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in 1795, after mentioning the institution of the for employment in the opportunities for commercial Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of enterprise which were created by the wars which Manufactures, in 1787, makes the following re grew out of the French revolution. The demand marks, in a note.
for our agricultural products and for our shipping, “ Every friend to America must rejoice at the caused less of labour and capital to be directed to rapid progress of its manufactures, and those gen certain branches of manufacturing than would natlemen of affluence who employ their capital in pro- turally have followed that direction in a state of gemoting them, may be said, with propriety, to de- neral peace. But the importance of manufactures serve well of their country. Amongst this number, was duly appreciated, and in every year some imthere is none more conspicuous than John Nichol- provements were made in the useful arts. son, Esq., late comptroller general of the state of The embargo and the other non-intercourse acts Pennsylvania, who is at present concerned, as prin- had a very stimulating effect on several branches of cipal, in the following manufactures, now either in manufacturing. The foundations were laid, during operation, or contracted for and in preparation, in this period, of some extensive establishments, which and near the city of Philadelphia: 1st, a factory for still continue in operation. making the machinery and apparatus necessary for In 1810, the government made an effort to obtain carding and spinning cotton; 2d, a ditto for wool; information of the extent of manufactures. The 3d, two mills for carrying on the carding and spin- marshals of the several states, and the secretaries ning of cotton, one of 2500 spindles, and the other of the territories, and their assistants, were direct. of 500; 4ih, a cotion stocking factory, to consist of ed, pursuant to instructions from the secretary of forty looms; 5!h, another ditto, of a less number, to the treasury, to make returns of the manufacturing be increased as it progresses; 6th, a factory of establishments and of the manufactures within their weavers, to consist of forty looms or more; 7th, a respective districts, territories, and divisions: which factory for making the machinery for carding and were transmitted to the secretary of the treasury, spinning wool; 8th, a manufactory for making the for the purpose of being laid before congress. Some machinery for cotton printing and bleaching; 9th, elaborate and valuable returns were made, and transa cotton printing and bleaching factory; !0ih, a mitted; the greater number of them were irregular factory for making cloths without spinning or wear., and very deficient: those which came from Massaing; 11th, a hat manufactory, on an improved plan; chusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and 12th, a button manufactory; 15th, a manufactory Virginia were the most complete. It is certain, says for cleaning buttons; 14th, a manufactory for mak- Dr. Seybert, that the returns fall very short of the ing planes and all such kind of edge tools; 15th, a truth, as will be evident from the following inglass manufactory; 16th, a manufactory for making stances, viz: printing offices were returned from only oil cloths, floor cloths, &c.; 17th, a newly invent. three states, and their number was stated to be one ed manufactory for weaving straps for carriages, hundred and ten, when Mr. Thomas, the author of hollow hose for fire engines, ships, &c.; 18th, a the history of printing, who was well informed on foundry for casting; 19th, a manufactory for con the subject, stated that the number of printing structing running improvements on mills; 20th, a houses in the United States was more than 400. manufactory to make steam engines applicable to Bookbinders, calico printers, and dyeing establishmills, breweries, watering of cities, &c. ; with vari ments were returned for only one state; glass works ous others, on a less scale."
for five states, omitting Massachusetts, in which The period which elapsed from the close of the very extensive establishments. existed, from which war till the year 1796, was, in a peculiar sense, an glass of a superior quality had been, long before,
speculation, and it was as natural for manu exported to the other states; bark mills for only one factories begun without sufficient capital, sufficient state; carriage makers for three states; blacksmith science, or sufficient skill, to miscarry, as it was shops for five, and hatters only for four states. We for injudicious speculations in lands, in canal stocks, might very much extend this catalogue of omissor in general commerce, not to succeed. Yet, at ions. this period, many branches of manufacturing were Notwithstanding the imperfectness of their incarried on to a considerable extent. The common quiries, the agents reported 1776 carding machines, dress of the yeomanry was a domestic fabric, spun by which 7,417,216 lbs. of materials had been carda and wove by their wives and daughters, and dressed ed; 1682 fulling mills, and 5,452,960 yards, which at the neigbouring fulling mill-a mode of manu had been fulled; 122,647 spindles; 325,392 looms; facturing, it must be allowed, more favourable to 153 iron furnaces, 53,908 tons of iron manufac. the promotion of morals than to the increase of tured; 330 forges, which made 24,541 tons of bar wealih. The various handicrafts were prosecuted iron; 346 trip hammers; 34 rolling and slitting mills, with vigour by the inhabitants of the towns and cities. which required 6500 tons of iron; 410 naileries, Mention is made of duck factories in successful in which 15,727,914 lbs. of nails had been made; operation in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Ame 4316 tanneries, producing 2,608,240 lbs. of leather; rican iron was an article of export. The spinning 583 flaxseed oil mills, making 770,583 gallons of oil; of cotton by the new machinery was begun in this 141,191 distilleries, producing 22,977,167 gallons period, which was further distinguished by success of spirits from grain, and 2,827,625 gallons from ful experiments in steam navigation, and by the in- molasses; 132 breweries, in which 182,690 barrels vention of Oliver Evans's improved mill machinery. of beer had been made; 89 carriage makers, who
The spirit of speculation now found ample room made 2,413 carriages; 33 sugar refineries, in which
7,867,221 lbs. of refined sugar had been manufac. ing amount of $ 127,694,602 is extended to $172,tured; 179 paper mills, furnishing 425,521 reams of 762,676: the sum last mentioned does not embrace paper; 4 stainers, who stained and stamped 148,000 the “ doubtful articles.” The doubtful articles inpieces of paper; 22 glass works, which furnished clude such manufactures as have a very near rela4,967,000 square feet of window glass; 194 potte- tion in their character to, and connexion with, agri. ries; 82 snuff mills; 208 gunpowder mills, in which cultural pursuits, amongst which are the following, 1,397,111 lbs. of powder had been made.
viz: cotion pressing, flour and meal, the mills for The following summary of the value of the manu- grinding grain, the barrels for containing the artifactures of the United States is founded on the be- cles manufactured, malt, saw mills, horse mills, pot fore mentioned returns, which were made by the and pearl ashes, maple sugar, sugar from the cane, marshals and other public agents in 1810: the value molasses, rosin, pitch, slates, bricks, tiles, saltpetre, expressed is independent of the “ doubtful articles." indigo, red ochre, yellow ochre, hemp and hemp 1. Goods marufactured, by the loom,
mills, fisheries, lime, grinding of plaster of Paris, from cotton, wool, hemp, and silk,
&c., &c., all of which are estimated at $25,580,795 including stockings,
making the aggregate value of the manufactures of
$39,497,057 2. Other goods spun from the materi
every description within the United States for 1810, als above mentioned,
The same able statistical writer says, in a work 3. Instruments and machinery manu. factured, estimated at $186,650;
published in 1813, " The manufactures of the Uni
ted States consume all our wool, which amounts to carding, fulling, and floor cloth
thirteen millions of pounds weight per annum. They stamping, by machinery, estimat
also consume our fax, hemp, hides and skins, iron ed at $5,957,816,
6,144,4 46 and lead, and much of our cotton. Besides our own 4. Hats of wool, fur, &c., and from mixtures thereof,
productions of these things, we import much iron, 4,323,744
hides, skins, fax, hemp, lead, and some wool. All 5. Manufactures of iron,
14,364,526 of these are manufactured. There appears the best 6. Manufactures of gold, silver, set
reason to affirm, that three-fourths part of all the work, mixed metals, &c.,
manufactures consumed in the United States are 7. Manufactures of lead,
made in our own families, shops, and manufacto8. Soap, tallow candles, and wax, sper
ries. Ships and vessels, distilled spirits, beer, loaf maceti and whale oil,
sugar, cheese, starch, as well as hats, shoes, iron 9. Manufactures of hides and skins, 17,935,477
wares and piece goods, are meant to be included. 10. Manufactures from seeds,
" The people of America have secured the bene11. Manufactures from grain, fruit, and
fits to themselves of manufactures in their own facase liquors distilled and fer
milies, by their female weavers, by labour-saving mented,
machinery, and by labour-saving processes. The 12. Dry manufactures from grain, ex
manufactures of red and white lead, for example, clusive of flour and meal,
have suddenly absorbed all of that raw material 13. Manufactures of wood,
which we can procure from our own mines and by 14. Manufactures of essences and cils from woods,
the most industrious importation. The shot manu
179,150 15. Refined sugars,
factory has been added in the same moment. 1,415,724
"Most of the operations of the American people, 16. Manufactures of paper, pasteboard,
in their ordinary business, have been elicited by occards, &c.,
1.939,285 17. Manufactures of marble, stone, and
casion. Hence it is, that the desire of a market at
the farmer's door has led our women to the distaff slate,
and the loom, and has created the distillery, wher18. Manufactures of glass,
1,047,004 19. Earthen manufactures,
ever there is produced a surplus of grain. Hence, 259,720
also, it is that mill carders, spinners, fu?lers, weav. 20. Tobacco manufactures,
1,260,378 ers, hatters, shoemakers, smiths, carriage makers, 21. Drugs, dyestuffs, paints, and dyeing, 500,382
and 22. Cables and cordage,
many other of those useful workmen are found 4,243,168
in all our states, and in many of our counties and 23. Manufactures of hair,
townships: : and they often form a considerable por24. Various and miscellaneous manu
tion of the inhabitants of the cities, towns, villages, factures,
4,347,611 and hamlets.
“ The distance of the United States from the coun. $127,694,602
tries which would consume their productions, and
furnish their supplies, with the consequent charges Mr. Tench Coxe, of Philadelphia, to whom the of exporting the first, and importing the last, are secretary of the treasury, in 1810, confided the are found to operate as a powerful encouragement to rangement of the returns of the marshals, &c., con- manufacturing in America. The duties on entry and cerning the manufactures of the United States, af- export in Europe, and of entry here, add to the ter offering these estimates, observed—“ from a encouragement. This advantage, arising from the consideration of all the reputed details, and by a nature of things, can never fail, or even be dimvaluation of manufactures which are entirely omit- inished.” ted or imperfectly returned, for 1810," the forego These remarks are extracted from a volume pub
lished nineteen years ago. Since that time, our um, for the gratification of the virtuosi! With each population has nearly doubled itself, and our manu- succeeding year, the business of cotton spinning factures have advanced in, at least, an equal ratio. increased, and Mr. Pilkin estimated the amount of
We speak in general terms. One noble branch of cotton consumed in the manufactories of the United manufacturing, that of ship building, has declined. States, in the year 1809-10, at 16,000,000 lbs. The From 1803 to 1812, the tonnage of newly built Ame- present annual consumption is, agreeably to an es. rican vessels amounted annually to 102,811 tons. In timate made by a committee of the New York tariff 1828, the tonnage of newly built American vessels convention, 77,500,000 lbs. Mr. Lee, of Boston, had amounted to only 77,098. With the British, this previously computed the amount at 70,000,000 lbs. art has, in the same interval, advanced greatly. The Another committee of the same convention has tonnage of newly built British vessels amounted, in estimated the value of the paper annually manufac. the years 1810, 1811, and 1812, to 99,886 tons a tured in the country at seven millions of dollars, year. 1 he average of the three years, 1826, 1827, and that of the glass at three millions. and 1828, was i85,947 tons. The decline of ship Some experienced publishers have estimated the building in America, while it has advanced in annual sale of books at $10,000,000, and of newsGreat Britain, is, by some, attributed in part to the papers at 83,000,000. high duties laid on iron, hemp, and some other The governor of Connecticut states, in his last articles. The duties on the materials used in the message to the legislature, that the quantity of raw construction of a ship of 418 tons, are stated to be silk produced in that state last year, would, if the 82841, equal to $6.80 a ton.
art of manufacturing it had been properly underAnother noble art, that of making iron, has not stood, have produced seventy-five thousand yards advanced in equal proportion with the increase of of silk cloth. Experienced workmen have recently wealth and population. We have already seen that arrived in the country, through whom, it may be as early as 1730, the Americans began to export hoped, the science and skill requisite for the profitiron to Europe. They continued their exportation able management of the silk manufacture will be of it till the period of the revolutionary war, and imparted to those engaged in that business, for some time after the conclusion of
To enumerate all the manufactures of the United Through a discovery made in England, of making States, would be to give a list of nine-tenths of the iron with coked coal, the expense of the mar.ufacture fabrics exhibited in the stores of a large city. Máthere has been greatly reduced. The neglect of our nufactures, using the word in its proper and commanufacturers of iron to profit by this improve- prehensive sense, are to be found in every town, in ment, is one of the most remarkable facts in the every village, and in almost every township. In history of American arts. The quantity of iron now some of the towns of the New England states, they manufactured in the country is variously estimated form nearly the exclusive business of the inhabilat from 85,000 tons of pig iron, to more than dou- ants. In the west, they are carried on extensively. ble that amount.
Pittsburgh bids fair to become the Birmingham of The manufacture of leather is carried on exten- America. From their scattered state, it is difficult sively. Besides the hides produced in our country, to form an estimate of the value of manufactured we annually convert about two 'millions of dollars articles annually produced; but it must amount to worth of foreign hides into leather.
some hundred millions. Of wool, the Americans appear at all times to Mr. Niles, about the year 1828, computed it to have manufactured all they raised. Three-fourths be three hundred millions of dollars; but this was of the woollen cloths consumed in the country be- probably below the real amount. tween the years 1791 and 1794, are believed to have There is one branch of industry carried on very been of domestic fabric. Mr. Pitkin estimated the extensively in the United States, which we know number of sheep in the United States in 1816, at not where to rank, unless it be under the head of from 12 to 15,000,000. Mr. Niles, in 1826, esti- manufactures: we allude to house-building. Of the mated the number at 15,000,000. Taking two importance of this branch of industry, soine conpounds and a half for the produce of each sheep, ception may be formed by considering the fact, that the total will be 37,500,000 lbs., to which if we add when a direct tax was levied in 1798, the lands the wool imported, we shall have from 39 to were assessed at four hundred and seventy-nine mil40,000,000 lbs. for domestic manufacture. Mr. lions, and the houses at one hundred and forty milHenry Lee, an intelligent merchant of Boston, and lions, or that the houses constituted nearly onea member of the late Free Trade convention, esti fourth part of the value of the real estate. What a mates the annual value of the woollen manufacture great accession has since been made to this item of of the United States at $59,000,000. Much of this wealth! How much is annually added! In a single is produced in the household way.
year, the new buildings erected in one of our large The spinning of cotton with the new machinery cities may exceed a million of dollars in value. was begun in Rhode Island about the year 1793. What, then, must be the value of those built in No long time elapsed before similar works were every part of the Union? The number of houses established in Philadelphia. So great a curiosity building in England, when the census was taken in was the operation in those days, that a formal visit 1821, was 18,289. Such is the plentifulness of was paid to the Globe Mills by some of the chief building materials, and so rapid is the increase of officers of government; and some of the cotton population, that more than twice this number must thread spun there was deposited in Peale's Muse- be annually built in the United States.
The annual consumption of foreign manufactures resources are such, that it is difficult, if not impossiin the United States, is only from two to three dol ble, even to imagine a system of policy under which lars a head: and does not appear, in any series of the wealth and population of the country would not years, to have exceeded four or five dollars. A na. increase. From the impossibility of finding profittion with which the necessaries and comforts of life able employment for all this labour and capital in are as abundant as they are with the Americans, commerce and agriculture, a great proportion of and which yet procures from abroad so small an the annual increase will necessarily take the direcamount of manufactures in proportion to popula tion of manufactures. tion, cannot be considered as very backward in this It is true, indeed, that several hundred years of branch of industry. Manufactures are, indeed, of costly experiments have been required to bring the less relative importance to us than to some nations manufactures of Europe to their present state of of Europe: but which of those nations can be men- perfection. But religious persecutions and political tioned, which would not be willing to exchange part troubles may give a country exempt from such of its facilities for manufacturing, for such facilities evils, all the advantages arising from a century of for agricultural production as we possess?
experiments, without that country's paying any part To suppose the Americans to make all the manu of the cost. In this way, the countries which emfactures they need, is to suppose our trade with braced Protestantism at the period of the Reformaseveral countries of Europe to cease: for those tion, got, in addition to their own useful arts, many countries have little to supply us with but manu. other useful arts which till then were confined to factures. This involves another supposition, that their rival nations. The rise of some of the most of finding a new employment for the labour and important manufactures of Holland, is attributed to capital employed in raising agricultural products Flemings who fled thither from religious and politifor exportation: and, consequently, a diminution of cal tyranny. The Huguenots of France, whom the agricultural employment equal to the increase of revocation of the edict of Nantz obliged to forsake some other branch of industry. It is probable that the their native land, introduced many new branches time is remote, in which the raw produce of America of manufacture into England, Holland, and Gerwill cease to be exchanged for the manufactures of many. The time for religious persecution has gone Europe: but the existence of this trade will not pre- by: but political troubles will long continue in vent the increase of other branches of industry, Europe. The many advantages, natural and politisince, from the very nature of things, the greater cal, which the United States hold out to the emipart of the articles the Americans use must be grant, must make it the favourite refuge of those made by themselves. The rail roads and canals, who fly from war and revolution, and those men recently made, and now making, will, by reducing will bring with them the arts in which their own the cost of transportation, greatly facilitate manu countries excel. · We shall thus have the arts in facturing production, and, together with steam perfection, without paying the expense of centuries navigation, give us many of the advantages which of experiments. in former times were supposed to be within the Within a half century, England has, through reach of only a very dense population. Distance newly invented machinery and various scientific apbeing, in a manner, annihilated by these improved pliances, taken the lead of the nations in manufacmodes of communication, we shall, in a few years, tures. But her patent right to the new machinery be able to carry the division of labour to an extent is near expiring. We ourselves have already adoptwhich will greatly improve the quality and increase ed it to a considerable extent, and have, in some the quantity of our manufactures.
respects, improved it. Secrets in the arts cannot, By another cause will manufacturing industry be in this age of the world, be long preserved. Science advanced. The improvements daily making in reveals them to every nation that is in a condition scientific and practical agriculture, will make a less to profit by them. England must be content that amount of labour necessary for raising that quantity other nations shall share the benefits of her dis. of agricultural products which is required for home- coveries. If any think that we are, in any useful or consumption and for exportation. The labour thus ornamental art adapted to our present state, in a set free will naturally take the direction of manu- disreputable degree behind the mother country, factures: and its amount will be increased, by the they may, perhaps, derive consolation from the relabour set free, by the use of canals and rail-ways flection that dyeing was so much a mystery to the in transporting agricultural produce to market. English previous to the year 1608, that they used
The early period at which manufactures were es to send their cloths white to Holland, which were tablished in America, the extent to which they there dycd, and afterwards returned to England for were carried before the revolutionary war, and sale: that though their island abounds in copper their advance since that time, are so many assur ore, they derived their principal supply of copper, ances (if the protection orderly government gives to both wrought and unwrought, from Germany, till persons and property were not in itself sufficient the year 1700, and continued to import copper teaassurance) that this branch of industry must flou- kettles and other vessels from that country, till the rish in America. Its positive advancement will be year 1750: and that, though their mines have furgreat; and its relative advancement will probably nished supplies of tin from the earliest ages of our be greater than that of either commerce or agri- era, they did not acquire the art of making tin culture. The nature and extent of our natural plates till the year 1730. Vol. XVIII.- Part II.
paid into the receipt of the king's pri-
vate exchequer, is an increasing fund,
" Secondly, The two shilling's sterling per 66 The English colonists,” says Adam Smith,
hogshead on tobacco exported, at a me-
dium of thirty-two thousand hogsheads
3,200 its civil government. They themselves, on the con
“Out of which, also increasing tax, is paid trary, have hitherto been defended almost entirely
the governor's salary of two thousand at the expense of the mother country. The ex
pounds per annum. pense of their own civil government has always been
6. Thirdly, One shilling per ton on two very moderate. It has generally been confined to thousand tons of shipping yearly, is
500 what was necessary for paying the competent sala
“ Fourthly, The established fees for mar. ries to the governor, to the judges, and to some.
riage licenses, probates of wills, and other officers of police, and for maintaining a few of the most useful public works, The expense of the
entering and clearing of ships: together
with other legal perquisites belonging civil establishment of Massachusetts Bay, before
to the governor residing there, is, per the commencement of the present disturbances, used to be but about £18,000 a year.
That of New
annum, Hampshire and Rhode Island £3500 each. That
£7,800 of Connecticut £4000. That of New York and Pennsylvania £4500 each. That of New Jersey
Massachusetts imposed a tax of eight-pence a £1200. That of Virginia and South Carolina £8000 each. The civil establishments of Nova hogshead on molasses imported into her territories Scotia and Georgia are partly supported by an
in ships belonging to other colonies: and South annual grant of parliament. But Nova Scotia pays, commodity when imported from the northern colo
Carolina a tax of five pence a gallon on the same besides, about £7000 a year towards the public ex
nies. penses of the colony: and Georgia about £2500
But the principal revenue of the colonies
was derived from direct taxes on property: and a year.
All the different civil establishments in North America, in short, exclusive of those of herein is to be found the cause of the economy of Maryland and · North Carolina, of which no exact
the American governments previous to the Revo
lution. When revenue is raised by direct taxation, account has been got, did not, before the commencement of the present disturbances, cost the every man knows what he pays, and even the most inhabitants above £64,700 a year; an ever memor
stupid need not be told that he has an interest in able example at how small an expense three millions keeping down the expenses of government. It is of people may not only be governed, but well go through which the exact amount any one pays is
by various ingenious modes of indirect taxation, verned."
concealed both from himself and others, that goIt is, indeed, an ever memorable example at how small an expense three millions of people may be
vernments are able to raise and to expend annually governed, for the total is less than is now annually their tens and even their hundreds of millions.
But, besides this just and equitable way of raising levied in Philadelphia for merely municipal pur
a revenue, the colonial governments had another, poses. Lord Sheffield says, “ The customs from the 5th
the most pernicious that could possibly be devised. of January 1768, when the Board was established,
It was in issuing paper money, which in some cases to 1775, when the troubles began, amounted to
was made a legal tender, and in others had an about £290,000, in a little more than seven years: tions of a different character.
artificial value imparted to it by political regulaout of which the expense of collecting is to be deducted. The only other revenue was the ground chusetts. In the year 1690, when her troops returned
This expedient was first resorted to by Massarents, which were never tolerably paid, and hardly from an unsuccessful attack on Quebec, they were defrayed the expense of collecting. Before the war
on the point of mutinying for their wages. An act of 1755, the expense of our establishment was £70,000. From the peace of 1763 to the time of not stay till it could be brought into the treasury.
was passed for levying the sum, but the men would the stamp act, it was £370,000.” If to the amount the Americans paid for the sup: ten shillings • to ten pounds” denomination, which
The debt was therefore paid by paper notes of from port of the civil establishment of the different Colonies, be added the amount they paid for duties thirty or forty per cent. But, by certain political
the soldiers could not pass except at a discount of on goods imported, the total will not in any year contrivances the notes were, after a time, raised to exceed 500,000 dollars.
Sir William Keith, in his history of Virginia, par. value; and the public authorities, encouraged gives the following account of the revenue of that by the restoration of the credit of their bills, aftercolony, as it stood in 1738, and as it was established wards issued others for defraying the ordinary ex. by acts of assembly, viz.
penses of government.
says Governor Hutchinson, (san "First, The annual receipts of quit-rents,
easy way of paying public charges, which, no doubt, at two shillings sterling per one hundred
they wondered that in so many ages the wisdom of acres, being the revenue of the crown,
other governments had never discovered.”
(. This was,