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By an examination of the foregoing schedule it the provision of this sort made for public instruction will be seen, Ist, That in 55 colleges there is an has hitherto been limited to a comparatively small aggregate of four hundred and five instructors, or number, and where this kind of education is exan average of about 7 to each college.

clusively relied on, must prove extremely fallacious 2. That in fifty-six colleges of which the numbers as a means of maintaining the standard of public inof students are given, the aggregate is 5295, making telligence. an average number of 9410 each college, and that Many of these institutions, it will be perceive of the whole number, only nineteen have above 100 ed, are in their infancy; and others are struggling students each.

against various adverse circumstances which it will 3. That if we suppose one-fourth of the above require many years to surmount. Some of them number, viz. 1322 students to leave college annually, have doubtless been erected in anticipation of the ihen will each instructor have prepared on an actual wants of the districts of country in which average 31 young men each year for the duties of they are placed, and seem to have been established life, or for entering on the studies of his profession. by certain sects and denominations of persons

4. By a similar comparison of the whole number rather to preoccupy the ground and to serve as of teachers with the whole number of students, it cạvests against others, than with any view to the will be found that each instructor has on an average public necessities. This circumstance has caused 62'93

or a small fraction over. 13 scholars com- the terms college and university to be extremely mitted to his charge.

vague in their application, as the establishments 5. That for the use of 47 colleges there have been which they denote are almost as different from supplied 197,656 volumes of books.

each other in means and appliances, as some of their 6. That in the students' libraries of 35 colleges, number are from the humblest common schools. the aggregate number of volumes is 87,170. (In Twenty of the colleges in the above list have less several colleges not particularly specified there are than sixty scholars each. Many academies and known to be considerable libraries belonging both to high schools in the country have more than double the colleges and to the students.)

that number, and the courses of study in the latter 7. That the time allotted to instruction in 47 are, to all useful purposes, as extensive as those of colleges is on an average 414 weeks per annum, many of the colleges. In the fifty academies in leaving 103 weeks for vacations.

the state of New York, there were in 1829 on an aver8. Supposing the population of the United States age about seventy students each. to be 13 millions, and the number of graduates 1300, It is a fact somewhat remarkable, that in a which is probably above the truth, then will the country where no hierarchal rule is, or can be esratio of those who annually graduate to the whole tablished, the authority of controlling education, population be totooth. This will prove that all especially in its higher departments, should be

405

almost exclusively entrusted to the hands of clergy. and local compacts is violated by every instance of a
men. Among the names of colleges in the above departure from the charity it inculcates.
list it is believed that not more than six can be 5. Professional Schools, though not essentially
enumerated of which the presiding officer is not of connected with the purposes of general instruction,
that profession. It is true the exceptions* are are, to a certain extent, important in a public view.
eminent ones, and, though recently made, will They serve to sustain in their alumni a certain
be likely to induce imitations in other quarters. sense of the dignity of the vocation to which they
Another fact not less worthy of remark in this con- have applied ihemselves, and to maintain an
nexion is, that even in the selection of clergymen to “esprit du corps” (whether for good or for ill)
fill the places of heads of colleges and teachers in among those who have derived their motives as well
the various departments, no particular regard has as their principles of action from a common source.
been paid to the previous habits of the individual. In comparing the lists of professional schools for
A man who has gained perhaps a little notoriety by 1831, we perceive that the United States contain
his declamations, or his boldness, or his unchari- twenty-seven of Theology, seventeen of Medicine,
table denunciations, is deemed thereby qualified to and nine of Law. Thus, Theology has erected for
prepare the youth of the country for their civil and itself nearly twice as many establishments, as Medi-
social duties, and among others for that of mutual cine, and three times as many as the Law. The
kindness and forbearance towards their brethren following tablest, and the appended remarks, con-
of all denominations. This forbearance is un- tain all that we deem it necessary to add in regard
questionably among the first obligations of an to this part of our subject.
American citizen, since the spirit of the national

TABLE LI.

A List of Theological Seminaries in the United States, with the denominations by which they are upheld; the

places in which they are established; the date of their commencement; number of Clergymen they have sent forth; number of Students in 1831; the number of Volumes in their Libraries, and the number of Projessors attached to each.

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Bangor Theo. Seminary. Bangor, Me.
Theo. Seminary:

Andover, Mass.
Theo. Depi. Yale College. New Haven, Conn.

Auburn. N. Y.
Presbyterian and “or-

Theo. Seminary of Auburn. thodox" Congrega. Western Theo. Seminary. Theo. Sem. Presb. Church. Princeton, N. J.

Alleghany T. Penn.
tionalist.
Union Theo. Seminary.

Prince Ed. Co. Va.
South Theo. Seminary. Columbia, S. C.
South-west Theo. Seminary. Maryville, Tenn.
Lanc Seminary.

Cincinnati, Ohio.
St. Mary's.

Baltimore, Md.
Mt. St. Mary's.

Emmettsburg, Md.

Charleston, S. c.
Roman Catholic.

Bardstown, Ky.
Washington Co. Ky.

Perry Co. Missouri.
Mass. Epis. Theo. School. Cambridge, Miss.
Episcopal.

Theo. School of Epis. Church. New York.
Epis. Theo. School of Va. Fairfax Co. Va.

1816 50 141 1,200 Since suspended.
1808 514 139 10,000 4
1822 701 48

3
1821|157 51 4,000 3
1813537 92 6,000 3
(1828 22 3,964 2
1824 30 42 3,000 3
1829
9

2
1821| 41 22 5,500 3
1829

25
1831
1819134 28 3,600 4

19 1,500 3

* The exceptions referred to, are Cambridge, Columbia (N. Y.), University of Virginia, and South Carolina College; to which may be added the new Girard College, in which ihe absurd practice of setting those to control teachers who have no knowledge of teach. ing, is effectually guarded against.

| For many of the facts here presented, as well as for others relating to the subject under consideration, acknowledgment is due to the conductors of that useful annual, the American Almanac, commenced at Boston in 1830.

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No. educated. and Students, 1831.

Vols. in Libra.

Date.

No. of Prof.

Theological Institution. Newton, Mass.

1825 25/ 22 1,0202 Baptist.

Hamilton Lit. and Theo. Inst. Hamilton, N. Y. 1820 100 80 1,600 4
Rock Spring Seminary. Rock Spring, II. 1827 5) 1,200 1
Hartwick Seminary.

1816

Hartwick, N. Y. Lutheran.

Sem. Luth. Church Un. Sta. Gettysburg, Penn. 1826 43 6,2002 Unita. Congregationalist. Theological School.

Cambridge, Mass. 1824 87 33

4 Dutch Reformed. Theo. Sem. Dutch Ref. Ch. New Brunswick, N. J.

24 German Reformed. (Theo. Sem. Ger. Ref. Ch. York, Penn.

1825 11 14

21

No. of Prof.

No. of Stud.

O

Besides the foregoing establishments there are of the medical student during the intermission of scattered throughout the country several schools regular courses, more profitable than they could be oster.sibly devoted to general education, and manual when confined to the solitary closet. of these no labour combined, but in fact the pupils are gene- less than three are known to exist in Philadelphia rally considered to be in the incipient stages of besides the College of Pharmacy, which is itself inpreparation for theological pursuits. Of these, timately connected with medical education and ihere are several in the state of New York, one or practice. The instructions in the private establishmore in Maine, and one, at least, in Pennsylvania, ments just referred to, consist of lectures and exwhich is believed to have recently attached itself to aminations duly intermixed, and both these have a hitherto vacant college charter, at Easton. reference to the public lectures, and final examina

tions of the medical colleges to which they may be TABLE LII.

regarded as subsidiary. List of Medical Schools or Medical Departments of The condition of American law schools can

Colleges and Universities in the United States, with hardly be gathered with sufficient accuracy to entheir situations, number of Professors and Students. able ús to present a regular statement concerning

them. They are all of recent origin, and are here, presented rather to give a ground to conjecture

what will in future be the method of conducting Names. Place.

legal studies than to show what is the course now pursued. It is probable that in a very great proportion of cases the old method of gleaning up

scraps and fragments of knowledge from the de. Maine Medical School, Brunswick, Me. 4 99 tails of business and fron irregular application Waterville Med. Sch. Waterville,

41 28 aroidst the confusion of the lawyer's office is still N. Hamp. Med. Sch. Hanover,

3 98

pursued. In some instances the law academies Vermont Med. School, Burlington,

3 40 enumerated in the following list are merely associaUniv. of Vermont,

tions of members of the bar and students, for muVermont Acad. of Med. Castleton,

tual improvement in their studies by discussions Midwifery College,

and moot courts. Mass. Med. Sch. Harv. Boston,

95
Univ.

TABLE LIII.
Berkshire Med. Inst. Pittsfield,

6 85

List of Law Schools in the United States.
Wm. College,
Med, Sch. Yale Col. New Haven,

5 69
Col. Phys. and Surg. New York,

7) 180 N. York,

Name.

Place.
Col. Phys. and Surg. Fairfield,

5 170
West. Dist.
Med. Dep. Univ. Penn. Philadelphia, 9 350
Med. Dep. of Jeff. Col. Philadelphia, 51 100

Cambridge Law Sch. a Cambridge, Mass. 241
Canonsburg,
Med. Dep. Univ. of Md. Baltimore,

department of Harv.

71 Med. Dep. Univ. of Va. Charlottesville,

College,

3 Med. Col. Charleston, Charleston, S. C.

Law Dep. Yale College, New Haven,
71 1500

Litchfield Law School, Litchfield,
Med. Col. Transylvania Lexington, Ky.

61 200
Univ.

Law Acad. of Philad. Philadelphia,

Baltimore,
Med. Col. of Ohio,

Maryland Law School,

2 22 Cincinnati,

81 113
William sb

Williamsburg, Va.
Besides the above enumerated schools of medi-

Staunton, Va.
cine, there are several private establishments or.

Charleston,

Charleston, S. C. ganized with a view to render the general studies

(Lexington, Ky.

5

No. of Prof. No. of Studs.

233

9

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Under the head of professional schools we ought and associations among the teachers and other perhaps to class the military and naval school friends of the cause, who, by deliberation and the establishments of the country. Of the latter, in- free interchange of opinions, have done much to deed, we should have little to say, as they have not rouse attention to the various topics connected with yet come into being, except in the form of casual the subject, have diffused much useful light and arrangements for teaching on board the national information, and created a more liberal and worthy vessels and at some of the naval stations.

spirit in regard to the public provisions for educaThe military academy at West Point. is the only tion. To the ciiy of Boston is due the credit of establishment of that description for the service of having called the first literary convention for the the army. Its usefulness and eminence are justly promotion of this honourable cause. This step was deemed ihe pride of the nation. It sends forth an to have been expected from a city which may be nually about 30 or 40 graduates, and the whole styled not more emphatically the cradle of liberty number of cadets in 1831 was two hundred and than that of universal education. twenty-two.

Other convocations for similar purposes have since 6. Societies for the improvement of education. been held, and have doubtless conferred much bene. The thoughts and reflections of American citizens fit on the parties concerned, as well as on those have for the last twenty years been frequently call. over whom they exercise a control. If they have ed to every branch of the subject both of education done no more in some instances, than prove how and instruction. The claims of education, moral, discordant were the previous opinions of their intellectual, and physical, have been urged with a members and how far the systems and methods zeal worthy of the cause, and with a devotedness pursued in many seminaries are removed from the which makes ultimate success the certain reward perfection of which they are susceptible, they will of all human effort. The divisions and subdivisions liave overcome at least one of the pre-existing obof the subject have claimed each the labours of stacles to improvement. The convention at Boston many vigorous minds, and though much, very resulted in the establishinent of a society termed much, yet remains to be done in order to realize the “ American Institute of Instruction," the memthe wishes of the wise and good in this particular, bers of which, “ pledging their zealous efforts to the cause is unquestionably making advancement prome:e the cause of popular education," proceedat a speed far more encouraging than at any for- ed to adopt a constitution liberal in its naiure and mer period. It may be mentioned as a curious admirably calculated to insure the harmony and coincidence, illustrative of the rising interest of the co-operation of all ingenuous minds. subject, that in the year 1825, on one topic in edu While similar associations shall continue to be cation, the formation of schools for teachers, which actuated by equally enlarged and patriotic views, had previously been hardly mentioned in public, no and shall keep clear of all questions and discussions less than four distinct publications appeared simul- on which, from their very nature, no satisfactory detaneously in as many different an distant states, cision can be had, they will doubtless contribute in without concert or co-operation on the part of their the most effectual manner to the success of a cause authors.

which cannot but be regarded as of the highest indiviThese pamphlets were read with attention, be-' dual and national importance.-W. R. JOHNSON. came the subjects of frequent comment, and the matters of which they treated have already (1832) COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION. been presented in the messages of several governors of staies, and acted on by colleges, academies, and The first settlers of Virginia encountered many private institutions. The fact just stated proves, difficulties: but such were their industry and per. that reflecting men perceive a capital defect in the severance, that by the year 1619, only twelve years system heretofore pursued, to have been the want after the commencement of the building of Jamesof a distinct recognition of the business of educa- town, they not only stocked the English market with tion as a permanent and honourable pursuit, and their staple, tobacco, but opened a trade for it with the absence of all regular preparation for the duties Holland, and established warehouses in Middleof instruction. This evil has not been confined to burgh and Flushing. As there was a duty of five any one class of institutions, but has proved as de- per cent payable on this article when imporied into trimental to the true interests of the colleges as of England, king James did not see with indifference the common schools. In the former it bas fre. the diversion of a part of his revenue to foreign states: quently happened that a man of some other pro- and though the colonists remonstrated against fession has been taken from the ranks of his own the injustice of the proceeding, they were ordered calling and set up at once with the title, dignity, to bring all their tobacco to England, in despite of and emoluments of a commander in chief in a totally their privileges as Englishmen, and of the plain different service; where of course he had every letter of their charter. The injustice did not end thing to learn, and where his previous habits had here:for tobacco was made a royal monopoly; and the done any tbing but qualify him for the arduous king, “out of pity to the country" as he declared, duties of instruction. The folly of those who select "commanded that the planters should not make is only equalled, in such cases, by the “modest more than one hundred weight of tobacco per man; assurance” of those who accept their appointment. for the market was so low that he could not afford to

As a means of advancing the interests of general give them more than three shillings a pound for it.” education, recourse. has been had to conventions He, however, sold it out at much higher prices.

The order to bring all their tobacco to England the only of an exemption from customs on goods exportVirginians evaded; and to their trade with Europe, ed from England to the colonies, was so inconthey added a profitable trade with the Indians for siderable, that it was probably little regarded. peltry. To these branches of trade was added, in Without understanding the philosophy of free trade, 1620, a trade in slaves, in which year a Dutch ship the colonists had practical experience of its benefits: bound homeward from the coast of Guinea, sold and the Virginians were little disposed to obey the twenty of this wretched race to the colonists. ordinances of a parliament which had set the royal

The order to bring all tobacco to England, ap. power at defiance. pears to have been the only commercial restriction Against this parliament, indeed, the Virginians ihe mother country imposed on the colonies, till openly raised the standard of opposition, wherethe year 1646: for the proclamation issued by king upon an ordinance was issued in 1650 prohibiting Charles in 1638, prohibiting the sailing of ships all correspondence with them except by leave of the with passengers or provisions to New England, council of state, authorising the capture of their without special license, was strictly of a political ships and merchandise, and prohibiting, under nature. No duty was charged on goods exported forfeiture of ships and goods, any foreigner from from England to the colonies, and the produce of resorting to Virginia, or trading thither, without a the colonies when imported into England paid a license, on any pretext whatever. duty of only five per cent. Foreign vessels were This ordinance did not affect the New England permitted to trade to the colonies, and foreign provinces or Maryland, but in the following year it merchants to settle in them as agents and factors. was enacted that no "merchandise either of Africa,

Under this system, notwithstanding their fre. Asia, or America, including our plantations there, quent wars with the Indians, and many faults in should be imported into England, in any but their internal policy, the progress of the colonists English built ships, and belonging either to English in wealth was not inconsiderable. To agriculture or English plantation subjects." and to a trade with the Indians for peltries, the New This ordinance of the rump parliament was the Englandmen soon added fisheries: and a trade with basis of the celebrated British navigation act, the West Indies. The introduction of the culture passed in 1660, after the restoration of Charles the of sugar into Barbadoes, which took place about the second. The latter act made it illegal 10 trade year 1641, rendered the last mentioned trade very with the colonies except in British and British profitable.

plantation ships, and forbid foreign merchants to In the year 1646, an ordinance was passed declar. settle there. It prohibited the Americans from ing that “whereas the several plantations of Vir- carrying tobacco, sugar, cotton, wool, indigo, ginginia, Bermuda, Barbadoes, and other places, have ger, fustic, and other dying woods, to any places but been much beneficial to this kingdom by the increase England, Ireland, and his majesty's plantations: but of navigation and of the customs arising from the left them at liberty to carry other articles of their commodities of the growth of these plantations im- produce to foreign countries, and there to purchase ported into this kingdom. And as goods and neces such merchandise as they might want. But this last saries carried thither from hence have not hitherto mentioned privilege was confined within very narpaid any custom: for the better carrying on of said row limits by another act, passed in 1663, by which plantations, it is now ordered by the lords and com- it was declared that no merchandise of European mons in parliament, that all merchandise, goods, growth, production, or manufacture, should be imand necessaries for the supportation, use, and ex- ported into the colonies, except it were laden or pense of said plantations, shall pay no custom nor shipped in England, with the exception of "salt for duty for the same, the duty of excise only excepted, the fisheries, wines from Madeira and the Azores, for three years to come, except to the plantations in and servants, victuals, and horses from Scotland or Newfoundland; cecurity being given here, and Ireland." certificate from thence, that the said goods be The restrictions the British government impos. really exported thither, and for the only use of the ed on its plantations, were similar to those adopted said plantations. —Provided always, that none in by other European powers. The design of each any of the said plantations do suffer any ship or was to monopolise the trade of its own colonies, and vessel to lade any goods of the growth of the planta. in their acts of pacification in regard to America, tions, and carry them to foreign parts, except in it was usual to insert an article binding the subjects English bottoms: under forfeiture of the before of each contracting power, mutually to abstain from named exemption from custom.

sailing to or trading in any of the harbours, or A jealousy of the Dutch, partly political and places, possessed by the other party in the western partly commercial, led to the enaction of this, the hemisphere. While the laws of England, therefore, first of the British navigation acts, touching the restricted the North Americans to purchasing Eurocolonies. It left the colonists at liberty to export pean commodities in the markets of England, a few their produce whither they chose, provided it was articles only excepted, the laws of France and Spain exported in English bottoms: and it did not prevent restricted their commerce in America 10 the British foreign ships from making sales of cargoes in the colonies. But the North Americans were not very colonies, but only from taking in lading there. strict in their observance of any of these regulations. Such was the letter of the law. The penalty im. In defiance of the Spanish monarch, they appear posed for a breach of it, or rather the favour offered to have entered into a contraband trade with the for the observance of it, a continuance for three years Spanish colonies before the year 1660.

They beVOL. XVIII.--PART I.

3 M.

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