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terrestial waterspout, by exhibiting a mass of va he became archdeacon of Ely; and in the same year pours similar to a dense cloud of a conical form, Dr. Keene, Bishop of that see, presented him to making a dreadful noise, throwing out flashes of the rectory of Northwold in Norfolk. In February lightning, spreading an odour like that of thunder, 1781 he was presented by his pupil, the Duke of and scaliering all round it a great quantity of water. Rutland, to the rectory of Knaploft in LeicesterSee Dr. Brewster's Journal of Science, No. V. shire, and through the same influence L Shel
burne conferred upon him the bishopric of Llandaff WATSON, RICHARD (Bishop of Llandaff), a in 1782.
. learned chemist and able theological writer, was Lord Shelburne had expressed to the Duke of born in August 1737 at Heversham, near Kendal, Grafton his expectation that Dr. Watson would where his father had been master of the free gram- write in favour of his administration, but the Duke mar school for 40 years. His ancestors had for informed him that he had entirely mistaken the many generations farmed the small property of character of the man, and that such expectations Hardendale near Shap, where his father was born could never be realized. The preferment of our in 1672. He was educated at Heversham under author of course stopped here. Though his princi. his father's successor, and in 1754 he entered ples were decidedly and openly avowed, yet he was Trinity College as a sizer. In 1757 he obtained a too independent to be an instrument in the hands scholarship for his mathematical acquirements, of any ministry, and though he did more than and in 1759, when he took his degree of B.A. he almost any individual to promote the true interests was classed a second wrangler. In October 1760, of the church of England, and to stem the torrent he was admitted Fellow of Trinity, and in Novem- of infidelity and anarchy which at one time threatber, assistant tutor to Mr. Backhouse. At the ened to undermine both the allar and the throne, beginning of 1762 he took his degrees of M.A., yet no British minister had the virtue to honour and in the October following he was appointed and reward such exalted services. moderator of Trinity College.
Conscious of the honesty of his zeal, and of the His friend and former pupil Mr. Luther, one of value of the services which he had done to his the members for Essex, having, in consequenc eof country, Bishop Watson retired in disgust from his separation from his wife, hastily quitted public life, and spent the rest of his life on his estate England, Mr. Watson, without any money, and of Colgarth, which he had purchased, on the banks without any knowledge of the French language, re of the Windermere. There he devoted himself to solved to follow him for the purpose of soothing agricultural pursuits, and in 1789 the Society of his agitated mind. He contrived, however, to Arts gave him their medal for the extent of his surmount these obstacles, and in February 1764, plantations. His pupil, Mr. Luther of Ongar, who after crossing the channel four times, and travelling died in 1786, left him an estate which he sold for 1200 miles in the course of a fortnight, he brought £20,000, and which placed him in wealthy circumback his friend to his country and his family. In stances. the same year he succeeded Dr Hadley, professor Notwithstanding his devotion to rural pursuits, of chemistry at Cambridge, though he had never our author occasionally attended to his duties in the devoted his mind to the subject; but by the energy House of Lords, and he made some admirable of his application, he was able, in the course of a speeches in that House on questions of engrossing inyear after his election, to deliver a very excellent terest, particularly on the abolition of the slave trade. and popular course of lectures on the subject, and In 1813 he was seized with an illness of which to compose several learned chemical memoirs for he never recovered. He became gradually weaker the Philosophical Transactions, as well as a series and weaker, and expired on the 10th July 1816, in of essays which were long used as one of the best the 79th year of his age, leaving behind him two popular introductions to the science. In October sons and several daughters. His eldest son entered 1767, he succeeded Mr. Backhouse as head tutor the army, and his youngest son was prebendary of of Trinity. In 1769 he was elected F.R.S., and on Llandaff and Wells. the death of Dr. Rutherford, he was appointed, in The following is a list of the works of Bishop October 1771, to the lucrative office of Regius Watson. Professor of Divinity. In this new chair, he 1. Institutionum Chemicarum pars Metallurgica. attracted a numerous audience, and his lectures 8 Comb. 1768. were characterized by eloquence and independence 2. Experiments and Observations on the Solution of judgment. The scriptures he regarded as the of Salts. Phil. Trans. 1770, p. 325. only fountain of divine truth, and the opinion of 3. Remarks on the Effects of Cold in February fathers, churches, and councils, he considered as 1771. Phil. Trans. 1771, p. 213. having no more authority than his own.
4. Experiment with a Thermometer having its In December 1773 he married the eldest daughter bulb blackened. Phil. Trans. 1773, p. 40. of Edward Wilson, Esq. of Dallum Tower in West 5. Chemical Experiments and Observations on moreland, a connection which for more than 40 Lead Ore. Phil. Trans. 1778, p. 863. years was the source of uninterrupted satisfaction.
6. Observations on the Sulphur Wells at HarrowHaving obtained, through the interest of the Duke gate. Phil. Traps. 1786, p. 171. of Grafton, a sinecure in Wales, he exchanged it 7. Essay on the Subjects of Chemistry and their in 1774 for a prebend of Ely, and in January 1780 General Division.
8. Assize Sermon, preached at Cambridge, 1769. steam-engine, was the eldest son of James Watt, a
9. Lellers to the Members of the House of Com- merchant in Greenock, and was born on the 19th mons by a Christian Whig, 1772.
January 1735. He received the rudiments of his 10, 11. Two Sermons. 4. 1776.
education in bis native town, and evinced an early 12. A Brief State of the Principles of Church partiality for mechanical pursuits. The bent of Authority, 1713.
his mind led him to follow ihe profession of a ma13. A Fast Sermon, Feb. 1780.
thematical instrument maker, and in his 18th year he 14. A Sermon addressed to the Clergy of Ely, went to London and remained a year under the 1780.
tuition of a maker of mathematical instruments. The 15. Apology for Christianity, in a Series of Let. weak state of his health compelled him to return to ters, addressed to Edward Gibbon. 12. 1776. Greenock, and after adding to his stock of practical 16. Chemical Essays, 5 v. 12. 1781-7.
acquirements by occasional visits to Glasgow, he 17. A Leller adiressed to Archbishop Cornwallis resolved in 1757 10 establish himself in that city. on the Church Revenues, 1782.
The corporation, however, considered this step as 18. A Sermon preached the 30th January before subversive of their privileges, and the professors the Lords. 4. 1784.
of the college gave him apartments within its pre19. Visitation Articles for the Diocese of Llan cincts, as mathematical instrument maker to the daff.
university. In this situation he became acquainted 20. Theological Tracts, 6 v. 8. 1785.
with Dr. Black, and with Mr. Robison, who was 21. A Sermon on the Wisdom and Goodness of then a student at the university. God, in having made Rich and Poor, 1785-1793. Mr. Watt continued in the college till the year 22. Sermons and Tracts. 8. 1788.
1763, when he took up his residence in the town, 23. An Address to Young Persons after Confir- previous to his marriage with his cousin, Miss mation. 12. 1789.
Miller, which took place in the summer of 1764. 24. Considerations on the Expediency of Revising The subject of the steam-engine had frequently the Liturgy. 8. 1790.
been discussed between him and Mr. Robison, who 25. A Sermon preached for the Westminster had suggested the practicability of its being applied Dispensary in 1785, with an Appendix.
as the moving power of wheel carriages. So early 26. A.Charge to the Clergy of his Diocese. 4. as 1761 or 1762, Mr. Watt made some experiments 1792.
on the force of steam with a Papin's digester, and 27. Two Sermons and a Charge. 4. 1795. he had even constructed a small model consisting 28. Apology for the Bible in a series of Letters of an inverted syringe, the bottom of the rod of addressed to Thomas Paine. 12. 1796.
which was loaded with a weight. This model he 29. An Address to the people of Great Britain. wrought with strong steam, which was alternately 8. 1798.
admitted below the piston and let off into the atmios30. Charge to the Clergy of Llandaff. 31. Second phere. He soon abandoned this construction on Charge, 1802.
account of its imperfections, and in the manner 32. A Charge relating to Ecclesiastical Reform, which we have already fully detailed in our History 1802
of the Steam-Engine, he was gradually conducted 33. A Sermon preached at the London Hospital. to those great improvements upon the steam-engine 1802.
which have immortalized his name. 34. Thoughts on the Intended Invasion. 8.
In the year 1767 Mr. Wait surveyed the Forth 35. Substance of a Speech intended to have been and Clyde canal, but as the bill was lost in parliadelivered, 1804.
ment, he was enabled to superintend the execution 36. Sernion preached before the Society for the of the Monkland canal, for which he had prepared Suppression of Vice, 1804.
the survey and estinates. Some time after be sur37. A Charge to the Clergy, 1805. 38. Another veyed for the Board of Trustees, the projected Charge on the Catholic Question, 1808.
canal from Perih 10 Forsar, and at the desire of 39. Two Apologies, two Sermons and a Charge. the commissioners of the annexed estates, lie made 8. 1806.
a survey of the Crinan canal, which was afterwards 40. A Second Defence of Revealed Religion, executed by Mr. Rennie. Mr. Wat's reputation 1807.
was now widely extended; and he was employed 41. A Paper on Planting and on Waste Land, in a great variety of public works which were 1808.
then undertaken in Scoiland; and he terminated his 42. Preliminary Observations on the Agricul- labours as an engineer with ihe survey of the Great tural Report of Westmoreland.
Caledonian canal, since executed upon a more 43. Misceilaneous Tracts. 2. 8. 1815.
magnificent scale by Mr. Tellord.* 44. Anecdotes of his Life. 4. 1817, written by Near the close of 1773, when Mr. Watt was enhimsell, revised in 1914, and published by his son gaged in this last survey, he had the misfortune to Richard Watson, LL.B. Preberdary of Llandaff lose his wife, by whom he had a son and a daughier. and Wells.
A short time after this event he seems to have acWATT, James, the celebrated improver of the cepted the invitation of Mr. Boulton to seitle in
• Many of these labours of Mr. Watt as an engineer have been fully detailed in our article NAVIGATION Inland, written by Mr. Telford,
England; and thus commenced that illustrious firm, more accurate. The rod I commonly used was the formation of which forms an epoch in the an- twelve feet long, and consequently could measure nals of the arts of England.
thirty chains; but by sliding another rod upon it, In the year 1775 Mr. Walt married his second so as to lengthen it, I measured greater distances; wife, Miss Macgrigor, who still survives him, and and where still greater were wanied, I stretched a from that period his time was occupied in those tape horizontally, and turning the telescope on its important arrangements regarding nis patents, axis, made the single hair parallel to it, fixing an and in perfecting those inventions which we have index at the end of the tape, and sliding the other already fully described.
along it, until it subtended the distance between · While Mr. Watt was engaged in the survey of the rivers. I then measured the subtended tape the Crinan, and Gilp, and Tarbet intended canals with the rod, and so ascertained the distance; but in 1772 and 1773, he employed two ingenious micro- this expedient I rarely had recourse to, the distance metors of his own invention for measuring distances, I generally had occasion to measure rarely exceedsuch as the breadth of arms of the sea, which could ing half a mile, or forty chains. not be ascertained by the chain.
It is plain that this instrument possesses the adThe following is Mr. Walt's own account and vantage of measuring all distances with equal achistory of these inventions, as communicated by curacy, until the imperfection of vision at great himself to Dr. Brewster in 1816.
distances interposes, as the scale on which they are The instrument I used was a telescope, with an measured expands with the distances, and in uneven object-glass of twelve inches, and an eye-glass of ground it possesses more accuracy than the chain, one and a half inch focus, consequently magnifying and is very valuable in measuring distances from eight times
In the focus of the eye-glass there one hill to another, and across bays of the sea, were placed two horizontal hairs, and one perpen- where the chain cannot be used, which I experienced, dicular hair. The horizontal hairs were about in the survey of West Loch Tarbet, the northern one-tenth of an inch distant from each other, and shore of which is very much indented, and so rocky, as strictly parallel to each other, and at right angles that it is scarcely possible to measure a few chains to the perpendicular hair, as I could make them. in a straight line upon it. A rod being placed upright at twenty chains dis I showed the instrument to all my friends at the tant, or any other convenient distance, on level time, and among others, Mr. Smeaton, as I have ground, an index, consisting of a round disk of mentioned; and used it publicly in my surveys, and about eight inches diameter, painted white, with a it was consequently known to many people, though horizontal line of one inch wide, painted on its not published. horizontal dianieter with vermilion, was fixed upon A Mr. Green, in 1778, applied to the Society of the rod about one foot from the ground, and another Arts for a premium for the same invention, which similar index was moved up and down the rod, Mr. Smeaton apprized me of, and also informed until, upon looking through the telescope, the two the society of my claims, in consequence of which horizontal hairs covered the red stripes on the I was desired to attend their committee, where I lower and upper indexes; the telescope being turned informed them of what I had done, and at what on its axis until the perpendicular hair was parallel time. Yet the society thought fit to award Mr. to the rod. The indexes being thus covered by the Green the premium, though his invention was poshorizontal hairs accurately, the upper index was terior to mine. I suppose because he had used an fixed to the rod, and the distance between the mid- instrument of higher magnifying power, viz. forty, dle of the red stripes, on the two indexes, was di- and consequently had been able to measure greater vided from the red into twenty parts, representing distances, and, as was said, with greater accuracy. so many chains, which, with the instrument I used, I made no further reclamation, as I perceived it were upon the rod about four and a-half inches
was not in that court that I could obtain justice; each; and for distances exceeding five chains, this and as I dislike paper war, I did not apply to any division into equal parts was sufficiently accurate; other, though there were people then living who but for short distances it is not strictly so. I could have attested my use of it. therefore fixed pin at every chain, and holding up Another micrometer with a prism, I invented, I the rod at each of them, made the necessary cor- think, about that time; it consisted of a thin prism, rection: and as the focus of the object-glass is also with its surfaces nearly parallel, or inclined one affected by the distance, it is proper to adjust the degree or two. This prism was cut by a diamond eye-glass to it at every station. The divisions on into two parts, which, when they were fixed in the the rod being marked with the number of chains same plane, refracted all the rays which passed they represent, it was only necessary to send an through them equally, but one of them remaining assistant with the rod to any place the distance of fixed, and the other moving on a centre, would rewhich was wanted to be measured, and by signs to fract that portion of the rays which passed through make him move the upper index up and down, it, more than those which passed through the fixed until the two horizontal hairs covered the red part, and being placed in the focus of the objectstripes on the upper and lower indexes; the divisions glass of a telescope, two images were formed of on the rod then showed the distance, which I found each object, by which its diameter could be meacould be ascertained to within less than one-hun. sured. An index, and divided sector of a circle, dredth part of the whole distance, and with a higher served to measure the comparative refractions. magnifying power, could be done proportionally This instrument I made with the sector and Vol. XVII.- Part II.
radius of wood, and gave it to Professor Anderson time, and went to various parts of the world. Mr. of Glasgow College; and, I suppose, it is still among George Adams, senior, copied some of those that his apparatus, which he left to a public institution. went to London, and made them for sale.
The cross-haired micrometer, as described, leav In the year 1780, Mr. Watt took out a patent for ing me too much in the power of my assistants, a method of copying letters and drawings, and the where the distances were greater than permitted apparatus was manufactured in a partnership with me to read off the number of chains on the rod Mr. Boulton and Mr. Keir, under the firm of James myself, I thought of another about 1772 or 1773, Watt and Company. This method consists in which consisted of a telescope with an object-glass writing the letter to be copied with an ink partly of a long focus, say three or four feet; this was soluble in water. It is then pressed against a sheet placed in a tube with a slit in one side of it, nearly of thin unsized and wetied paper, and the impressas long as the focus of the telescope, and the object: ion then taken is read on the other side of the glass being fitted to a short tube, which slid from paper from that on which the impression is taken. end to end of the slit, could be moved backwards The apparatus was constructed in two forms, one and forwards by means of a piece of metal fixed to a strong rolling press, with large roHers the short tube, and coming out through the slit; proper for an office, and of a sufficient size to copy a glass of six to nine inches focus was also fixed in plans and drawings, and the other was a compact the outer tube, of the nature of what is called a field- rolling press and apparatus for copying letters, englass, and to this was added an eye-glass, with a closed in a portable writing desk, which folds up cross hair piece in its focus.
into a moderate compass for travelling. When the Now, it is evident, that if the object-glass be original is written in strong characters with a moved nearer the field-glass, their common focus sufficiency of ink, three or four successive copies will be shortened, and the image at the cross hairs may be taken off upon as many thin sheets of padiminished proportionally, until the glasses come per, and they will be very legible; but when a into contact, when their common focus will be single copy only is taken, the writing upon it apshorter than that of the field-glass alone; and two pears very black, and the original is not at all inindexes fixed upon a rod being subtended by the jured by the operation. cross hair. At any given distance, the same rod In the year 1781 Mr. Watt contrived a steam-with its indexes being removed nearer the observer, drying apparatus for his relation Mr. Macgrigor upon sliding the object-glass nearer the eye, they of Clober near Glasgow, of which we have already may again be subtended by the cross hairs, and a given a drawing and description in the article scale on the side of the tube will show the com STEAM DRYING. parative distance they have been removed, and the In the Philosophical Transactions for 1745, distance of the first object being known, that of the Colonel Cock had proposed a method for warming second will also be so. This scale could rot, how rooms by the steam of boiling water conveyed in pipes ever, be a scale of equal parts, but one which could along the walls. This method does not seem to easily be laid down.
have been practically adopted till 1784-5, when Mr. I made a rough model of this instrument at the Watt, who probably did not know of Colonel Cook's time, but have never completed it, having been proposal, put up an apparatus for heating his study since engaged in concerns where such instruments by means of steam. This method has since been were unnecessary. I described it, however, lo extensively applied to heat private houses and several of my friends at the time, and among others, manufactories, and has been more recently adopted to the late Mr. Ramsden; but whether it has been for conservatories and hot-houses. thought of by any one else, or the problem pub The discoveries of Dr. Priestley in pneumatic lished, I am ignorant.*
chemistry had excited very general interest, and Another of Mr. Watt's minor inventions is his Mr. Watt, who had taken a particular interest in perspective machine, which he contrived in 1765, the discoveries of his friend and neighbour, seems in consequence of his friend Dr. James Lind having to have devoted considerable attention to the subbrought from India a machine invented there by a ject. The following account of his labours is given Mr. Hurst
. As this machine had many defects, by one of his biographers. See Supp. Encyc. Brit. Mr. Watt wished to make one more portable and Early in 1783 he was led, by the experiments easier in its use, and, at the suggestion of the late of his friend and neighbour, Dr. Priestley, to the Dr. Robison, he turned his thoughts to the double important conclusion that water is a compound of parallel ruler, an instrument then very little known, dephlogisticated and inflammable airs (as they were and scarcely if at all used. After some reflection, then called), deprived of their latent or elementary Mr. Watt contrived a method of applying it for heat, and he was the first to make known this theory. this purpose, and of making the machine extremely “ This was done in a letter to Dr. Priestley, dated light and portable. A description with drawings the 28th April 1783, in which he states the Doctor's of the machine, which Mr. Watt communicated to experiments to have come in aid of some prior noDr. Brewster, was published by the latter in the tions of his own, and supports his conclusions by Edinburgh Philosophical Journal.t About from fifty original experiments. That letter Dr. Priestley reto eighty of these instruments were made at the ceived in London, and after showing it to several
* See our article MICROMETER. † Dr. Brewster is in possession of one of these instruments, presented to him by Mr. Watt, and executed with his own hand.
members of the Royal Society, he delivered it to able difficulty. Mr. Watt, who was consulted on Sir Joseph Banks, with a request that it mighi be the occ sion, suggested that a flexible water main read at some of the public meetings of the Society; should be drawn across the bed of the river, through but before that could be complied with, Mr. Watt, which pumping engines on the north side should having heard of some new experiments made by receive the water from the well on the south side. Dr. Priestley, begged that the reading might be de- The work was completed in 1810, and a second layed. These new experiments soon afterwards main was afterwards laid in every respect similar proved to have been delusive, and Mr. Watt sent a to the first. The idea of the flexible or ball and revised edition of his letter to Mr. de Luc on the 26th socket joints, was suggested to him, as he himself November of the same year, which was not read to informed the editor of this work, from a considerathe Society until the 29th April 1784, and appears tion of the flexibility of the lobster's tail. in the Phil. Trans. for that year, under the title of In the latter part of Mr. Wati's life, his attention Thoughts on the constituent parts of Water, and of was directed to the construction of a machine for Dephlogisticated Air, with an account of some ex copying and reducing all kinds of sculpture and periments upon that subject.
statuary. Having so ofien experienced the evils "In the interim, on the 15th January 1784, a of communicating his ideas to others, he had kept paper by Mr. Cavendish had been read, contain secret the details of his plan, and even his intention ing his Experiments on the Combustion of Dephlo. of executing such a machine. When he had made gisticated and Inflammable Airs, and drawing the considerable progress in its execution, and had same inference as Mr. Watt, with this difference thought of securing it by patent, he learned that a only, that he did not admit elementary heat into person in his neighbourhood was occupied with his explanation. He refers in it to his knowledge the same object, and we have heard Mr. Watt say of Mr. Watt's paper, and states his own experiments that he believed that this gentleman was entirely to have been made in 1781, and mentions Dr. ignorant of his labours. A proposal was then Priestley; but he does not say at what period he made to prosecute the subject jointly, and to secure formed his conclusions: he only mentions that a the privilege by a joint patent, but Mr. Watt friend of his had given some account of his experi saw many objections to such a plan, and was unwillments in the summer of 1783 to Mr. Lavoisier, as ing at his advanced period of life to embark in well as of the conclusions drawn from them. It is new projects which required for the prosecution quite certain that Mr. Watt had never heard of all the ardour of youth. We have seen at Heaththem, and Dr. Blagden has stated that he men- field some of the works executed by this machine, tioned at Paris the opinions of both the English and these prove beyond a doubt the entire practiphilosophers, which were not admitted without cability of the plan. hesitation, nor until the French chemisis had satis Mr. Walt had withdrawn from business in the fied themselves by experiments of their own."* year 1800, when he resigned his shares to his sons,
We have copied the preceding statement as that the present Mr. James Watt, and Mr. Gregory of Mr. Watt's friend; but a regard for the reputa Watt, who was prematurely carried off in the tion of Mr. Cavendish, independent of higher mo- prime of his life, when he had began to exhibit tives, compels us to acknowledge that the state proofs of talents, which might have rivalled those ment is partial, and the argument not well founded. of his father. We are not able at present to refer to the original In the year 1813, when Dr. Brewster was engaged documents, but we had occasion some years ago, in editing the works of the late Dr. Robison, he along with a distinguished chemist, to examine had the good fortune to prevail upon Mr Watt 10 them with minute attention, and it was then our
undertake the revision of the treatise on the steamdecided conviction, that the merit of the discovery engine, but though he intended only to correct imof the composition of water belonged to Mr. Caven- perfections and supply defects, yet he was gradually dish.
ied to extend his views, and to compose those Mr. Watt had the satisfaction of introducing valuable additions on the history, the principles, into Great Britain, the new art of bleaching by the and the construction of the steam-engine, which oxymuriatic acid, which had been discovered by M. are published in the 2d volume of Dr. Robison's Berthollet; but as the history of his labours has System of Mechanical Philosophy. In a prelimibeen already given in our article BLEACHING, Vol. nary letter addressed to Dr. Brewster, and dated III. p. 554, Note, it is unnecessary to resume the May 1814, Mr. Wait has corrected many misapsubject at present.
prehensions which had universally prevailed reIn the year 1809, the Glasgow Water Company specting the early history of his labours. proposed to derive their supply from a well and During the greater part of his life, Mr Watt had tunnel formed a stra:um of sand on the left bank been in an infirm state of health. His constitutional of the Clyde, which affords a natural filter for the debility was greatly increased by the cares and water of the river. As the city lies on the right anxieties which necessarily attended the labours of bank, it was necessary to convey the filtered water his mind and the litigations in which he was across the river, which was a problem of consider involved. Sick headaches, of great severity, and
• « There is a confusion of dates in the account of this affair.—Mr. Watt's letter to Mr. de Luc, in the Philosophical Transactions, appears dated 26th November 1784, which is evidently an error of the press. Mr. Cavendish, in his letter, read 15th January 1784, speaks of Mr. Watt's paper “as lately read before the Society,” whereas the paper itself purports to have been read on the 29th April 1784. This we cannot explain.”