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suffering humanity and of oppressed innocence. tending to no fewer than sixty volumes octavo,
We allude in particular to the case of John Calas, according to the recent edition of Renouard.
a protestant merchant at Thoulouse, whose son They are more specious and brilliant than solid or
[1761] having committed suicide, after having be correct. He was a violent eneiny to the Christian
come a catholic, was supposed to have been mur faith; but all his attacks and irony on this subject,
dered by the father in consequence of having though they unfortunately had a temporary effect,
changed his religion. The suspicion was un particularly in his native country, have now lost
founded; but the local magistrates, having on their power, and the doctrines of the gospel stand
false grounds obtained the sanction of the par on ground as high as before. His wit, bis irony,
liament of the kingdom, on mere prejudice con his sarcasm, his speciousness were unrivalled: but
demned the whole family to the torture; and he was not a deep thinker, and he has thrown no
Calas himself was afterwards burnt as an obstinate new light on any subject. The Lives of Voltaire
heretic. Voltaire could not look on such a pro are very numerous, but that published by his secre-
ceeding with indifference. He afforded the widow taries Longchamp and Wagniere, at Paris, in two
an asylum, and exerted his influence in her favour. volumes in 1826, is the best. See also The Foreign
He applied to the council of state and to parlia- Review, vol. iii. pp. 419—75, for an able analysis
ment; and he succeeded in getting the horrible of his genius and character. Respecting the best
proceedings referred to annulled as illegal and editions of his works, see Dibdin's Library Com.
disgraceful, the local magistrates degraded, and panion, pp. 770—2.
Calas and his family declared to have been in VOLTA, ALEXANDER, was born at Como on the
nocent. Nor was this the only instance we can 18th February 1745, and was descended from an
trace of the benevolence of his heart, and of his ancient family of that city. Among the mis-
hatred at persecution and oppression. Ere long fortunes of his infancy, his friends have enume.
he had successive opportunities of vindicating the rated that of having a foolish nurse, and to this
innocence of two other condemned families, which cause they have ascribed the slow development
he did with a sympathy and an energy highly of his mental powers. The first exhibition of his
honourable to his character both as a man and talent was a piece of poetry; but even in his poems,
a patriot. Many other circumstances might be which were composed in Latin and Italian, he
detailed to show that he was a ready benefactor already pointed out the subjects which were likely
and a bountiful friend. Amid the profanity and to demand the efforts of his genius. He soon pub-
the licentiousness by which his character and lished, indeed, a paper in prose on the phenomena
writings were marked, it is consolatory to dwell of electricity, and on a new apparatus destined to
on any circumstance so opposite and so amiable. carry on discoveries in this branch of physics.

Voltaire was now far advanced in years, and After having completed the course of studies in
having spent eleven years, chiefly devoted to lite- the university of Como, he was appointed regent
rary pursuits at Ferney, he resolved, from some of it, and subsequently obtained the chair of natu-
trilling causes, to pay a visit to Paris. His re ral philosophy. From Como he went to the uni-
ception on the way and on his arrival at that versity of Pavia, where he devoted to science the
capital constitute a noble tribute to intellectual labours of thirty years, and dignified the name
superiority and literary distinction, and must have of his country with deeds of intellectual renown,
been unspeakably delightful to the venerable phi- which fixed the attention of Europe, and formed an
losopher. The most renowned conquerors were era in the history of the human mind.
never received with greater honour. He was even One of the first inventions of Volta was that of
crowned publicly with laurel in the theatre on the the electrophorus, which he described in June,
representation of Irene, one of his dramatic com 1775, and of which he published an account in
positions. But this extraordinary exhibition was Rozier's Journal de Physique, for September 1776.
the cause of shortening his days, already far ad. This ingenious instrument consists of a metallic
vanced. He never recovered from the fatigue and and a resinous plate, by the successive contact
excitement consequent upon it, together with the of which electricity may be perpetually developed.
bustle of receiving the numerous distinguished M. Wilcke had made some considerable approaches
visitors, and of conversing with them. He was to that invention, and consequently the honour of
seized with spitting of blood, and his spirits and it has been claimed for him by his countrymen;
strength being very much exhausted, he took so but there can be no doubt that the electrophorus,
large a quantity of a sudorific draught that he slept as an instrument, is an invention entirely new, and
for forty-eight hours: shortly after he awoke, and that its eminent author was not even acquainted
after saying to his valet de chambre, whose hand with the previous experiments of the German phi-
he grasped, Adieu, mon cher Morand, Je me meurs, losopher.*
he expired without a groan or a struggle. This During his summer vacations, he was in the
event took place on the 30th of May 1778, in the habit of performing journeys of considerable length.
85th year of his age.

In 1777 he travelled through Switzerland, and, ac. He died unmarried. His writings were equally companied by his friend the Count J. B. Giovio, miscellaneous and numerous, including poetry, the he paid a visit to the celebrated Haller at Berne, drama, history, philosophy, romance, &c. and ex when that great man was sinking under the accu

* See Wilcke, Disputatio Experimentalis de Electricitalibus contrariis, Rostock, 1757; and our Article ELECTRICITI.

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mulated infirmities of age and disease. They vani of Bologna, with experiments and observations visited also Voltaire at Ferney.

on them. Phil. Trans. 1793, vol. Ixxxiii. p. 10. In 1770 and 1777 Volta published some remark. These letters contain a perspicuous account of the able letters on the inflammability of air disengaged discoveries of Galvani, with a notice of many from marshes. They were addressed to Father curious experiments of his own. He overthrows C. J. Campi, and were afterwards translated into the opinion of Galvani, that the animal body has French and German. In the same year he invented an analogy to the Leyden phial; he found that two bis hydrogen lamp, and his electrical pistol, in different metals were necessary to produce the struments which are well known to all who have effect; and he concluded that muscular contractions attended an experimental course of chemistry and arise from small portions of electricity liberated by physics. The hydrogen lamp now forms an ele. the mutual action of the metals. He found that gant piece of furniture, in which a light can be at the nerve was the organ on which the galvanic inall times obtained. A stream of hydrogen gas is fluence immediately acted, but that, if a part of a made to issue from a small aperture by means of muscle be laid upon two different metals, and a the pressure of a column of water, and the gas is communication established between them, a conkindled by a spark from an electrophorus placed traction is produced. He then explains all the below. About the same time Volta discovered the phenomena on the principle, that when two metals eudiometrical process of determining the relative are brought into contact, a destruction of the elecproportions of the two gases, oxygen and azote, trical equilibrium takes place, and the one of them which compose atmospherical air. A given mea. gives to the other a portion of its natural elecsure of hydrogen gas being put into a glass tube tricity, the one becoming positive and the other with a quantity of atmospheric air, it was inflamed negative. He regards this as a new law of electri. by the electric shock, and the quantity of oxygen city, and he lays claim to the merit of its discovery. was indicated by the diminution of volume.

The great discovery of Volta, and that upon During his travels in Tuscany, in 1780, he which his reputation will always rest, is that of the studied with particular care the fires which burn pile, which is now known by the name of the among the Apennines, on the road from Bologna Voltaic pile. This grand invention was made preto Florence, and which are known by the name of vious to 1800, and having been elected a Fellow of the Vulcanneto di Pietra Mala. Of these he pub- the Royal Society of London, in 1791, he commu. lished a description, in which he first explained nicated an account of it in two letters to Sir Joseph how these fires, as well as those which spring from Banks, which appeared in the Philosophical Transthe ground near the ancient city of Vellega, arise actions for that year. In consequence of the war, from the combustion of atmospheric air disengaged however, which then raged between England and from the ground.

France, one portion of the paper reached Sir In 1782 Volta invented an electrical condenser Joseph several months before an opportunity ocfor rendering sensible small quantities of electric curred of sending the remainder. Hence the pubfluid; and in the same year he performed a tour lication of the invention was delayed; but the apthrough Germany, along with his celebrated col- paratus was constructed in London, and very culeague M. Scarpa. After his friend parted with rious experiments were made with it by different him, he extended his tour to Holland, England, gentlemen in that city before the original paper of and France. On his return from that journey, he Volta was laid before the publie. This instrument introduced into Lombardy the culture of the po- consisted of two perfect and one imperfect contato, which he had observed in Savoy; and the ductor of electricity, viz. silver and zinc, or coppeasants who first cultivated this valuable article of per and zinc, which were the perfect conductors, food were rewarded with the prize offered by the and a piece of card or leather soaked in salt water, Patriotic Society of Milan.

and a little smaller than the metal plates, which The curious experiment of Galvani in 1790, on formed the imperfect conductor. When one hand the electricity of the muscles of frogs gave a vigor. was placed on the uppermost conductor, and the ous impulse to physical inquiry throughout Eu. other on the lowest, a shock was felt similar to that rope. Volta took a deep interest in the new of the Leyden phial. Its chemical actions were science to which Galvani's experiment has given still more important, and are too well known to rethe name, and he had the good fortune to establish quire any notice in this sketch. it on a scientific basis, and to extend its bounda In 1821 Volta was invited to Paris. He reries by the most important discoveries and in. peated in the presence of the First Consul, and ventions. Valli, Fowler, and our countryman Dr. before the Institute, his experiments with the pile. Robison, had preceded Volta in their galvanic in. These experiments were highly successful; and in quiries, and the latter had made a slight approach order to mark an epoch so remarkable in the to the invention of the pile, by discovering the sen- history of science, that distinguished body presation of taste which was excited when the tongue sented him with a gold medal with this inscription, was applied to the edges of a number of plates of A Volta, la Classe des Sciences Mathematiques et zinc and silver placed alternately upon each other. Physiques. In the following year the Institute sent

The first researches of Volta were transmitted him another, with the inscription A Volta, associe to the Royal Society of London, in 1793, in the etranger; and most of the academies of Europe form of two letters to Mr. Tiberius Cavallo, en were proud to enrol his name in the list of their titled, Account of some discoveries made by M. Gal. members.

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me.”

From Paris Volta repaired to Lyons to assist in To all the domestic virtues, Volta added the the character of deputy from the university of Pa most sincere piety, and his last moments were via, at the meeting which was convoked in that marked with expressions of religious feeling. As city to elect a President of the Italian Republic. à citizen he was highly esteemed, and his fellowWhen the election was over he was seized with a countrymen entrusted him with all their serious illness, which obliged him to remain some concerns, which he managed with the utmost in. months at Lyons, and afterwards at Geneva, where telligence and integrity. he experienced the most hospitable reception from In 1816 a complete collection of his works was the learned professors of that city, with whom published by the Chevalier Vincent Antinori at he had long been on habits of the most intimate Florence, entitled Collezione delle Opere del Cav. friendship

Conte Alexandro Volta. It was dedicated to Ferdi. The honours which our author thus received in nand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and is emforeign countries were followed by others con bellished by an excellent likeness of the author ferred upon him at home. He was raised to the by Morghen. In order to complete this collection rank of a count, and thus became a senator of the it is necessary to add, 1. The Latin poem which kingdom of Italy. In this capacity he was obliged we have already mentioned. It treats of the printo spend part of the year at Milan, and he re cipal phenomena of physics and chemistry. 2. An paired every evening to the parties of Paradisi, Italian poem on Saussures Voyage to Mont Blanc, President of the Academy, at whose house were and some other pieces in verse. 3. Observations assembled the most distinguished individuals of and experiments on vapours: and 4. A number of the country.

articles on physics and chemistry, either unpubIn the year 1804 he had obtained leave to retire lished, or scattered through the pages of periodfrom his professorship, on the condition of his ical and other works. giving a few lectures every year. On this occasion VOLTAIC BATTERY. See GALVANISM. Napoleon said to him, “Great men die on the field VOSGES, a department in the N.E. of France. of honour.” Volta never forgot this saying, and Its area is about 2400 square miles, or 587,955 after the fall of Buonaparte, he said, in allusion to hectares. It is covered with mountains and forests, it, “ He, however, has not kept his word with interspersed with vallies. The Meuse, Moselle,

Meurthe, and the Saone rise in this department. Living in a frontier town, Volta was one of the The productions are oats, barley, rye, potatoes, flax first Italians who presented himself to Buonaparte and hemp; and wheat grows in the more fertile parts, when he entered Italy for the first time. His and the vine on those of best exposure. There are fellow-citizens sent him in 1796, along with Count two mines in the department, and manufactures of T. B. Giovio, to request the protection of the con linen and cotton cloth and lace. These articles, queror. From that time Buonaparte never lost an with cattle, butter, cheese, glass, timber, and opportunity of honouring Volta. He conferred earthenware, are the principal exports. Epinal is upon him the orders of the Legion of Honour, and the capital. The population in 1827 was 379,839. of the Iron Crown, and the titles of Count and UPSAL, one of the handsomest towns of Sweden, Senator of the kingdom of Italy; and at the form in the province of Upland, is situated in an open ation of the national Institute of Science and Let and fertile plain on the small river Sala, which ters, when they were deliberating in his presence is diminishing very rapidly in size, which divides whether they should draw up a list of the members it into two equal parts. It is a small but neat in an alphabetical order, Buonaparte wrote at the town, and the streets are formed at right angles head of a sheet of paper Volta, and delivering it to from a central square. Most of the private houses the secretary he said, “ Do as you please at present, are of wood, some of brick, but the public edifices provided that name is the first." Volta married are of stone. The wooden houses are painted red, in 1794, and had three children. He took a par and their roofs covered with turf. Each house has ticular charge of their education, and he felt most a small court yard or garden. The cathedral is a bitterly the loss of one of them, who had given large structure in imitation of Notre Dame at great promise of being a mathematician. In re Paris. Though built of brick, Kuttner describes it turning to spend the remainder of his days in his as one of the finest churches he has seen. The inpaternal mansion at Como, he experienced the terior is fine Gothic, and there is a splendid row of greatest comfort from the affection and tender soli massive columns in it. Among the relics in the citudes of his family. He had now given up his Sacristy is a human head of oak, called the image studies, and having been seized with a fever, he of Thor. The monument of Gustavus Vasa is in died after two days illness on the 5th March, 1827. a private chapel. It is oblong and of marble, with His death was universally lamented, and at a meet pyramids at the angles. His figure is of marble ing of his fellow-citizens, called on purpose on the between those of his two first wives, who were 23d of March, it was resolved to strike a medal buried in the same tomb. Near the altar stands a and erect a monument to his memory. On the silver coffin, containing the bones of Eric XIV., modern façade of the public schools of Como, in the eldest son of Gustavus Vasa. Linnæus is the middle of the busts of Pliny, Giovio, and other buried in the west end of the cathedral, a flat margreat men who were natives of this place, an ble stone lies over him, with his name and the date empty niche was left as a compliment to the genius of his death. On the north side of the cathedral and modesty of Volta.

there is an elegant porphyry monument erected to

Lewis county

his memory by his pupils. It bears a medallion on the 18th November 1829, and published in with the inscription Carolo a Linne Botanicorum Dr. Brewster's Journal of Science, No. IV. p. 286. Principi. Amici et Discipuli

. The University of New Series, April, 1830. Upsal has been long celebrated. It was founded in URANIUM. See CHEMISTRY and MINERALOGY, the 15th century, and contains at present above Index. 1000 students. There are 24 professors, who lec URI. See SWITZERLAND. ture frequently in their own houses. The students lodge in the town, and there is no academical dis. UTICA, an inland town of the state of New cipline. The University has a valuable library of York, in the county of Oneida, and nearly the 52,000 volumes, containing many valuable books geographical centre of the state. It is situated on and MSS., one of which is a MS. of the four an acclivity, gently rising from the south side of gospels in Gothic, called Codex Argenteus, from its the Mohawk river, which has its sources in the silver letters. The other objects of interest in this northern part of Oneida, and the southern part of town are the royal castle and gardens, situated on

Its latitude is 43° 6' north, and its an eminence near the town, the archiepiscopal longitude 1° 41' east from the meridian of Washpalace, the observatory, the botanic garden of ington. It was formerly called Old Port Schuyler, Linnæus, &c. the new botanic garden, and the from a military post of that name established here cabinets of natural history and mineralogy.

to complete the chain of communication between The Royal Society of Upsal is the oldest asso. Fort Stanwix, from which it was distant about sixciation of the kind in Sweden. It was established teen miles south east, and Schenectady. Fort in 1820. Its first transactions were a sort of re Stanwix is particularly memorable on account of a view of books, entitled Acta Literaria Sueciæ. In siege it sustained during the revolutionary war, 1730 the reviews were dropped, and it published against General St. Leger with a combined force regular transactions, which, with an interruption of British and Indians. It was in marching to the from 1750 to 1752, during which interval the relief of this post that General Herkimer was society was abolished, have been irregularly con drawn into an ambush in a ravine near Oriskany,t tinued. Population about 5000. See Kuitner's and defeated by Sir John Johnson with a party of Travels, sect. X., but particularly Dr. Thomson's Indians, Herkimer himself being amongst the slain. Travels in Sweden, chap. viii. and ix. p. 150-186, Fort Stanwix was a very important position, as it which contains very full and interesting details was at the head of the navigable waters of the respecting Upsal and its University.

Mohawk, and, by means of a portage of a mile to URALIAN MOUNTAINS, a celebrated chain Wood Creek, afforded a ready communication, by of mountains which forms the boundary between Oneida Lake and the Oneida and Oswego rivers, Europe and Northern Asia. They extend from with Fort Oswego; and by the Seneca River with north to south about 1500 English miles. Com- the Cayuga and Seneca Lakes. Old Fort Schuyler mencing between the Caspian and Lake Aral, they was also the scene of several skirmishes between reach their greatest size and altitude about the the Indians and the whites; the flats of the Mohawk, sources of the Ural, the Tobal and the Emba, and and the country adjoining, being the possession of passing the sources of the Tshussovaia and the the Mohawk tribe, who were acknowledged by the Írets, and farther on the sources of the Petshara of other tribes of the Maquas or Iroquois, to be the the Sosva, they form two great promontories about “ true old heads of the confederacy.This tribe the Kassanhaven of the frozen sea. Divided by having remained faithful to the British throughout the straits of Waygatz, they termipate in the the revolution, finally forsook their town at Fort mountains of Nova Zembla.

Hunter and removed to the province of Upper The Uralian chain consists of granite and other Canada, in 1780, under the auspices of Sir John primitive rocks, and it abounds in valuable metals Johnson. and precious stones. These important productions That part of the valley of the Mohawk which are found principally on its eastern declivity, and lies within the present limits of Oneida county, is consist of gold platina, the osmiuret of iridium, the from one to five miles wide, the land being mostly diamond, * zircon, sapphire, amethyst, ruby, topaz, a perfect level. It does not appear to have held beryl, garnet, ceylanite, and anatase, recently dis out the usual temptations of such a country to the covered by M. Rose, and other valuable substances early Dutch settlers; for the first settlement west of found in India and the Brazils.

Kerkimer was made in the year 1784, by Hugh This interesting region has been recently ex White, an emigrant from Middletown, in Conamined with much diligence by MM. Hoffman necticut. He erected a log habitation at the preand Helmerson, and MM. Ledebour, Meyer and sent village of Whitesborough, about four miles Bunge. The celebrated travellers Baron Humboldt westward from Old Fort Schuyler, and in what and MM. Rose and Ehrenberg have likewise ex was then known as the county of Montgomery, amined it, and we may soon expect the most in- embracing the whole region west of the county of teresting details respecting that important region. Albany. In two or three years after, the towns of A general account of the labours of these travel. Clinton and New Hartford were begun to be settled lers will be found in Baron Humboldt's discourse by emigrants from the castern states; and, in the pronounced before the Russian Academy of Sciences year 1789, John Post, Uriah Alverson, Stephen

* See Dr. Brewster's Journal of Science, No. IV. p. 261, New Series, April 1830. + Oriskany, the tall nettles.

Potter, and others, formed a settlement at Old flowings of the river, like the low countries of Fort Schuyler, the prosperity of which was soon Egypt by the inundations of the Nile. determined by the laying out of a road through Oneida county is subdivided into twenty-five the extensive wilderness, from Canandaigua, “ the towns. Its area is 1101 square miles, equivalent to Chosen Place," (now Canandaigua,) to the Mohawk. 704,740 acres of land. Of this about 215,000 acres This road was opened in 1796, and intersected the are in a state of cultivation, and the residue wild river near Old Fort Schuyler. The settlement now lands, which are yearly becoming more valuable increased rapidly, and two years afterwards it was on account of the forests of excellent timber with incorporated as a village with its present name, Utica. which they are clothed.

In 1798 the county of Oneida was set off, by the The inhabitants are well educated. There are legislature of the state, from the extensive county in the county 343 common school districts in of Herkimer, which, in earlier times, had been set which teachers are employed on an average of off from the county of Montgomery; and it may be eight months in the year. In 1830 the state exuseful, before we proceed with the immediate sub- pended $7277 for the support of common schools ject of these remarks, to take a very brief general here. The amount paid to the teachers of these view of the statistics of Oneida, inasmuch as the schools, during the same year, was 811,000; and importance of the town of Utica mainly depends the number of children who received instruction upon the character and advantages of the country was about 20,000. Besides these, there are nuby which it is immediately surrounded.

merous institutions of a higher order, of which the The county of Oneida is bounded by the counties principal are Hamilton College, at Clinton; the of Lewis, Herkimer, Otsego, Madison, and Oswego. Oneida Institute, near Whitesborough; the Clinton, It was early parcelled out to different proprietors, Whitesborough, Bridgewater, Steuben and Stockeither by patents from the crown of England, or bridge Academies; and an academy and two high from the state of New York. A large tract was schools at Ulica. reserved for the residence of the Oneida tribe of The early settlers were chiefly from the eastern Indians; and a portion on the Oneida creek was by states; but the character of the inhabitants is now them allotted to the Stockbridge and Brotherton quite as diversified as the aspect of the country, tribes, who emigrated from Massachusetts for the Every part of the world has furnished ils reprepurpose of being near a race of kindred habits and sentatives; and there are settlements of Swiss, disposition. Most of these Indians have removed Italians, Germans, Dutch, Welsh, and Irish. The to the territory about Lake Michigan, and their population in 1820 was about 57,000. In 1830 it lands have fallen either into the possession of the was upwards of 71,000, exhibiting an increase in state, or of the holders of the right of preemption. ten years of 14,000. The few that remain cultivate the land, and live The chief boast of Oneida county is in its mills like the lower classes of agriculturists in their and manufactories, it being second, in this respect, neighbourhood.

only to the county of New York. It is remarkably This county presents a pleasing alternation of well watered; in the western and northwestern hills, valleys, and extensive flats, repaying the parts by the tributary streams of the Oneida Lake, labours of the husbandman with a most ample re

and in the northeastern, eastern and southern, by turn in the production of all the varieties of grain the Black River, the West Canada Creek, the and fruit. The more hilly parts are frequently Mohawk, and their respective tributaries. Most devoted to the dairy, and the raising of sheep and of these streams afford an abundant water power horned cattle. The town of Steuben, in the north for the propulsion of machinery. On their borders eastern part of the county, sends annually large there are now in active employment, 13 cotton facsupplies of butter and cheese, the staple products tories, most of them on an extensive scale, 12 of the Welsh population, to the New York market. woollen factories, 67 grist mills, 165 saw mills, In other parts, as on the borders of Wood Creek, 6 oil mills, 60 fulling mills, 61 carding machines, and in some portions of Boonville, where the labours 11 iron works, and 7 trip hammers. The cotton of agriculture have not been so assiduous and con- factories afford constant employment to 120 men tinual, the low grounds are marshy, and as yet un- and 890 boys and girls. They also employ about fit for cultivation; but the influx of inhabitants, 640 looms, and 26,000 spindles. The Oriskany and the hand of industry, will soon render most of woollen factory employs 47 men and 69 girls and these valuable for the various purposes of hus- boys, has 1500 spindles, 30 power looms, and 5 bandry. In the parts south of the Mohawk, inter- hand looms for broad-cloths and cassimeres, and sected as they are by bountiful streams, agriculture manufactures annually $130,000 worth of goods. and manufactures go hand in hand; and pleasant of the manufacturing companies twenty are incorthriving villages and hamlets strike the eye of the porated. There are, besides those above enumetraveller in constant succession.

rated, several glass factories and potteries. The soil is various, but generally rich. The The Sadaghqugheda Creek (Sarequoit) rises in valley of the Mohawk is not more celebrated for the south part of Paris, and howing through the its picturesque landscape, than for its extraordinary towns of New Hartford and Whitestown, disfertility. This character is also common to the charges itself into the Mohawk, about three and a low lands bordering upon the Oriskany and Sau- half miles above Utica. On this stream, twelve quoit creeks. The soil of the flats of the Mohawk miles in length, are 16 cotton and woollen factories, is a moist alluvion, enriched yearly by the over 14 saw mills, 5 flour mills, I oil mill, 2 plaister

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