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The principal revenue of the United States' gov- not the means of ascertaining. These include many ernment is from the duties on imports and tonnage of the expenses of the administration of justice, and The public lands have not yet reimbursed the of keeping the common roads in order. Many of cost of extinguishing the aboriginal title and the the expenses of litigation are defrayed by fees paid expenses of surveying: The post office yields by the parties. Of the amount of these fees, no nearly two millions a year, but nearly all it produces general statement is ever rendered. is expended in extending the mail routes.

An estimate was made a few years since, that

the people of the city and county of Philadelphia The following view of the receipts and expendi- paid annually between three and four millions of doltures of eleven of the state governments, in 1828, lars for the support of government. In this estimate has been formed from the tables published in the were included the duties paid to the United States American Almanac for 1830.

government on foreign commodities consumed with

in the city and county, the taxes paid to the stale Receipts.

Expenditures. Maine,

144,185

137,351

government, all the various municipal expenses, New Hampshire, 78,058

80,890

including the support of the poor, and the diversiVermont,

fied fees paid to public officers. 51,683

The inhabitants 31,178 Massachusetts,

of the interior consuming a less amount of foreign 240,026

304,471 Connecticut,

conmodities, pay fewer taxes: and the municipal 68,604

74,953 New York,

1,938,006

1,988,084

expenses of but few districts are as great as those Pennsylvania,

of Philadelphia. 547,370

497,546 Maryland,

221,036

267,002

In European governments, many of the items of North Carolina,

our state and county disbursements, enter into the 68,703

80,890 Georgia,

general statement of national expenditures. From 181,155

186,929 Missouri,

59,570

33,679

not attending to this fact, some writers have given

very incorrect views of the relative amount of taxes Amounts received on loan are not included in the

paid by the people of Europe and America: and statement here given of receipts : and the expendi have contrasted the amount expended by us princi. tures of Pennsylvania are independent of those made pally in providing means of external defence, and with borrowed money in constructing canals and in regulating foreign intercourse, with the expenses rail roads.

of general government in other countries. A corThe revenues of the state governments are de rect estimate of the relative expenses of governrived, for the most part, from bank dividends, taxes ment in different countries is a desideratum, which on banks, taxes on auctions, licenses to retailers it is not easy to supply. All our expenditures, nationand tavern-keepers, in some instances a direct tax

al, state, and municipal, may be esteemed moderate on property, and from sales of land.

when compared with those of England: but perhaps The principal expenditures of the state govern- it would be possible to reduce the total amount ments are in payments of the expenses of the legis without diminishing the protection afforded to perlature, the salaries of the chief officers of the state, sons and property. The art of governing well, is, and in the extension of roads and canals. The funds

not to govern too much, an art in which some adfor the last mentioned object are usually obtained vances have been made, but which is not yet brought by borrowing:

to perfection. In proportion as this art advances The county, city, town, and township expenses, the expenses of government will be lessened, withincluding the support of the poor, are in the aggre- out its efficiency for good being in any degree dimingate very considerable : but the amount we have ished.

TABLE LXI.

A Table showing the amount of the public debt of the United States on the 18t of January of each year,

from 1791 to 1832, both inclusive.

1791. $75,169,724 1792. 76,373, 767 General Washington's administration began March 4th, 1789, and ended 1793. 77,537,967 March 3d, 1797. The debt was increased after the 1st of January 1791, by 1794. 75,996, 170 Sfunding additional amounts of the revolutionary claims : by the Indian war, the 1795. 78, 149,937 western insurrection, the transactions with the Barbary powers, and other 1796. 81,642,272 events which occasioned a great expenditure. 1797. 80,934,043)

1798. 78,494,165

Mr. John Adams's administration commenced March 4th, 1797, and ended 1799. 77,399,909

>March 3d, 1801. The debt was increased by the warlike preparations made in 1800. 81,633,325 1801.

82,000,167 consequence of the dispute with France.

1802. 78,754,568 1803. 74,731,922 1804. 85,353,643 1805. 80,534,058 1806. 74,542,957 1807. 67,731,645 1808. 64,742,326 1809. 56,732,379

Mr. Jefferson's administration began March 4th, 1801, and ended March 3d, 1809. The debt was increased in 1804 by the purchase of Louisiana, for the sum of 15,000,000 dollars. Reduced in the subsequent years by the abundant revenue derived from commerce.

1810. 53,156,532 1811. 47,855,070 Mr. Madison's administration commenced March 4th, 1809, and ended 1812. 45,035,123 | March 3d, 1817. War was declared in July 1812. The ratifications of peace 1813. 55,907,452 were exchanged in February 1815. The debt greatly increased by the events of 1814. 80,986,291 the war. The Mississippi stock, which had been issued under an act of 1814, 1815. 99,824,410 and the amount of which exceeded four millions of dollars, first included in the 1816. 123,016,375 | general statement in 1817. 1817. 123,49 1,965_

1818. 103,466,633 1819. 95,529,648 Mr. Monroe's administration began March 4th, 1817, and ended March 3d, 1820. 91,015,566 1825. The debt diminished in the first years of his first term by the abun1821. 89,987,427 | dance of paper-money revenue. Increased afterwards by the diminution of the 1822. 93,546,676 revenue, occasioned by the resumption of specie payments. An addition of 1823. 90,875,877 | nearly five millions made to the debt in 1824, by the purchase of Florida : 1824. 90,269,777 | but the total amount reduced by the abundance of the revenue. 1825. 83,788,432J

1826. 81,054,059 1827. 73,987,357 1828. 67,475,622 1829. 58,362,135

Mr. John Quincy Adams's administration began March 4th, 1825, and ended March 3d, 1829. The debt diminished through the causes which began to be effective in the last year of Mr. Monroe's second term.

1830. 48,565,405 General Andrew Jackson's administration began March 4th, 1829. The 1831. 39,082,451 debt diminished through the continued operation of the causes which began 1832. 24,322,235 ) to be effective in the last year of Mr. Monroe's second term.

nue.

65

TABLE LXII.
Receipts of the United States from March 4, 1789, to December 21, 1829; as stated in a Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Chairman of

the Committee on Retrenchment, April 9, 1830. YEARS.

Dividends and
From March 4,

Internal Reve-
Customs.
Direct Taxes.

Loans and Trea-
Postage.
Public Lands.

sales of Bank
sury Notes, &c.

Miscellaneous. Total.
1789, to

Stock & Bonds.
Dec. 31. 1791 $4,399,473 09

$5,791,112 56

$19,440 10 $10,210,025 75 1792 3,443,070 85 208,942 81

5,070,806 46 $ 8,028 001 9,918 65 8,740,766 77 1793 4,255,306 56 337,705 701

$11,020 51

1,067,701 141 38,500 00 10,390 37 5,720,624 28 1794 4,801,065 28 274,089 621

29,478 491

4,609,196 781 303,472 00 23,799 48 10,041,101 65 1795 5,588,461 26 337,755 36

22,400 00

3,305,268 201 160,000 00 5,917 97 9,419,802 79 17961 6,567,987 94 475,289 60

72,909 84 $ 4,836 13 362,800 00 1,240,000 00 16,506 141 8,740,329 65 17971 7,549,649 65 575,491 45

64, 500 00 83,540 60 70,135 41 385,220 00 30,379 29 8,758,916 40) 1798 7,106,061 93 644,357 05

39,500 00 11,963 11 308,574 271 79,920 00 18,692 81 8,209,070 07 1799 6,6 10,449 31 779,136 44

41,000 00

5,074,646 53 71,040 00 45,187 56 12,621,459 841
1800 9,080,932 73 809,396 53 $734,223 97

78,000 00 443 75 1,602,435 04 71,040 00 74,712 10 12,451,184 14
1801 10,750,778 93 1,048,033 43 534,343 38 79,500 00 167,726 06 10,125 00 88,800 00 266,149 150 12,945,455 950
1802 12,438,235 741 621,898 89 206,565 44 35,000 00 188,628 02 5,597 36 1,327,560 00 177,905 86 15,001,391 31
18031 10,479,417 61 215,179 69 71,879 20 16,427 26 165,675 69

115,518 18 11,064,097 63
1804 11,098,565 33 50,941 291 50,198 44 26,500 000 487,526 79 9,532 64

112,575 53 11,835,840 02 1805 12,936,487 04 21,747 15 21,883 91 21,342 50 540,193 801 128,814 94

19,039 801 13,689,508 14 1806 14,667,698 17 20,101 45 55,763 86 41,117 67 765,245 73 48,897 71

10,004 191 15,608,823 78 1807 15,845,521 61 13,051 401 ' 34,732 56 3,614 73 466,163 27

34,935 69 16,398,019 26 1808 16,363,550 58 8,210 73 19,159 21

647,939 06 1,822 16

21,802 35 17,062,544 09
1809 7,296,020 58 4,044 39 7,517 51

442,252 33

23,638 51 7,773,473 12
1810 8,583,309 31 7,430 63 12,448 68

696,548 82 2,759,992 251

84,476 84 12,144,206 53 1811 13,313,222 73 2,295 95 7.666 66

37 70 1,040,237 53 8,309 05

60,068 52 14,431,338 14 1812 8,958,777 53 4,903 06

859 22 85,039 70 710,427 78 12,837,900 00

41,125 47 22,639,032 76
1813 13,224,623 25, 4,755 04 3,805 521 35,000 00 835,685 14 26,184,435 00

236,571 00 40,524,844 95
1814 5,998,772 08 1,662,984 82 2,219,497 36 45,000 00 1,135,971 09 23,377,911 79

119,399 81 34,559,536 95
1815 7,282,942 22 4,678,059 07 2,162,673 41 135,000 10 1,287,959 28 35,264,320 78

150,282 74 50,961,237 601
1816 36,306,874 881 5,124,708 311 4,253,635 09 149,787 741 1,717,985 03 9,494,436 16

123,994 61 57,171,421 82
18171 26,283,348 49 2,678,100 771 1,834,187 04 29,371 91 1,99 1,226 06 734,542 59 202,426 301 80,389 17 33,833,592 33
1818 17,176,385 00 955,279 200 264,333 36 20,070 00 2,606,564 77 8,765 62 525,000 00 37,547 71) 21,593,936 66
1819 20,283,608 76 229,593 63 83,650 781 71 32 3,274,422 78 2,291 00 675,000 00 57,027 10 24,605,665 371
1820 15,005,612 15 106,260 53 31,586 821 6,465 95 1,635,871 61 3,040,824 13 1,000,000 00 54,872 49 20,881,493 68
1821 13,004,447 15 69,027 63 29,349 05 516 911 1,212,966 46 5,000,324 000 105,000 00 152,072 52 19,573,703 72
1822 17,589,761 94 67,665 71 20,961 56 602 041 1,803,581 54

297,500 00 452,355 151 20,232,427 94
1823) 19,088,433 44 34,242 17 10,337 71 110 691 916,523 101

350,000 00

141,019 15 20,540,666 26
1824) 17,878,325 71 34,663 37 6,201 96

984,418 15 5,000,000 00 350,000 001 127,603 60 24,381,212 79|
1825 20,098,713 45 25,771 351 2,330 85 469 56 1,216,090 56 5,000,000 00 367,500 00 129,982 25 26,840,858 02
1826 23,341,331 77 21,589 93 6,638 76 300 14 1,393,785 09

402, 500 000 94,288 52) 25,260,434 21
1827 19,712,283 29 19,885 68 2,626 90 101 00 1,495,845 26

420,000 00 1,315,621 83 22,966,363 96 1828 23,205,523 64

17,451 54 2,218 81 20 15 1,018,308 75

455,000 000

65,106 341 24,763,629 231 22,681,965 91

14,404 74 11,321 29 1,457,004 66

490,000 000

112,425 62 24,767,122 22 520,296,996 8922,204,438 0312,702,597 11 1,090,275 91/32,403,527 80 156,181,578 571 9,4 13,506 30' 4,672,744 17758,965,664 78

66

66

1829

course.

VOL. XVIII.- Part II.

TABLE LXIII. Expenditure of the United States from March 4, 1789, to December 21, 1829; as stated in a Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Chairman of the Com

mittee on Retrenchment, April 9, 1830.

Military Establishment.
YEARS.

Mil. Serv. includ.

Balances in the
Foreign Inter-

Naval Establish- ling Fortifications,
Civil List.
From
Miscellaneous. Public Debt.

Arsenals, Armo- Revolutionary
ment.

Treasury at the
Other Pen Indian

Total.

end of each

ries, Ordnances, March 4,

Pensions. sions. Department.

year.
1789, to

Internal Improve-
Dec. 31,

ments, &c.
179 11 $757,134 45 $14,733 33 $311,533 83 $5,287,949 50 $ 570 00 $632,804 03

$175,813 88 $27,000 00 $7,207,539 02 8973,905 75 1792 380,917 581 78,766 67 194, 572 32 7,263,665 99

53 02 1,100,702 09

109,243 15 13,648 85 9,141,569 67 783,444 51 1793 358,241 08 89,500 00 24,709 46 5,819,505 29

1,130,249 08

80,087 81 27,282 83 7,529,575 55 753,661 691 1794 440,946 581 146,403 51 118,248 30 5,801,578 091 61,408 97 2,639,097 59

81,399 24 13,042 46 9,302,124 74 1,151,924 17 1795 361,633 36 912,685 12 92,718 501 6,084,411 61 410,562 03 2,480,910 13

68,673 22 23,475 68 10,435,069 65 516,442 61 1796 447,139 65 184,859 64 150,476 14 5,835,846 44 274,784 04 1,260,263 84

100,843 71 113,563 98 8,367,776 84

888,995 42
1797 483,233 70 669,788 54 103,880 82 5,792,421 82 382,631 89 1,039,402 66

92,256 97 62,396 38 8,626,012 78 1,021,899 04
1798 504,605 171 457,428 741 149,004 15 3,990,294 14 1,381,347 76 2,009,522 301

104,845 33 16,470 09 8,613,517 68

617,451 43 1799 592,905 76 271,374 11 175,111 81 4,596,876 78 2,858,081 84 2,466,946 98

95,444 03 · 20,302 191 11,077,043 50 2,161,867 77 1800 748,688 45 395,288 18 193,636 59 4,578,369 95 3,448,716 031 2,560,878 77

64,130 73

31 221 11,989,739 92 2,623,311 99 1801 549,288 31 295,676 73 269,803 41 7,291,707 04 2,111,424 000 1,672,944 081

73,533 37 9,000 00 12,273,376 94 3,295,391 00 1802 596,981 11 550,925 93 315,022 36 9,539,904 76 915,561 871 1,179, 148 25

85,440 39 94,000 00 13,276,084 67 5,020,697 64 1803 526,583 12 1,110,834 77 205,217 87 7,256,159 43 1,215,230 53 822,055 85

62,902 101 60,000 00 11,258,983 67 4,825,811 60 1804 624,795 63 1,186,655 57 379,558 23 8,171,787 45 1,189,832 75 875,423 93

80,092 801 116,500 00 12,624,646 36 4,037,005 26 1805) 585,849 79 2,798,028 77 334,720 19 7,369,889 79 1,597,500 000 712,781 28

.81,854 59 196,500 00 13,727,124 41 3,999,388 99 18061 684,230 53 1,760,421 30 445,435 !8 8,989,884 61 1,649,641 44 1,224,355 38

81,875 53 234,200 00 15,070,093 97 4,538,123 80 1807 655,524 650 577,826 341 464,546 52 6,307,720 10 1,722,064 47 1,288,685 91

70,500 00 205,425 00 11,292,292 99 9,643,850 07 1808 691,167 801 304,992 83 427,124 98 10,260,245 35 1,884,067 80 2,900,834 40

82,576 041 213,575 00 16,764,584 20 9,941,809 96 1809 712,465 13 166,306 04 337,032 62 6,452,554 16 2,427,758 80 3,345,772 17

87,833 54 337,503 84 13,867,226 30 3,848,056 78 1810 703,994 031 81.367 48 315,783 47 8,008,904 461 1,654,244 20 2,294,323 94

83,744 16 177,625 00 13,319,986 74 2,67 2,276 57| 1811 644,467 271 264.904 47 457,919 66 8,009,204 05 1,965,566 39 2,032,828 19

75,043 88 151,875 00 13,60 1,808 91 3,502,305 80 1812 826,271 551 347,703 291 509,113 37 4,449,622 45 3,959,365 15 11,817,798 24

91,402 10 277,845 00 22,279,121 15 3,862,217 41 1813 780,545 45 209,941 01 738,949 150 11,108,128 44 6,446,600 10 19,652,013 02

86,989 911 167,358 28 39,190,520 36 5,196,542 00 1814 927,424 23 177,179 971 1,103,495 50 7,900,543 94 7,311,290 60 20,350,806 86

90,164 36 167,394 86 38,028,230 32 1,727,848 65 1815 852,247 16 290,892 04 1,755,731 27 12,628,922 35 8,660,000 25 14,794,294 22

69,656 06 530,750 00 39,582,493 35 13,106,592 88 1816 1,208,125 77 364,620 40 1,416,995 00 24,87 1,062 93 3,908,278 30 16,012,096 80

188,804 151 274,512 16 48,244,495 51 22,033,519 19)
1817 994,556 17 281,995 97 2,242,384 62 25,423,036 12 3,314,598 49 8,004,236 53

297,374 43 319,463 71 40,877,646 04 14,989,465 48
1818 1,109,559 79 420,429 90 2,305,849 82 21,296,201 62 2,953,695 00 5,622,715 10 $300,000 00 590,719 90 505,704 27 35,104,875 40 1,478,526 74
1819 1,142,180 41 284,113 941 1,640,917 06 7,703,926 29 3,817,640 42 6,506,300 37 1,847,900 85 568,039 00 463,181 39 24,004,199 73 2,079,992 38
1820 1,248,310 05 253,370 04 1,090,341 85 8,628,494 280 4,387,990 00 2,630,392 311 2,766,440 00 441,936 31 315,750 oil 21,763,024 85 1,198,461 21
18211 1,112,292 64 207,110 75 903,718 15 8,367,093 62 3,319,243 06 4,461,291 78

242,817 25 477,005 44 19,090,572 69 1,681,592 24
1822 1,158,131 58 164,879 51 644,985 15 7,848,949 12 2,224,458 98 3,111,981 481,642,590 94 305,608 46 575,007 41| 17,676,592 63 4,237,427 55
1823 1,058,911 65 292,118 56 671,063 78 5,530,016 41 2,503,765 83 3,096,924 43 1,449,097 041 331,491 48 380,781 82 15,314,171 00 9,463,922 81
1824 1,336,266 24 5,140,099 83 678,942 741 16,568,393 76 2,904,581 56 3,340,939 85/ 1,267,600 41 231,726 18 429,987 90 31,898,538 47) 1,946,597 13
*1825 1,330,747 24 371,666 25 1,046,131 40 12,095,344 78 3,049,083 86 3,659,914 18 1,308,810 57

724,106 44 23,585,804 72 5,201,650 43
1826 1,256,745 43 232,719 08 1,110,713 23 11,041,082 191 4,218,902 45 3,943,194 37| 1,305,194 82 251,399 01 743,447 83 24,103,398 46 6,358,686 18
1827 1,228,141 04 659,211 87 826,123 67| 10,003,668 39 4,263,877 45 3,938,977 88 796,012 52 180,126 341 760,624 88 22,656,765 04 6,668,286 10
1828 1,455,490 58 1,001,193 66 1,219,368 40 12,163,438 07 3,918,786 44 4,145,544 561 723,134 80 127,438 77 705,084 24 25,459,479 52 5,972,435 81
1629 1,323,966 86 207,060 35 1,570,656 66 12,383,800 771 3,312,931 87 4,730.605 OSI 767,492 38 185,344 26 589,159 41) 25,071,017 59 5,668,540 44

32,400,706 4423,225,074 49 26,991,517 23 362,719,701 34 101,656,137 64 175,489,957 8614,174,274 336,119,172 44 10,520,582 57753,297,124 34

3 T

CURRENCY AND BANKS.

that year it was received also from Virginia and

South Carolina, viz. from the former $2500, and The currency of the United States consists of from the latter $3500. Early in 1830 gold began gold and silver coin, either stamped at the Mint of to be received from Georgia. The amount derived the United States or made a legal tender by act of within that year from the various sections of the Congress; and bank-notes convertible on demand gold region was as follows: Virginia $24,000, into coin.

North Carolina $204,000, South Carolina $26,000, The amount of coin stamped at the Mint within and Georgia $212,000. the last year, together with the general operations “ Silver bullion has been supplied throughout the of the establishment within that period, are stated year in quantities amply sufficient for our present in the following report of the director of the Mint. power. The coinage of silver alone has exceeded

“ The coinage effected within the year 1831 the whole amount of coinage in any former year, amounts to 83,922,473 60, comprising 8714,270 in and the coinage of gold, silver, and copper has exgold coins, 83,175,600 in silver, $33,603,60 in ceeded that of any previous year by nearly a million copper, and consisting of 11,792,284 pieces of of dollars. coin, viz.

“ The employment of copper coins in circulation Half Eagles 140,594 pieces, making 8702,970 00

is becoming obviously more general than heretofore. Quarter Eagles

They are transmitted at the public expense and 4,520

11,300 00 Half Dollars 5,873,660

risk to all parts of the United States within the or

2,936,830 00 Quarter Dollars 398,000

dinary means of transportation, and their use and

99,500 00 Dismes

value are becoming familiar and acknowledged, 771,350

77,135 00 Half Dismes 1,242,700

where until recently they have been in little esti

62,135 00 Cents

mation. 3,359, 260

33,592 60 Half Cents

“ The profit on the copper coinage of the past 2,200

11 00

year will somewhat exceed $10,000. This profit is $11,792,248

3,923,473 60 regularly accounted for to the treasury of the United

States, thereby refunding so much of the sum ap"Of the amount of gold coined within the past propriated for the expenses of the Mint establishyear about $130,000 were derived from Mexico, ment. The whole expenditure of the Mint for the South America and the West Indies, $27,000 from past year will then be reduced to less than $28,000." Africa, $518,000 from the gold region of the United “ Should the supply of bullion be regular and States, and about $39,000 from sources not ascer. competent, it is not doubted that the amount of tained.

coinage for the present year will be equal to six “Of the amount of gold of the United States above millions of dollars. Of this amount it is proposed mentioned about $26,000 may be stated to have to make such a proportion of denominations less been received from Virginia, $294,000 from North

than the half dollar as will sensibly improve the Carolina, $22,000 from South Carolina, and $176,000 condition of the currency.' from Georgia. Gold has been received also within Besides these, the coins of foreign countries the past year from Tennessee and Alabama, not ex circulate at certain rates prescribed by act of ceeding, however, $1000 from each of those states, Congress.

Congress. As these are not merely used as circuan amount meriting little regard except as indi- lating medium, but are objects of foreign comcating the progressive development of the gold merce, the stock in the country constantly varies region.

with the state of trade, and it is difficult to form any “ The first notice of gold of the United States estimate of the amount now in actual circulation. on the records of the Mint occurs in the trans That part of the currency which consists of bankactions of the year 1804. From that year to 1823 notes can be more readily ascertained. inclusive, the average annual amount received at The banking system of the United States is simply the Mint did not exceed $2500. Since the latter this: The legislatures of the several states exercise period the progressive increase has been remark the power of granting charters of incorporation able. The amount received within the succeeding for banks, which are created by a subscription years to the present time may be stated as follows: of individual capital, the subscribers having no In 1824

$5,000

personal liability beyond the amount contributed 1825

by each, and the corporation under the manage. 17,000

ment of a Board of Directors, chosen for the most 1826

20,000 1827

21,000

part annually, proceed to lend out this accumulated

capital, receive deposits, and issue notes payable 1828

46,000 1829

on demand in gold or silver.

134,000 1830

466,000

The number, the capitals, the notes and the 1831

518,000

specie of these banks, as far as they have been

ascertained, are stated in the excellent work by « Previously to the year 1829, the state of North Mr. Gallatin on banks and currency, from which Carolina had furnished gold to the Mint. Within we extract the following interesting table :

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