1823. and Russia was signed at St. Petersburg; negotia.
1823. January 27th, ministers plenipotentiarytors on the part of the United States, Henry Midare appointed by the United States to the new re dleton, and on that of Russia, Count Nesselrode and publics of South America.
Pierre de Poletica. A system of piracy not less atrocious than alarm October 3d, a treaty of navigation and commerce ing, arose out of the war between Spain and the South was signed at Bogota, in New Granada, between American republics. In the early stage of the con- the United States and Colombia; negotiator on the - test, those provinces having little shipping of their part of the United States, Richard Clough Anderown, granted commissions for privateering against son, and on the part of Colombia, Pedro Gual. It the commerce of Spain, to any foreigner that ap- was ratified May 31, 1825. plied. A large number of vessels were fitted out August 15th, General La Fayette, accompanied in the ports of the United States and in other by his son, Mr. George Washington La Fayette, places; commissions were taken from the republics arrived in the harbour of New York, on a visit to of the south; and a predatory war was carried on the United States. His tour eastward as far as against the ships of Spain. "Privateering soon de. Portsmouth; southward, as far as New Orleans; generated into piracy.' Those who had plundered and westward, to St. Louis, in the state of Missouri;
and back to Boston by the way of Louisville, Cin. members of the committee appointed to draft the cinnati, Pittsburgh, Rochester, Schenectady, Utica, declaration; Mr. Jefferson was himself the composer Troy, and Albany; a journey more than 5000 miles, of that celebrated instrument; they had both been was every where signalized by the same enthusi- presidents of the United States; they were the most astic attentions and congratulations. By the revo. distinguished leaders of their respective political lution in his native country, La Fayette had become parties; Mr. Jefferson had expressed a strong desire comparatively poor; and his visit to the scene of his to see the jubilee of American independence; Mr. youthful exploits in the service of the struggling Adams expressed his patriotic feelings in a senti. Americans, enabled congress to display the nation's ment to be used that day at the festive board. The gratitude to their benefactor, by granting him nation mourned their loss. By an order of the 200,000 dollars in money; besides a township of six president, appropriate funeral honours were renmiles square, of any of the unappropriated lands dered at all the military and naval stations, and which the president should select.
the officers directed to wear badges of mourning 1825. March 4th, John Quincy Adams, of Massa- for six months; and in the principal cities and chusetts, became president of the United Stales, and towns, days were set apart for the same purpose, John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, vice-president. and funeral processions and eulogiums manifested
December 25th, a convention of peace, amity, com a universal sentiment of national sorrow. merce, and navigation, was signed at Washington, 1827. July 4th, treaty of Stockholm, between the between the United States and the Federation of United States and Sweden and Norway. Central America, finally called Guatimaia; nego August 6th, the convention of London of the 20th tiators being Henry Clay, on the part of the United of October 1818, between Great Britain and the States, and Antonio Jose Canas on the part of Cen. United States, then limited to ten years, now contral America.
tinued indefinitely 1826. April 26th, treaty of friendship, com December 20th, treaty of Washington, of commerce, and navigation, signed at Washington, be- merce and navigation, between the United States tween the United States and Denmark; negotiators and the German Hanseatic cities of Luben, Bremen, on the part of the United States, Henry Clay, and and Hamburg. on that of Denmark, Peter Pederson. Ratified Au 1828. May 1st, treaty of Washington, between
the United States and Prussia. July 13th, convention of London between Great December 12th, treaty of Rio de Janeiro, beBritain and the United States, by which the former tween the United States and Brazil. engaged to pay to the latter $1,204,960, for pro March 4th, Andrew Jackson became president of perty carried away contrary to the first article of the United States, and John C. Calhoun continued ihe treaty of Ghent; negotiators, on the part of the vice-president. United States, Albert Gallatin; on the part of Great 1829. August 27th, treaty of Washington, beBritain, William Huskisson and Henry U. Adding- tween the United States and Austria. ton.
1830. March 281h, treaty of Copenhagen, beJuly 4th, having completed fifty years since the tween the United States and Denmark, providing for declaration of independence, the day was celebrated the payment by the latter to the former of $650,000, as a national jubilee. The retrospect was truly as indeninification for commercial spoliation. cheering and delightful. The annals of the world May 7th, treaty of Constantinople, between the exhibit no previous example of so rapid a progress United States and Turkey, securing to the former in agriculture and commerce, the arts, manufac- the free navigation of the Black Sea. tures, and population. From weakness the states 1831. April 5th, treaty of commerce between the had advanced to strength; from infancy to manhood; United States and Mexico, ratified by the Mexican from thirteen they had increased in number to government. twenty-four; from a population of three millions, July 4th, convention between the United States thinly scattered along the borders of the Atlantic, and France, providing for indemnification to the they had increased to ten millions, spread beyond citizens of the former government for spoliations the banks of the Mississippi to the base of the committed by the latter during the wars of the Rocky Mountains; and, as if to inark the fiftieth French revolution. anniversary of the nation's birth by events of signal 1832. Treaty of Constantinople of the 7th of and unprecedented coincidence, Adams and Jeffer- May 1830, between the United States and Turkey, son, two of the signers of the declaration of inde- ratified by the president, January 4th. pendence of the three who were yet permitted April 5th, the ratification of the treaty of comto witness their country's happiness and glory, merce and navigation, and of limits, between the beheld the sun of that joyous day rise, and be. United States and the republic of Mexico, exchangheld it for the last time. Mr. Jefferson died at ed by the secretary of state of the former and the his seat at Monticello, Virginia, at one o'clock in charge des affaires of the Mexican United States. the afternoon of the 4th of July, in his eighty-fourth The boundary between the United States and year; Mr. Adams died at Quincy, Massachusetts, British provinces of New Brunswick and Lower in his ninety-first. They were the only surviving Canada remains unsettled. W. DARBY.*
* Though this article bears my name, it is proper to inform the reader that all between pages 280 and 289, was supplied by G. W. Smith, Esq. and from page 339 to page 352, by William Grimshaw, Esq. Mr. Smith also made several valuable additions to the data, and removed some errors from my statements The stock of materials on Roads and Canals, in his possession, contained, in some essential parts of the subject, the most recent information: his emendations have, of course, added inuch that is valuable to the article.-W, D.
EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. cedent 'examination of the facts on which they are
established. Among the various topics of interest connected The amount of public patronage to seminaries of with the history, progress and actual condition of learning, must not be assumed as the absolute measthe United States, none deserves a more attentive ure of education in any part of the country, and consideration than that of the means by which the least of all in those states where public scirools, public mind is developed and matured.
academies, and colleges have been longest estabWhatever peculiar interest may be attached to lished. The amount of money paid and the quantity the United States as a nation, must obviously be of instruction given in private schools and families, attributable to other causes than mere local and is, in all the states, very considerable; and, though it physical advantages. Whatever hopes may be en does not effect all the objects of education, and iertained in regard to the amelioration of man's though it confines the views of youth and limits the social condition and political relations, as develop- number of those parents who take a deep interest ed in the western hemisphere, must be founded on in public instruction, yet it serves to bound, in the presence and action of causes not operative in some degree, the inroads of ignorance and error, the despotic nations of Europe. The acknowledge. vice and superstition. ment, both theoretical and practical, of a few The early colonists of the eastern portion of the important maxims in politics, and the wide and Union brought from the parent country some just general diffusion of intelligence by all the appro- and admirable ideas of the true basis of liberty, priate means, constitute the main differences be- which they endeavoured to establish on the foundatween the population of this country and that of tion of universal intelligence. One of the first acts several nations in the eastern hemishere. The of legislation of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, original individual dispositions of men here are which received its royal charter in 1628, was a law probably much the same as in Europe; and it for the education of every child in the colony. would be vain to expect, from the mere advantage This law merely made it obligatory on parents to of local situation, an exemption from the evils educate their own children anď apprentices; but in which beset the race, whether in their individual or 1647 the same colony, enacted a law to establish their social capacity, so long as the intelligent prin- schools for instruction in the common branches of ciple of the mass of society lies dormant, and those an English education in every town containing fifty moral energies which prove conservative in all families; and a school for the higher branches in times of difficulty and danger, are permitted to re each town containing one hundred families. The ceive but a partial development, or a meager ali- germ of all the common school systems of the ment, when brought into action.
United States, may thus be regarded as coeval with It is proposed in the following sketch, after a the settlement of the country; and the spirit which brief account of the early efforts which were made dictated this admirable provision for universal into promote the cause of intelligence among !he first telligence (though blended in the minds of the early colonists, and a concise statement of the results of colonists with much of that puritanical austerity those attempts previous to the revolution, to con which is equally opposed to nature, reason, and rasider the means and the authority by which public tional religion) is to be commended as the essential provision for general education has been made. principle of free government and of equal rights.
Referring next to the different classes of semina- A penalty of twenty pounds was affixed to the neglect ries and institutions by which education is promot- of ihis law on the part of any towi. ed, we may consider in particular the number and There is a difficulty, if noi an uiter impossibility, character of each class with its influence on the in obtaining authentic information respecting the state of general intelligence.
exact state of the schools erected in early times, Ve shall then present some statements respect. in accordance with these laws. They were maning institutions peculiarly appropriated to certain aged and controlled solely by the little corporations classes or professions of the community; and finally, called in the eastern states towns; elsewhere known note the influence of voluntary associations, having by the designation of townships. No regular genefor their avowed object the advancement of learning ral report of their condition and operation was renor the promotion of education.
dered, and the government of the colony was not Education, regarded as a great public interest, is authorised to interfere in their management farnecessarily considered in close connexion with the ther than to grant the remedy for neglect to provide means provided, and the institutions established for schools, where the law authorised and required the purposes of public instruction. Though some such provision. But public opinion appears to affect to draw a broad distinction between these have been ever in advance of the requirements of two things, they are in fact so intimately connected, the law; as few, if any penalties were incurred that any reference to a system of public education, by the towns for remissness in this particular. The of which instruction is not the predominant and colony of Connecticut was carly engaged in the most important feature, becomes almost ridiculous.
cause of universal education; and her system of It may be added that much of what is called teach- public common schools has at all times constituted ing is neither instruction nor education, as it nei. the chief object of care and anxiety. The same ther conveys knowledge nor developes the under. provision and the same limitations as to number standing. Such is all that species of dogmatising of families required to oblige a town to support which consists in forcing upon the mind general schools, were found as in the older colony of Mas: truths without the concomitant, or rather the ante- sachusetts,