페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

ers.

pure blood.

The general practice of a whale that has been styled kings, who push it into a place called the struck, is to escape from the boat by making under flens-gut. The fat being removed from the belly, water, pursuing its course directly downward, and and also the right fin, the fish is turned on its side. reappearing at a little distance. When the wound. The upper surface of fat is again removed together ed whale disappears, a flag is elevated, and the with the left fin, and a similar set of operations are watch in the ship gives the alarm by stamping on carried on till the whole of the blubber, whale-bone the deck, and calling out "a fall.” At this sound and jaw-bone have been taken on board. the sleeping crew are roused, rush upon deck with When the tackle is removed, the carcass or kreng their clothes in their hands, and crowd into the as it is called, commonly sinks, but sometimes it is boats. The auxiliary boats take their stations so swollen by the air produced by putrefaction, that about the place where the whale is expected to it swims and rises three or four feet above the appear from the movements of the harpooner or water. It thus becomes food for bears, sharks "fast" boat.

and various kinds of birds. The operation of The whale generally stays underwater about flensing is accomplished in three or four hours thirty minutes, and sometimes fifty-six, but in when the fish affords 20 to 30 tons of blubber. shallow water it is said to have continued an hour When the flens-gut is filled with blubber, or when and a half at the bottom after being struck. Im- the crew have leisure, the process of making off is mediately on its re-appearance, the harpooners of carried on. This process consists in removing all the auxiliary boats plunge their harpoons into its the muscular part of the blubber, with such spongy back. It frequently descends again after the se or fibrous fat as is known to produce little oil. The cond harpoon has struck it, and when it returns to blubber then cleared is stored in casks, and securely the surface, lances are pierced through its body, bunged up. and directed to its vitals. At last, exhausted with When the blubber is brought home, the oil is wounds and the loss of blood, which flows in co extracted from it by boiling in large copper boil. pious streams, it discharges from its blow holes a

The boiling is continued from one to three mixture of blood along with the air and mucus hours. In a ton or 252 gallons of blubber, there which it usually breathes out, and at last jets of is from 50 to 65 gallons of refuse, the greater part

The sea to a great distance around is of which is a watery fluid. dyed with its blood, and the ice, the boats, and the The following table shows the price of whale oil men are drenched with its gore. Its course is from 1800 to 1818, which, at an average, was about marked by a broad pellicle of the oil which has £34 158. per ton. exuded from its wounds. The capture is some

£
£

£ times preceded by a convulsive and energetic

1800 35
1806 29

1812 35 struggle, in which its tail, reared, whisked, and

1801 46
1807 21

1813 30 violently jerked in the air, resounds to the distance

1802 31

1808 27 1814 32 of miles. When dying, it turns on its back or

1803 38
1809 36

1815 38 side, and its death is announced with three loud

1804 31
1810

1816 28 huzzas.

1805 30
1811

1817 46 Small whales sometimes exhaust themselves so

1818 38 completely in their descent downwards, that they are suffocated under water and are said to be Whalebone is found in the mouth of the whale. drowned. In this case it is drawn up by the line. It forms an apparatus like a filter for collecting the

The captured whale is then towed to the ship by minute animals on which the whale feeds, the sea all the boats in a line, which is done in the case of water running through. When taken from the a large whale, and with six boats, at the rate of whale, it consists of laminæ or plates connected by nearly a mile per hour. It is then taken to the what is called the gum, and ranged along each side larboard side of the ship, arranged and secured for of the mouth. The laminæ are about 300 in numthe flensing. This is done by partly extending its ber. The average length of the blade is 12 or 13 body, and raising it by means of a pulley about a feet, though it is sometimes found 15 feet long. Its fourth or a fifth part out of the water. When the greatest breadth is 10 or 12 inches, and its greatfish is thus lying with its belly upwards, the opera est thickness about half an inch. The general aption of flensing is performed. The harpooners, pearance of the laminæ taken altogether, resem. with their feet armed with spurs, to prevent them bles the form and position of the roof of a house. from slipping, descend upon the fish, and as di At first the price of whalebone was £700 per ton, rected by the specksioneer, they divide the fat into but it now fluctuates between £50 and £150. oblong pieces or slips by means of blubber spades. For the information contained in the preceding A speck or tackle is then fixed to each ship, and it article, we are indebted to Mr. Scoresby's admirable is progressively flayed off as it is drawn upwards. Account of the Arctic Regions, the second volume The blubber, in pieces of from half a ton to a ton of which is devoted to a history and description each, is received upon deck by the boat-steerers of the northern whale fisheries. See also Noel's and line-managers. The former with strand knives Memoire sur l’Antiquité de la Peche de la Baleine divide it into portable cubical pieces containing par les Nations Europennes, Paris 1795, 12mo. A nearly a solid foot of fat, while the latter, furnish brief account of the South Sea Whale Fishery will ed with pick haaks, thrust it down a hole in the be found in our article England, Vol. VIII, p. main hatches. It is then received by two men 605. See also POLAR Regions, Vol. XVI, p. 26.

38 31

P. 605.

WHEAT. See AGRICULTURE, Index.

fice of the Tuscan order, a spacious poor's house, WHEEL and Axle. See MECHANIOS, Vol. XII. a dispensary, and a handsome school-house. The

parish church stands on the verge of the cliff on WHEELS, ON THE TEETH OF. See Mechanics, the east side of the town, and is approached by 190 Vol. XII. p. 650.

stone steps. There is a chapel of ease on the lower WHEELS, WATER. See HYDRODYNAMICS, Vol. part of the town, and meeting-houses for the MethoX. p. 892.

dists, who have two chapels, Presbyterians, IndeWHEELS, CARRIAGES. See AGRICULTURE, pendents, Roman Catholics, and Quakers. There Chap. VI. Vol. IV.

is also here a subscription library, and a commoWHEELS OF CARRIAGES. See COACHMAKING dious reading room. The Union Mill, belonging to and CARRIAGE. See also Ferguson's Lectures on 800 proprietors, is an imposing building on the Mechanics, vol. ii. Dr. Brewster's edition, and an west side of the town. On a high cliff on the east admirable paper by James Walker, Esq. F.R.S.L. side of the town stand the ruins of the church of and E. published in Dr. Brewster's Journal of the old abbey of Whitby. Science, Vol. I. p. 274.

The principal manufactures of Whitby are canWHIDAH, a kingdom of Africa on the Slave vas and kelp. Its commerce is very extensive, the Coast, about ten miles long and seven broad. The inbabitants being largely concerned in the Greenwhole kingdom has been compared to a great city land fishery, the coal trade, and the coasting and divided by gardens, lawns, and groves instead of foreign trade. The quantity of alum rock, and the streets, the villages being scarcely a musket shot numerous alum works in the vicinity, alone support distant from each other, and so populous, that one an extensive branch of trade. The harbour of village contains as many inhabitants as several en- Whitby, which is almost artificial, is formed by two tire kingdoms on the coast of Guinea. The year stone piers, one of which extends 620 yards, and consists of a spring and autumn in constant suc terminates in a rounded head with embrasures for cession, and as soon as the corn is cut, the fields a battery. In spring tides the depth of water is are again sown. Whidah the capital is situated in from 15 to 18 feet. The inner harbour above the East Long. 1° 24' and 6° 25' North Lat.

bridge is secure and spacious. It is flanked with WHIRLING TABLE. See Ferguson's Lectures dockyards for building ships on both sides of the on Mechanics, vol. i. where it is minutely described. river, and has commodious dry docks. ShipAtwood's machine for the same purpose is de- building is carried on to a great extent. scribed in our article MECHANICS, Vol. XII. p. 634. The vicinity of Whitby abounds with numerous

WHIRLWIND. See Phys!CAL GEOGRAPHY, Vol. fossil remains of great interest, an account of which XV. p. 58).

will be found in Young's History of Whitby, 1816. WHITAKER, John, B.D. an eminent divine Population in 1821 of the township; houses 1429, and antiquarian, was born in Manchester about families 2131, ditto engaged in agriculture, 24, 1735. He was educated at Oxford. His principal ditto in trade, 676. Total population, 8697. works are his History of Manchester, 4to. 1771, WHITCHURCH, a market town of England, in 1775, his Genuine History of the Britons asserted, Shropshire, is situated upon an eminence on the 1771. Sermons on Death, Judgment, Heaven and Wellington Canal, and consists of one principal Hell. His Mary Queen of Scots vindicated, 1787. street on the high road to Chester, intersected by His Course of Hannibal over the Alps ascertained, some smaller ones. The church stands on the 2 vols. 8vo. 1795. The Real Origin of Government, highest ground, and is a handsome stone building 1795. The Origin of Arianism disclosed, London, of the Tuscan order, with a square tower 108 feet 1791. The Ancient Cathedral of Cornwall histori- high, and surmounted by battlements. It contains cally surveyed, 2 vols. 1804, and a posthumous work an elegant altar piece and two fine effigies, one of entitled The Life of St. Neot, the eldest of all the John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury. There is brothers of King Alfred, Lond. 1709, 8vo.

here an excellent free school, a charity school, six Mr Whitaker died of a paralytic stroke on the alms-houses and meeting-houses for protestant dis30th October 1808, at his rectory of Ruan-Lany- senters. Population of the town about 2600. It horne, at the age of 73, leaving a wife and two is not entered in the census of 1821. daughters. See the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixxviii. p. 1037, and Nichol's Literary Anecdotes of WHITE, county of Tennessee, bounded by Smith the Eighteenth Century, vol. iii. p. 105.

W., Jackson N. W. and N., Fentress E., CumberWHITBY, a seaport town of England in the land mountain separating it from Bledsoe S.E, North Riding of Yorkshire, is situated on opposite and Caney Fork river separating it from Warren declivities on both banks of the river Esk, which S. and S.W. Length 42, mean breadth 16, and forms the harbour, and divides the town into two area 672 square miles. Extending in latitute from equal parts connected by a draw-bridge which 35° 40' to 36° 17', and in longitude from 8° 10' to allows ships of 500 tons to pass. The streets are 8° 50' W. from W. C. in general narrow and steep, and the houses crowd The slope of this county is westward, and en. ed together, but many of the houses are good, and tirely drained by different branches of Caney Fork those of the wealthier inhabitants large and elegant. river. Chief town, Sparta. Population 8701 in Two or three new and handsome streets have been 1820, but in that number were included a part of recently built on the west side of the town. The what is now contained in Fentress county. In 1830 principal buildings are the town hall, a heavy edi. the population amounted to 9967. VOL. XVIII.- Part II.

4 M

WHITEHAVEN, a seaport town of England in country of the Delaware Indians in the southwestern Cumberland, is situated at the mouth of the Poe- angle of Missouri. Curving to east and southeast beck on the Irish Sea. The town, which is built 40 miles it enters the territory of Arkansas, within on a regular plan, is extremely handsome, not only which it pursues a course of S.E. by E. by comfor its spacious streets crossing at right angles, but parative distance 120 miles, joins Black river in from the houses being roofed with blue slate. The Independence county. In its entire comparative shops also are particularly elegant. The approach course of 220 miles, White river receives few tribufrom the north is singular, from the heights being tary streams of any considerable length or volume. so much above the town, that the slated roofs only The northwestern confluent, Black river, rises in are visible till the traveller is near the entrance to Wayne county, Missouri, interlocking sources with the town, which is by a fine portico of red freestone, those of Merrimac and St. Francis, flowing thence, with a rich entablature bearing the Lowther arms. by a general southern course, but an elliptical curve There are three chapels, St. James's, Trinity, and to the E., about 100 miles, unites with an equal if St. Nicholas. The interior of St. James's is par- not superior confluent, Current river. The latter ticularly handsome. There are also several meet- rises also in Wayne county, Missouri, to the westing-houses, a Roman Catholic chapel, a dispensary, ward of the sources of Black river, and interlocking a poor's house, a neat theatre, assembly rooms, a sources with the Merrimac and Gasconade rivers. free school, and several charity schools. The castle, The general course, curves, and length of Current a residence of the Earl of Lonsdale, contains some river is remarkably similar to similar phenomena fine paintings. The harbour of Whitehaven has in Black river. The now navigable Black river, been greatly improved, and accommodated to the assuming a southwestern course 15 miles, receives activity of its trade. Light-houses are erected on at Davidsonville, seat of justice for Lawrence counthe old and new quays, and the entrance to the har- ty, from the N.W. a large accumulation by the bour is defended by four batteries, containing 98 united streams of Eleven Points and Spring rivers. cannon, among which are twelve 42-pounders, and Below Davidsonville, Black river flows by compaeighteen 36-pounders. The principal manufactures rative courses 45 miles, entering in that distance of Whitehaven are shipbuilding, for which there Independence county, and joining White river beare six yards, sail-cloth, for which there are two low the influx of Black river, is a little E. of S. by establishments, and cordage, which is made in comparative courses 120 miles to its influx into the three roperies. The principal trade of Whitehaven Mississippi, receiving in the latter distance Red is in coals, great quantities of which are sent to river from the west, and Cache river from the east. Ireland. The coal works are near the sea, and Taken as a whole, the valley of White river lies some are wrought even beneath the town, in conse between those of Arkansas to the S. W., St. Franquence of which eighteen houses were destroyed in cis to the E., the southern sources of Osage river 1791, by the falling in of some of the old works. to lhe N.W., and those of Merrimac to the N. Some of the pits are 960 feet deep, and the working The form of this fine valley approaches that of a extends some miles beneath the sea. About 80,000 triangle, 270 miles base; from the mouth of White wagons of coals are supposed to be raised annu- river to the sources of Black river 170 miles per. ally, each wagon weighing about 43 cwt. The pendicular; area 22,950 square miles; extending in coal staith, or magazine, on the west side of the Lat. from 33° 56' to 37° 40', and in Long. from 13° town and near the harbour, contains 3000 wagon 20' to 17° 20' W. from W. C. Rising in a mounloads, and so perfect is the machinery employed, tainous region, the valley of White river exhibits that from eight to twelve vessels, carrying from 100 every variety of soil, from the barren rock, and to 120 tons, can be laden in one tide.' Whitehaven almost equally sterile prairie, to the rich, but annucarries on a trade to Africa, America, and the ally submerged alluvion towards the Arkansas and West Indies, and in 1822 it had 181 ships, with a Mississippi rivers. The White and Arkansas have lonnage of 24,220, or 145 tons each at an average. their respective points of discharge within ten or Two weekly papers are published here, and in sum- twelve miles of each other, and are also connected mer a steam-boat plies between this port, Dum- by interlocking, and in seasons of high water, fries, and Liverpool. In 1821 the population of navigable streams, many miles above their mouths. the town was 2117 houses, 2749 families, 45 ditto White river is navigable by both its great engaged in agriculture, 1324 in trade, &c. and total branches far above their junction. It is, however, number of inhabitants 12,438. The population is an example of a stream greatly overrated, by estisaid to have decreased in 1819 and 1820 from the mating its length from the partial windings, in decrease of trade.

place of by the general comparative distances along

the valleys. By that of White river proper, the WHITE RIVER, a large stream of the state of valley is 340, and by Black river 280 miles long, Missouri and territory of Arkansas, formed by the pursuing the great curves of the rivers. confluence of two streams, White river proper, and WHITE RIVER, Indiana, is the great southBlack river. The following description is founded eastern branch of Wabash. It is formed by two on the delineation on Tanner's Map U.S. White branches, both rising about Lat. 40° N., and Long, river proper rises in Washington county, Arkan. W.C. 8° W. and near the W. boundary of the state of sas, about 30 miles northeastward from the junc- Ohio. Flowing by a general course S. W. about tion of Arkansas and Candian rivers; flowing thence 70 miles, the two branches unite, and continuing about 60 miles to the northeastward it enters the below their junction 30 miles, joins the Wabash

between Knox and Gibson counties, at Lat. 38° 27' tinued to be made thither till 1581, when they were N. The valley of White river is a real curiosity in prohibited by an Act of Parliament. the hydrography of the United States. The extreme A priory for Premonstratensian monks was foundeastern sources of Croghan's Fork rise within one ed at Whithorn by Fergus, Lord of Galloway, about mile from the bank of Ohio river, opposite Gallatin the middle of the 12th century. The church of the county, Kentucky. A ridge of hills winds at no priory formed the cathedral church of the diocese; great distance from its banks, and nearly parallel the prior and canons composed the chapter of the to the Ohio, from the Great Miami to the Wabash. bishops; and the prior was vicar-general of the see The northwestern streams of this ridge are dis. during a vacancy. Many eminent men, such as charged into either the White river or Wabash. archbishop Beaton and Archbishop Dunbar, were The valley of White river is in form of an ellipsis, connected with this priory. 180 miles long, with a mean width of 60, embracing Of all these ancient buildings, there is now an area of 16,800 square miles, and comprising scarcely any remains. They had been allowed inabout one third part of the state of Indiana. There deed to fall into ruins before the year 1684, when are but few, if any, equal sections of the United Symson wrote his account of Galloway. Some States exceeding in natural advantages this tract. mouldering walls were demolished in 1823 to make In fertility of soil and mildness of climate, it is way for a new place of worship. Some traces of really a desirable region. The streams without falls, walls may yet be discovered; large vaults are entire, are, except in seasons of drought, navigable almost and four arches of the original building still remain; to their sources. See article Wabash, DARBY. they formed part of the parish church, which was

dismantled in 1823. When digging the foundation WHITHORN, a royal burgh in Wigionshire, is of the new church, walls and vaults were discovered situated eleven miles south of the burgh of Wigton, ten or twelve feet under the surface; and from an between the Luce and Wigton bays, about two attentive examination, we are of opinion that the miles west of the latter. It consists of one street, cathedral and priory were of greater extent and extending south and north, its length being nearly magnificence than is commonly imagined, covering half a mile. It was constituted a royal burgh by at least two acres of ground. James IV. in 1511. The number of inhabitants is See Chalmer's Caledonia, iii. & Wigtonshire; and 1200. The isle of Whithorn, three miles south- Murray's Literary History of Galloway. (T. M.) east, is the port of this borough.

But Whithorn is particularly deserving of notice WHITLEY, county of Kentucky, bounded W. by on account of its antiquity and celebrity. It is the Wayne county of the same state, N.W. by Rock site of the Leucophibia of Ptolemy. It is the place Castle creek separating it from Pulaski, N. by where the gospel was first preached in Scotland, Laurel, E. by Knox, and S. by Campbell county in and where the first place of Christian worship was Tennessee. Length from N. to S. 30, mean breadth erected. The person to whom these two events are 20, and area 600 square miles. Extending in Lat. owing is St. Ninian, who lived in the end of the from 36° 35' to 37° 01' N., and in Long. from 6° 4th and beginning of the 5th century; and Leuco. 48' to 7° 14' W. from W. C. The main volume of phibia became Candida Casa, and since Whithorn, Cumberland river winds by a very circuitous chanfrom the circumstance, as is supposed, of the church nel over Whitley from S. E. to N.W. Chief town being built of white stone. The bishoprick which Whitley, C. H. By the post office list of 1831, St. Ninian established, was at Whithorn; and there was a post office at Whitley, C. H. PopulaWhithorn continued from that period till 1689 the tion of 1830, 3807.

DARBY. see of the bishop of Candida Casa or Galloway. Ninian died in 452; but his memory was so much WICK, a royal burgh of Scotland, in the county venerated, that many places both in Scotland and of Caithness, is situated at the embouchure of the England were called by his name, and there is no little ver Wick. The town is small, and the lanes saint in the Romish calendar whose tomb was so confined, though the chief streets are of a moderate often visited. The kings of Scotland not only visit- size. The harbour, which was formerly only the ed Ninian's shrine themselves, but encouraged estuary of the river, has been improved by new piers others to do so, and granted protection to all stran- and quays, at an expense of about £12,000. The gers coming froni England, Ireland, or the Isle of town has in consequence been much improved, and Man, in pilgrimage to Whithorn. James IV. per- many new houses erected on the south side of the formed this pilgrimage about twenty times,-once river. Wick is the county town of Caithness, and on foot, in consequence of the dangerous illness of along with Kirkwall, Dornoch, Dingwall and 'Tain, the queen on the birth of their eldest son. She re- sends a member to parliament. The population of covered; a result that was attributed to the miracu- the town is above 1000, and that of the town and lous influence of the saint: and when her health parish 67 13. was re-established, she and her husband, as a mat WICKLOW, a maritime county of Ireland. It ter of gratitude, performed the same pious journey is bounded by the sea on the east, by Dublin county in circumstances of great pomp and magnificence: on the north, by Kildare, Dublin and Carlow on the seventeen horses were employed in transporting the west, and by Wexford on the south. It is about 40 queen’s baggage; three in carrying the king's, and English miles long and 33 broad, and contains 781 one in carrying the chapel geir." James V. also square miles, or about 500,000 English acres. It paid visits to Ninian's tomb; and pilgrimages con- contains 58 parishes, of which 49 are in the bisho

oprick of Dublin, 6 in the diocese of Loughlin, and sold annually before 1808 at the flannel sale at 3 in that of Ferns. The county is divided into 6 Rathdrum. The cotton manufacture was then car. barovies and half baronies.

ried on with much spirit at Stratford-upon-Slaney. A great part of Wicklow is occupied with rocky The linen manufacture has always been inconsidemountains and bogs. In the N. and W. the moun rable. tains are bold and rugged, but in the east they are The principal towns, &c. are Wicklow, the separated by fine wooded and romantic glens, such county town, Baltinglas, Blessington, and Carys. as those of Dargle, the Downs, the vale of Immalee, fort, which were formerly burghs.

The villages and Glendalloch. The central mountains consist are Rathdrum, Bray, Arklow, Stratford-uponof granite; and argillaceous schistus composes the Slaney. Wicklow is boldly situated on the declilower hills. On the north is the remarkable chasm vity of a losty mountain. The church, which has in a ridge of granite called the Scalp.

a high square tower, is pleasantly situated on a The minerals of Wicklow are gold, lead, and lofty eininence. The jail, the court-house, and the copper. Native gold has been found on the N.E. market-house, are good modern edifices; and about side of the mountains, Croughan Kenshela, in a a mile to the S.E. of the town are two light-houses. stream which falls into the Ovoco. In 1796 In 1816 Arklow employed from 100 to 150 boats in £10,000 worth was found in pieces, one of which the herring-fishery, which has sometimes produced weighed 9, another 18, and a third 27 ounces. about £25,000 annually, Government then explored the mines, but no veins The population in 1790 was 58,000, and in 1821, were found, and the works were abandoned. Lead 115,162, the Catholics being to the Protestants as has been wrought at Glenmaher and Glendalloch, 10 to l. See Fraser's General View of the Agriat the latter of which places there were in 1809 culture of the County of Wicklow, 1801, Radcliffe's three smelting houses, and about 18000 cwt. of bar Report of the Agriculture and Live Stock of the iron were make weekly. Copper has been wrought County of Wicklow, 1812, and Mr. Griffith's Report to a considerable extent at Cronebane and Bally. of Dr. Fellows, on the Mineralogy of the neighbourmurtagh. The works at Cronebane produced in hood of Dublin. 1809, 3000 tons of ore at a cost of £8000. The WIGAN, a town of England, in Lancashire, is works are now discontinued. Oxide of tin was situated on the small river Douglas, near its source, found in the same stream in which gold occurred. and on the Liverpool canal. The town, though

Wicklow has no river navigable within its limits. irregular, is neat, and contains inany handsome The Liffey rises in the N.W. of the county. The houses. The parish church consists of a nave, Ovoco runs into the sea at Arklow, the Fartrey chancel and side aisles, and contains some good does the same at Wicklow, and the Slaney rises in monuments. There is also a chapel, five meeting the S.W. of the county. Five of the streams pro- houses for dissenters, and two Roman Catholic duce fine waterfalls, the principal of which is at chapels. The other buildings are a town-hall, a - Powerscourt, 360 feet high. The chief lakes are liberally endowed free-school, a blue coat school for Lough Bray, Lough Tay, Lough Dan, and the boys, a dispensary, and a commodious workhouse. loughs of the seven churches.

At the north end of the town stands the monument The climate of Wicklow is remarkably fine, espe- erected in 1679 by Mr. Rigby to the memory of cially on the east coast. The myrtle grows in such Sir Thomas Tyldesley. The manufactures consist profusion as to be used for stable brooms, and of home made linens, checks, fustians, calicoes, grapes ripen out of doors. The principal crops and other cotton fabrics. Brass and pewter works, are wheat, barley, oats, and potatoes. Summer and large iron furnaces and forges, have been esfallow being little known, the wheat follows the tablished in the vicinity. The trade has been potatoe crops, and sometimes it is taken after white greatly extended by the Liverpool canal. Close to crops or upon the lea. The barley comes after the town, near Scholes bridge, a valuable mineral potatoes or turnips. The crops are uncommonly spring, called Wigan Spa, has been discovered. abundant, though the soil is of a light quality. About a mile north of Wigan is Haigh-hall, the Dung, marl, and limestone gravel, are the chief venerable mansion of the Earl of Balcarras. Wigan manure. Scotch agricultural implements are now sends two members to parliament, chosen by about in general use.

200 voters. Population of the burgh in 1821, 3176 Most of the improved breeds of cattle have been houses, 3366 families, 3254 do. engaged in trade. introduced. The dairies, which are numerous, are Total number of inhabitants 17,716. employed chiefly in feeding veal for the Dublin WIGHT, Isle of. See HamPSHIRE, Vol. X. market. In the north early lambs are fattened to 233. a considerable extent. The mountains of Wicklow WIGTON, a town of England, in Cumberland, is afford good pasturage for sheep. The number of situated on the river Wiza, which runs past the breeding ewes is about 20,000.' The South Down west and north side of the town. It consists of one are common, and many of the native flocks have main street, about three-fourths of a mile long, and been crossed with them. Merinos have also been some smaller ones, and contains many good houses. introduced.

The church, built in 1788, is a handsome building. The principal manufactures of Wicklow are The Sunday school, built in 1820, is an excellent woollen and cotton goods. Besides the coarse edifice, and holds 400 children. There is also a woollens for common use, flannel is manufactured free grammar school, and an hospital for six widows to a sreat extent. From 5000 to 7000 pieces were of protestant clergymen in the county. The manu

« 이전계속 »