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rably built houses. It contains the town-hall, the WARWICK, a town of England, and the capital church of St. John, and the ci-devant church of the of Warwickshire, is situated on a rocky hill, on the Jesuits. The new town stretches along the banks banks of the Avon, which is crossed by an elegant of the river for nearly three miles. The principal stone bridge of one arch. The streets meet near building is the palace of the kings of Saxony, now the centre of the town, and are regular and well the residence of the viceroy. The castle of War. built. The principal one is remarkably neat, and saw is situated near the river, and is a large is intersected by another running nearly north and quadrangular building, in which the diet and south. The principal street is terminated by a senate hold their meetings. The new town con- venerable looking chapel. The court-house or tains several churches and other public buildings. town-hail stands near the centre of the south side The other public buildings not mentioned are the of this street, and is a handsome stone building, in Blue Palace, the Lutheran church, which cost which the county assizes, &c. are held. There 40,000 ducats, the cathedral of St. John, the were formerly six parish churches, but there are theatre, the arsenal, the mint, the great hospital, now only two, the principal of which is dedicated the barracks, the palace of Krazinsky (the finest to St. Mary. It is a noble Gothic edifice, and public building in Warsaw), the palace of Czar. contains several handsome monuments of the Earls torysky, Lazinsky, Salkowsky, Bravichi, Radzivil, of, Warwick, and one of the unfortunate Earl of Bellinsk, Bruhl, &c. the palace of Sigismond II., Essex. The burying-ground of the Warwick the bridge over the Vistula, the observatory, and family is a stately chapel adjoining the church. the pyramid in honour of the servant who was At the west end of the church, which was finished killed on the 30 November 1771, in the desence of in 1709, is a square tower 130 feet high. The Stanislaus. In 1794, the suburb of Praga was body of the church is 185 feet long, and 66 broad, nearly destroyed by the Russians, but it has been and the cross aisle 106. The remains of the anlately rebuilt on a handsome plan.

cient church still adorn the interior, the choir About the end of 1816 an university was estab- having escaped the flames which destroyed the old lisbed at Warsaw like those of Germany. The church in 1694. There are here chapels for the other establishments are a military academy, a col. presbyterians, methodists, baptists, independents, lege for the sons of the catholic nobility, a lyceum, and quakers. The county-hall is a spacious and and schools for surgery and drawing. There is elegant building, with a chaste front. The marketalso here a public library, a cabinet of coins and house is a substantial stone building with piazzas. medals, a society for the sciences, and another for The county jail, close to the county-hall, is every natural history and agriculture.

way suited for its object, both in its external The principal manufactures of Warsaw are wool. aspect and interior accommodation. The bridelen fabrics, tobacco, soap, carpets, gold and silver well is likewise well and judiciously constructed. wire, carriages and harness.

The trade is greatly One of the principal ornaments of the town is facilitated by the Vistula, which is navigable to a Warwick castle, which is situated on a solid rock, great extent in both directions. In midsummer, when on the north bank of the Avon, and nearly 100 feet its channel is full, 100 boats or barges laden with above its bed. The entrance to the castle is by a corn, spirits and wine, are daily seni down its stream. winding path cut through the solid rock, and the

The promenades of Warsaw are the garden of observer is delighted with a successive display of the Saxon palace; the Favourite, and the gardens lofty and massive towers breaking upon his view. of Szewask, Krasinsky, and Poniatowsky, and the On the left hand is Cæsar's tower, and on the Grounds of the Chateau of Ujazow. At the Cha- right Gay's tower, which is above 100 feet high. teau of Willanow, in the vicinity, is shown the bed The moat is crossed by a stone bridge, and the en. in which the great Sobieski died. This chateau trance is through double towers. The inhabited was the residence of that sovereign, and is still ad- suite of apartments extends 330 feet in length, and mired for its fine gardens and statues. The bridge they are finished with much taste, and adorned across the Vistula was a floating one 1500 feet with many choice paintings. The face of the long, but is probably now replaced by one of stone. building to the river is irregular, but has a grand Population 100,000. East Long. 20°_2' 45" and effect rising above the wall and rock on which it North Lat. 52° 14' 8". See Poland, BRITAIN, and rests. FRANCE.

The principal manufactures of Warwick consist WARWICK, county of Virginia, bounded by and the trade of the place is greatly facilitated by

in cotton spinning, wool spinning, and malt making, James City county N. W., York N. and N.E., Eli: the Warwick and Birmingham canal. Warwick zabeth City county E., and James river S. Length sends two members to parliament. In September 18 miles, mean breadth 5, and area 90 square 1697, Warwick was nearly destroyed by fire, but by miles. Extending in latitude from 37° 3' to

means of £11,000 granted by parliament, and 37° 13', and in longitude from 0° 22' to 0° 38' E. £1000 by Queen Anne, it was handsomely rebuilt. of W. C. It occupies a part of the narrow pe

The population of the burgh in 1821 was 4523 ninsula between James and York rivers, and slopes inhabited houses, 1760 families, 1026 do. in trade, southward towards the former. By the post list and the total population 8235. of 1830, it contained one office at the court house.

WARWICKSHIRE, one of the inland counties of Population in 1820, 1608, and in 1830, 1570.

England, extends about 48 miles from N. to S., DARBS. and is about 32 miles broad. Its area is 902

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square miles, or 577,280 statute acres. The rent the third consulship of Hadrian, the Icknield or of land is £645,137, beside the amount of tithe, Ryknild Street, and the minor road of Ridgeway, which is £26, 122. The annual value of a square which borders on Warwickshire. The Roman stamile is £299. The county is divided into four tions in and near the county are Alcester and hundreds, exclusive of the city of Coventry, which, Tripontium at Lilburn. The principal Roman with its liberties, occupies 18,000 acres.

camps are on the Foss-way, and on the Aron, The greater part of Warwickshire is that of a where Oslorius constructed a chain of minor forti. level district, with few and gentle undulations. fications. Roman tumuli and coins are common. Hence it is well enclosed, and exhibits but little Among the more modern antiquities may be enu. waste land. The pasture land is calculated at merated Kenilworth Castle, now in a dilapidated 300,000 acres, 100,000 of which is cut for hay. condition; Maxtoke Castle, a huge pile of building; The soil is various, and suited to different systems the Cistertian Convent of Comb Abbey; the school. of agriculture. The usual crops are wheat and house at Rugby, and the house at Stratford which barley, oats, peas, beans, and tares. Turnips are gave birth to Shakspeare. extensively and skilfully cultivated. Rye, potatoes, The principal towns of the county, with their and flax, are also raised. Various kinds of stock population in 1821, are are reared on the pasture lands, but the long

Population. Houses. horned cow is the most common breed. The an. Birmingham

106,722 21,487 cient Warwickshire sheep of the large polled kind Coventry, exclusive of the county have been judiciously crossed with the Leicester of Coventry,

21,242 4,277 breed, and an admirable variety has been the result. Warwick,

8,235 1,706 The most elevated points of land in this county Nuneaton, town and parish, 6,610 1,492 are at Corley, and in the neighbourhood of Pack Sutton Coldfield, town and parish, 3,466 677 ington. From this ridge the streams run into the Atherstone township,

3,434 718 Avon on one side, and thence into the Bristol Stratford,

3,069 590 Channel. On the other side they flow into the The population of the county in 1821 is as fol. Blythe, Tame, Trent, and Humber. The principal lows: streams are the Avon, the Tame, the Leam, the Inhabited houses,

55,082 Stour, the Rea, the Arrow, the Anker, the Alne, Families,

60,123 the S'wift , the Blythe, the Dove, and the Cole . Ditto employed in agriculture,

16,779 The Avon alone is navigable for barges from Ditto ditto trade

39,187 Stratford to its junction with the Severn.

Population in 1821

274,392 The principal minerals in Warwickshire are Ditto in 1811

228,735 coal, limestone, ironstone, freestone, blue flagstone, marl, and blue clay. The best coal, which is a Increase since 1811,

45,657 seam three or four feet thick, is at Bedworth, an ironstone vein was previously wrought near to and Dugdale's History and Antiquities of War

See the Beauties of England and Wales, Vol.

XV. Oldbury. The chief medicinal springs are those

.

wickshire. of Leamington Priors, and Newenham Regis. The former contains neutral and sulphureous salts, with carbonate of iron, and are much resorted to for vis WASHINGTON, GEORGE, was born in the ceral obstructions, and cuticular affections. The year 1732, on the 22d of February; as every Amelatter are a weak chalybeate, and are in less re rican learns from the annual jubilee of his country's quest than they once were.

gratitude. A plantation called Wakefield, in WestWarwickshire is celebrated for its manufactures. moreland county, Virginia, was the place rendered Those of Birmingham, Warwick, and Coventry, illustrious by his nativity. The mansion house have already been described under these articles, was then situated on Pope's creek, about half a and in our article England. Calico-printing is mile from the Potomac; but it has since fallen into carried on extensively at Tamworth. Horn-combs ruins, and there is no trace of its former existence of all kinds are made at Kenilworth. At Alcester but in the records of him whose memory can never about 900 persons are employed in making needles, die. and in other parts of the county there are con The family of the subject of this memoir traces siderable manufactories for flax, and a great deal of its descent from John Washington, who emigrated linen yarn spun.

from England and settled upon the estate of WakeThe trade of this county is greatly facilitated by field in the year 1657. His grandson, Augustine, the following canals: the Grand Junction, the Bir was twice married. By his first union he had two mingham Old Canal, the Birmingham and Fazeley, sons, Lawrence and Augustine; by his second inthe Warwick and Birmingham, the Worcester and termarriage with Miss Mary Ball, he left five Birmingham, the Coventry, the Warwick and Nap- children, the eldest of whom was George Washton, the Stratford, and the Ashby-de-la-Zouch ington, whose life and career will be briefly sketched Canal, all of which are fully described in our ar. in the present article. ticle NAVIGATION, Inland.

The care and education of Washington devolved Among the antiquities of this county may be upon a fond and intelligent mother, in consequence enumerated the Roman Roads of Walling Street, of the death of his other parent while he was yet in which divides the county from Leicestershire, the early childhood. His studies were directed io obFossnay, which is supposed to have been formed in jects of strict and substantial utility, according to

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the ordinary custom and limited opportunities of the frontier and watching the progress of the American gentlemen at that early period; but the French. He there received notice from a friendly formation of his character upon the solid founda- Indian, called the Half King, of some recent acts of tion of virtue and religion, was the object of an in- aggression, and of the proximity of a French deterest that knew no intermission; and the success tachment, which then lay encamped and concealed of the result is now deeply graven on the fairest in the neighbourhood. As no doubt could pospage of the world's whole history.

sibly exist in relation to their hostile intentions, The bent of his mind towards the profession of Washington determined at once to anticipate the arms exhibited itself so strongly before his fifteenth movement, knowing that in war none are so open year, that a midshipman's warrant was then ob- to surprise as those who meditate the same upon tained for him through the influence of friends. their adversaries. To this project insuperable obstacles were opposed He marched the same night towards the French by maternal tenderness, and three years afterwards camp, and his measures were so well concerted, he appears to have been employed as public sur. that after a short contest the whole party (with the veyor, by Lord Fairfax, proprietor of the Northern exception of one man) were either taken or killed: Neck of Virginia. In his nineteenth year he re- among the latter was M. de Jumonville, the comceived a commission appointing him an adjutant. mander. This skirmish attracted great attention general of the province, with the rank of major, at the time, because the pretended murder of his and from that period his military career was no officer was one of the main complaints of the king longer to be restrained or impeded.

of France at the declaration of war; but it is now The movements of the French, which began at chiefly remarkable as the first martial exploit of this period to unveil their vast design of connecting one who afterwards filled so large a space in the Canada and Louisiana by a regular chain of forti- history of modern warfare. fied posts, attracted the jealous notice of Governor The death of Colonel Fry shortly after these Dinwiddie, and deeply excited the apprehensions transactions, devolved the command of the Virof the inhabitants of the provinces. The responsi. ginian regiment upon Washington; and he was ble duty of visiting the French commander, and of farther strengthened by the junction of two addiconveying the remonstrance against his proceed- tional companies of regulars. With this force he ings, was consigned to Major Washington, then immediately marched to dislodge the enemy from barely, twenty-one years of age; but the mission Fort du Quesne; but learning on his advance that a was executed with a prudence, courage, and ability, body of eight hundred French and four hundred that would have honoured the maturest judgment, Indians were on their way to meet hini, he was and which greatly elevated the character of the compelled to fall back upon his little post at the young envoy among his countrymen. The journey Great Meadows, called Fort Necessity. To this was undertaken at the most dangerous season of the position he was very soon followed by Monsieur year, and exposed to such perils from foods and De Villiers, who commenced at once a warm and concealed enemies, as could scarcely be conceived vigorous attack. An extremely gallant defence at the present day by the peaceful inhabitants of was made by the Americans, and when the supethose flourishing regions. Washington's journal, riority of the enemy at length rendered a capituwhich was regularly kept for the information of the lation necessary, Washington retired with all the governor, gave brilliant promise of his qualities for honours of war for his garrison, and with the highest public service: his military observations on the personal character for courage and conduct. The country through which he passed, exhibited saga. legislature of Virginia expressed the gratitude of city and knowledge far beyond his years and limited the province in a public vote of thanks to the comexperience, and were afterwards of eminent service mander. in the difficult wars waged with the French and In the course of the following winter (1754-5) their Indian allies. It was he who first invited at orders were transmitted from England, regulating tention to the commanding position now occupied the comparative ranks of regular and provincial by the city of Pittsburgh: though the enemy after- officers. The general and field officers of the colowards anticipated the provincials, by the erection nies were divested of all rank while serving with of the famous Fort du Quesne, for so many years the same grades commissioned by the king; and the source of all evil to the British colonies. company officers of equal rank were directed to

The continued invasions of the French rendered give precedence to the regulars, without regard to it necessary to make active preparations for de- seniority of date. Professional pride and dignified fence, and a regiment of three hundred men was self respect were always among Washington's most therefore raised, under the authority of the Vir- marked characteristics. Notwithstanding his arginian assembly. Of this force, the command was dent devotion to a military life, he resolved at once conferred upon Colonel Joshua Fry, and the Lieu- to resign a station which he believed was no longer tenant-colonelcy given to Washington. No regular to be held without personal dishonour, and his declaration of war had yet passed between England commission was immediately returned into the and France, but the troops of both parties already hands of the governor of Virginia. He retired to treated each other as enemies, whenever oppor. Mount Vernon, a seat on the Potomac, which had tunities of collision were presented. In April descended to him from his eldest brother, lately 1754, the lieutenant-colonel advanced with two deceased: and he there resided until a new call was companies to the Great Meadows in the Alleghany made upon his services, in that name to whose apmountains, for the double purpose of protecting peal he was never deaf or wanting.

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