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factures are printed cottons, ginghams, calicoes, the east of the burgh, terminating on an abrupt checks, &c. One of the chief calico manufactories ridge overlooking the bay, but no remains of it can is at Spittle, a quarter of a mile from Wigton. There be traced. There was a large cemetry connected are three excellent inns in the town. Population of with it, where, within these fifty years, bones and the township in 1821, 729 houses, 956 families, other sepulchral remains were dug up. The friars 128 do. in agriculture, 761 in trade, and total pop- of this place, though they had to prosess poverty ulation 4056.

and practice mendicity, were possessed of consideWIGTON, a town of Scotland, and the capital rable property, originating for the most part in of the county of the same name, is situated on an temporary grants of fisheries, lands, &c. and of abrupt eminence about 200 feet above the level of gratuities given them by the various kings of Scotthe sea, on the western banks of Wigton Bay, land who lodged with them on their pilgimage to within a quarter of a mile from the mouth of the St. Ninian's tomb in Whithorn. In 1502, James river Bladenoch. The town extends in a sloping IV. gave 14 shillings to the pipers of Wigton for direction from almost the summit of this hill, till music. And the subsequent year he presented the within 180 feet of the bay. Wigton was never a priest of Wigton with 40 shillings to perform “a place of much opulence or commercial importance, Dirge and Soul-mass” for his brother John, Earl of and no thoroughfare is connected with it. It con Mar, of whose death he there first got intelligence. sists principally of one street, fully a quarter of a The first church in Wigton was consecrated to St. mile in length, running nearly from west to east, of Machute, an obscure saint, who died in 554. It the usual width at the two extremities, but diverg. originally belonged to the priory of Whithorn, tut ing so in the centre as to leave a vacant space of was afterwards a free rectory, of which the king considerable extent. Till about the year 1810, this was patron. There is a MS. in the Advocates' space was public property, uninclosed, and serving Library (Jac. V. 8. 8.) containing curious notices as a cattle market; but about that time it was en relative to religious houses; among other things, a closed nearly in the form of a parallelogram, planted donation (1495) is mentioned from William M'Garwith shrubs, evergreens and forest trees, beautified vey, vicar of Penningham, of various houses and with broad walks, having a large bowling green in crofts in or near the burgh (which are most minthe centre. It is distant 105 miles south-west from utely described), to support “a chaplaine in St. Edinburgh, its latitude being 54° 52' north (nearly Machutus in Wigtoun." When the present church on the same parallel as Durham), and its longitude was built, we have not ascertained; the east gable 4° 22' 30" west.

is of great antiquity, being the remains of a former Wigton was made a royal burgh in the reign of building, probably that of the church of the vene. David II. This honour was probably conferred rable St. Machute. In the churchyard are several upon it in 1341, when it was established as the ancient monuments and inscriptions, particularly chief town of the earldom or county of Wigton, one or two which seem to have been transferred conferred on Sir Malcolm Fleming. The county thither from the cemetry of the monastery. (but not the title), with its capital was thirty years The inhabitants, with the exception of a few Irish afterwards sold to Archibald Douglas, Lord of settlers, are nearly all natives, either of the burgh or Galloway; and on the forfeiture of this family, an- county. The names of families that are still most nexed to the crown in 1453. In 1581, it is specified prevalent in Wigton, such as M'Kie, M'Kinnell, as one of the king's free burghs in the west. But &c. were the predominant names so early as the Wigton was a place of importance long before it year 1495. (Vide the MS. above referred to.) was erected into a royal burgh. It must have ex The inhabitants of this place are extremely respectisted previously to 1267, when Dervorgille, daugh- able, and no where can be found more interesting ter of Allan, Lord of Galloway, founded there a and refined society. They are generally in comfort. monastery for black nuns, as it is then mentioned able circumstances in their respective stations, and by its present name as a place well known. The some of them have attained considerable opulence. castle of Wigton, which belonged to the king, is Property is much subdivided: there are few steady spoken of as an important fortress about the latter tradesmen that are not proprietors of a house; and period, and Chalmers thinks it was built at least a the numerous crofts, or acres as they are called, adcentury before that date. This castle was in the jacent to the burgh, are the property of the various hands of Edward I. in 1291, being delivered to him classes of the citizens. They are a reading, inquitill the claims of the different competitors for the sitive people; and while they have had for above crown were decided. He committed it to the thirty years a large subscription library, not a few charge of Walter de Currie Claird of Dunskey), of them possess extensive private collections. and successively of others, and ultimately conferred Crime is nearly unknown, and the obligations of it on John Baliol as the Scottish king. This castle piety and morality are held sacred. There is, in has now disappeared; but it is understood to have addition to the parish church, a dissenting chapel. been situated on the banks of the Bladenoch south The burgh school has long been eminent; and there of the town, at a place where in ancient times that are not wanting instances of individuals educated river fell into the bay. The fosse is quite discern- at this seminary that have attained to distinction ible; and though the foundation of the walls cannot and honour in various quarters of the world. be traced, mortar and other remains, indicative of Wigton, with New Galloway, Whithorn and Stranan ancient building, are still to be observed. The raer, send a member to parliament. The populamonastery founded by Dervorgille was situated on tion amounts to about 1000. Vide Caledonia;

-Murray's Lit. Hist. of Galloway; and the Rev. Mr. more than a hundred years since it entirely disap

Donnan's account of ihis place in the Stat. Acc. of peared in the parish of New Luce. The inhabitants Scotland, vol. xiv.

(T. M.) of this county have from the remotest antiquity WIGTONSHIRE. About lhe etymology of the been a warlike people. Their continual hostility term Wigton there have been many conflicting con with the Scottish monarchs for ages previously to jectures. Without dwelling on these, we think it the death of Alexander III. and their achievements sufficient to mention that to us it seems composed during the wars that followed that event, are reeither of the Gothic term wic, a turret, a fortress, a corded in the history of their country. Their cocastle, and lon or tun, a dwelling, a village; a castle operation was so much valued by the kings of having stood near the site of the present Wigton Scotland, that to obtain it they conferred on them at an earlier period than can be ascertained, and the honour (common to them and the people of the the town, when built, would naturally take its name rest of Galloway), of forming the van at every batfrom the fortress; or of the Anglo-Saxon word tle at which they might be present. The chiefs of waeg, a wave, a billow, a sea, a way, and ton as many of the most distinguished families, with their above; and this appellation it might obtain from its followers, fell at the battles of Bannockburn, Haly. situation on the banks of a large arm of the sea. don Hill, Flodden, Pinkie, &c. Nor have they in The county would, as in so many other instances, modern times been less distinguished for their take its name from the chief town; this district, bravery and military skill, though it might seem indeed, was not erected into a county until 1341, invidious to refer to particular examples. long before which the town of Wigton had become The physical appearance of Wigtonshire is not a place of importance. It is sometimes called very striking. Though there are eminences and West Galloway, or the shire of Galloway, the hills of considerable height, yet it has been remarkstewartry of Kirkcudbright being denominated ed that there is no county in Scotland that rises so East Galloway: the two being known by the com- little above the level of the sea. There are no immon name of Galloway.

portant rivers belonging to the county. The Cree, This county is bounded on the east by Wigton which rises in Ayrshire, terminates in the Wigton Bay and the river Cree, which separate it from the Bay, after being navigable for about four miles. stewartry of Kirkcudbright; on the south by the The Bladenoch, which rises in Loch Mabearrie on Irish sea; on the west by the Irish channel; and on the frontiers of Ayrshire, and which receives the the north by Ayrshire. It is situated between 54o tributary streams of the Tarff and Malzie, after a 38' and 55° 4' north latitude, and between 4° 16' winding course of about 20 miles, falls into Wigton and 5° 6' west longitude. Its length from east to Bay near Wigton, being navigable only for a mile west is 34 miles; its breadth from north to south and a-half. The only two rivers worth mentioning, nearly the same; its mean breadth about 24 miles. are the Luce and Piltanton: the former, rising in It is divided into three districts,-the Rhyns (sig- Ayrshire, falls into the Luce Bay near Glenluce; nifying peninsula), which lies west of a line drawn the latter has its source in the parish of Portpatbetween Luce Bay and Lochryan; the Machers (or rick, and joins the sea on the west of the same bay: flat country), lying between the Wigton and Luce neither of them are navigable. The county has a Bays; and ihe Moors, which include ihe remainder, southern exposure, and the rivers flow in that dibeing more than the half of the county. No part rection nearly parallel to each other. of the shire is above 13 miles from the sea.

But though not possessing large or navigable The climate is regarded as salubrious, though rivers, this county abounds with the most spacious subject to considerable variations. There are bays and harbours. Wigton bay, which lies on the many instances of longevity: Alexander Credie, a east, is a noble estuary, gradually varying from native of the Machers, died in 1824 at Sorbie, at seven or eight miles in width, tillit terminates in the venerable age of 108.

the Cree, a distance of about ten miles. Luce bay The number of inhabitants in 1755 was 16,466; fornis an indentation on the south of about fifteen in 1811, they had increased to 26,891; and in 1821, miles, its width regularly graduating from twenty to 33,240. The number of square miles in the miles till it reaches near the town of Glenluce, county being 459, there is 72 inhabitants to each where it terminates. These bays form two remarksquare mile. Taking Scotland altogether, it aver- able promontories,-the Borough head, in the southages 79 to a square mile. The people of this east, and the Mull of Galloway on the south-west, courty are industrious, moral, intelligent and en- —the two most southerly points in Scotland, the terprising. With the exception of Irish settlers, latter being about a mile and a-half farther south who form a numerous class, the greater number of than the former. Lochryan, an arm of the sea, lies the present inhabitants can trace back their descent on the north-west corner, extending into the counthrough many generations. They are originally, try about nine miles, and varying from two to four as shall be mentioned hereafter, a Celtic people; in breadth. These estuaries are distinguished by and it is a curious fact that they retained their numerous and excellent harbours. On the western early predilections so long that the Gaelic was their shore opposite to Ireland, are the harbours of Portvernacular dialect in the time of Queen Mary, when nessock and Portpatrick. Of the vast improveit was unknow! in every other district in the south ments now executing at the latter of these, we have of Scotland. This speech was not disused in the given an account in our article PORTPATRICK; and remoter parishes even at the beginning of the 17th at the former, Colonel M·Dowall has commenced century; and if tradition may be relied on, it is not similar improvements at his own private expense;

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so that these two places, when finished, will proba- of smuggling from Ireland and the Isle of Man, as bly be superior to any other harbour on the western much as to its commercial importance. At the Recoast of Scotland. In this county, the fresh water volution, Wigtonshire had no shiping except three locks, though numerous, are extremely small. or four vessels, chiefly for fishing, belonging to Dowalton or Longcastle in the Machers, which is Stranraer. And such has been its improvement, probably the largest, is about two miles long by one chiefly of late, that in 1819 it could boast of 106 in breadth.

vessels admeasuring 4312 tons, averaging upwards The soil varies much in the different divisions of of forty tons each. Of these vessels, seven are emthe county. The lower grounds, particularly those ployed in foreign trade, mostly with Canada; twelve on the coast, are very rich and fertile; while the in the fishing trade, for which purpose they pay an higher soils, though mostly arable, are thin, gra- annual visit to the shore of the Western Highlands; velly, and unproductive. The barony of Baldoon and eighty-seven in the coasting trade. The chief in the Machers, stretching south from the Bladenoch imports are black cattle and horses from Ireland, along the Wigton bay, is the Carse of Gowrie of chiefly for the English market; coals, lime, merthe south. The Rhyns also is extremely rich, though chant-goods, slate, free-stone, iron, with wood from from the sandy nature of the soil in some places, Canada; the chief exports are the produce of agri. the crops are very precarious, and hence in that culture. There are no manufactures carried on in district prices often differ much from those of the Wigtonshire except for home consumption. rest of the county. The most improved system of Wigtonshire is not distinguished for mineral agriculture is every where pursued, though the best wealth. No mines of any kind have been found, specimens may be found on the estate of Baldoon. with the exception of a copper mine near the Boof the relative proportions of land in crop and in rough-Head, which the proprietor has lately begun pasture, we have a correct idea from the fact, that to dig. Quarries of coarse slate has been met with, out of 288,960 English acres which the county con- but none of good quality; and slate is still imported. tains, 101,136, or 35 per cent, are under cultivation, This county abounds with burghs and villages,and 187,824, or 65 per cent, in pasture. It may of which, we have already given an account of Portnot be improper to state, that property in land is patrick, Whithorn, and Wigton. (See these artihere very little subdivided. There are four or five cles). Stranraer, the next in eminence, is beautilarge proprietors whose united estates comprehend fully situated on a plain at the head of Lochryan. It the half of the whole county, and compared with was constituted a royal burgh by James VI. in 1617; other shires, there are few whose estates vary from but owing to the invidious interference of Wigion, £500 to £1000 of rental. Agriculture, though now which dreaded it as a rival, its charter, it is supbrought to perfection in Wigtonshire, was, till posed, was not confirmed till the time of William within less than a century, in a very rude state. and Mary. It forms the great thoroughfare to IreMarshal Stair was the first to introduce agricultural land; it is larger than any other town in the counimprovements into this county, as his sister, the ty, its population being above 2000. Glenluce countess of Loudon (who died in 1770 aged 100), stands about 500 yards from the Luce, at the head did into Ayrshire. This celebrated general in 1728 of the bay of that name. The population may be retired from public business, and spent the remain about 500. Newton-Stewart lies on the banks of der of his days either in the counties of Wigton or the Cree, eight miles north of Wigton, and contains Linlithgow (in both of which he had a residence), about 1200 inhabitants. Garlieston, about the same in the quiet pursuits of private lise. He adopted size as Glenluce, lies on the west of the Wigton the most approved modes of cultivation he had wit. bay. The Isle of Whitborn, on the same bay, southnessed either in England or on the continent. He ward, is, properly speaking, the port of Whithorn, practised the horse-hoeing system: he introduced from which it is distant about three miles. Fortthe Lucerne and Saint Foin grasses; in addition to William, a small place, but possessing a good har. potatoes, he cultivated turnips, carrots and cabbages bour, is on the east coast of the Luce bay. with the plough: he subdivided and enclosed his But Wigton is distinguished for nothing so much lands: drained swamps and mosses: and altogether as the antiquity and number of its religious houses. exhibited a skill and an enterprize such as to effect a The oldest church in Scotland was built near the revolution in agriculture in the two counties in site of the present Whithorn, as mentioned in our question. Lord Stair died in 1747, but the influ- account of ihat burgh; and in the 12th century a ence of his example continued: and since his death, monastery was founded there by Fergus, Lord of Wigton has had the advantage of various skilful Galloway. The same person established another agriculturists, both landlords and tenants, to whom called Saulseat-(sedes animarum)-near Stranraer. she is deeply indebted. Two agricultural societies Rolland, Lord of Galloway, founded, in the saine have long existed in Wigtonshire; and the present century, the abbey of Glenluce; and the abbey of race of farmers, in point of intelligence and profes. Wigton was established in the 13th century by Dersional skill, are highly respectable.

vorgille, daughter of Allan, last Lord of Galloway, Notwithstanding what hath been said respecting and mother to John Baliol, the Scottish king. There the harbours and other advantages of this county, were also numerous churches and chapels of infeit has little or no trade or manufactures. Though rior note founded at or before the time when these it is the seat of three branches of the customhouse, monasteries were erected. Wigtonshire at the Reintroduced in 1710-(namely at Wigton, Stranraer, formation contained twenty-one parishes, with variand Portpatrick), yet this is owing to the prevalence ous subsidiary chapels, either the property of some

baron, or built for the advantage of the remote in. of nearly equal antiquity. The Adairs, the Aghabitants of a large parish. These chapels have news, the Kennedys, all of Irish extraction, the long been disused, and in most cases even their Stewarts, the Dunbars (descended from the earls ruins have disappeared: parishes have been more of March), settled in this county 500 years ago. judiciously arranged: in some cases, three, being The first charter in favour of the Vanses was in annexed, form one; and though three new parishes 1452. The Maxwells (from the house of Nithsdale) have been erected—(Kirkcowan, Stranraer, Port were established here in the same century. The patrick)—the number is reduced to seventeen. Gordons, of whom not fewer than twelve were land.

From the ecclesiastical importance of this coun holders in Wigtonshire in the time of Charles I. ty, its most celebrated characters have been of the were originally of the house of Lochinvar in the sacred profession. · St. Ninian was a native of Leu- stewartry: and the various families of M'Lellans cophibia or Whithorn, where, after studying at were of 'the house of Bombie, in the same county. Rome, he founded the first church built in Scotland. The Murrays of Broughton (of illustrious descent Gavin Dunbar, tutor to James V. and afterwards in Dumfries-shire, and now representing in the archbishop of Glasgow, was son to Sir John Dun- stewartry the Stewarts, knights of Cally, and the bar of Mochrum. Some illustrious men, both cler. Lennoxes of Plunton), the Hays of Park, the Ros. gymen and laymen, such as Archbishop Beaton, ses, the Blairs of Dunskey, the Dalrymples of Stair, Bishop Gordon (archbishop of Athens), Bishop the Cathcarts of Genoch, the Hathorns, first appear Cowper, Lord Stair the famous lawyer, his son, in the annals of Wigton in the 16th or 17th centuthe first Earl of Stair, and grandson, Marshal Stair, ries. The connection with this county of the Flemwere connected with Wigton by office, or by the ings, earls of Wigton, and the Douglasses, as shall possession of property. Dr. M Gill of Ayr, a cele- soon be shown, was but short; the former only for brated divine, was a native of this county. Among thirty years: the latter for less than a century. The the laymen born here may be mentioned Sir Patrick Ramsays of Boghouse, the Nelsons of Craigcaffie, Vans of Barnbarroch, ambassador to Denmark in the Christians of Monkhill and Drummaston, the the time of King James VI., and a Lord of Session; Houstons of Culreoch, the Martins of Cutcloy and Patrick Hannay the poet, son to Hannay of Sorbie; Airies, the Baillies of Dunragget, have either beAndrew M•Dowall, Lord Bankton, author of Insti come extinct, or have terminated in females, or tutes of the Law of Scotland; and Major Stewart have now no properly in Wigtonshire. There were Maxwell, author of the Battle of the Bridge. persons of the name of Christian (sometimes spell

The most of the land holders of Wigtonshire are ed M'Christian or Christie, which is still a comdescended of families connected for centuries with mon name), that possessed tenements in the burgh this county. The ancient lords of Galloway will be of Wigton and crofts in the neighbourhood before afterwards mentioned; but whether their race has 1449. The Christians of Monkhill are now reprebecome extinct, or whether any family can claim sented by Mr. Christian Curwen of Cumberland. descent from them, is a question that has long been There are also M.Kerlies, a name common here agitated, and from its nature can never be com since the days of Wallace, but which, so far as we pletely ascertained; but it seems to be generally al- know, occurs in no other district in Scotland. The lowed, that the M•Dowalls of Wigtonshire have that oldest names, in addition to those already mentionhonour. (Caledonia, III. 379.) They bore the same ed, are M'Guffie, M.Kinnen, M.Keand, M'Gowan, arms as the ancient princes of Galloway; and Fer- M'Geoch, M.Nish, M-Gill, M'Cracken, Milwain, gus, Uchtred and Duncan, names in the old family Milhench, Clumpha, Broadfoot, Dickson, Dondan, of Galloway, were also the prevailing names of the the most of which are evidently Celtic, and must M'Dowalls. They have been a powerful race in have come down from the remotest antiquity. Wigtonshire since the middle of the 13th century, The history of this county, had we room to tell and were particularly conspicuous on the side of it, would be interesting. The aborigines were of Baliol during the succession wars. The name is Celtic origin. They were invaded by the Romans; still eminent, but the number that bear it is reduc- and the geography of the district has been given by ed: for in the list of freeholders of the county there Ptolemy and others. The inhabitants were named are only three M.Dowalls; while in the 17th cen. Novantes: their chief towns were Rerigonium on the tury there were no fewer than thirteen. The Rerigonius sinus, or Lochryan, and Leucophibia, M'Cullochs of Myreton, as ancient and powerful as the present Whithorn. The Mull of Galloway they the M‘Dowalls, also supported the claims of the called Promontorium Novantium, the Luce bay English monarch, and espoused the cause of the Abravannus sinus, the Wigton bay Jena fluvius. Baliols. In 1337, Edward III. granted Patrick On the abdication of the Romans, the Celts again M.Culloch an annual pension of £20 for his good obtained possession of the county. They were freservices in Scotland; and he subsequently gave him quently invaded by the Gothic inhabitants of Scanother marks of his favour and gratitude. The last dinavia, and were partially conquered by the Angloof the Myreton line, Sir Godfrey M.Culloch, was Saxons of Northumbria. They were never, howbeheaded for murder in 1697; but several gentle- ever, completely subdued, and it is questionable men of the same name, lineally descended at vari. whether, in the earlier periods of their history, they ous periods from the original stock, are land holders owned subjection even to the Scottish kings. They, in Galloway. The Hannays (of Sorbie and Moch- at least, under the sway of their own independent rum), and ihe M•Kies are also of very old descent. lords or princes (for about a century previously to These are the oldest families, but there are others the death of Allan, their last lord, in 1234), revolt

ed, and carried on war against their sovereign, with of justice, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, stands various success. On the death of Allan, his power on a high bank, right side of Susquehanna river,

. and domains were subdivided among his three about 120 miles N.N.W. from Philadelphia, and by daughters,—which introduced new families and new post road 222 N.N.E. from W. C. and 114 N.E. customs. John Baliol, the Scottish king, was from Harrisburg. N. Lat. 41° 13', Long. 1° 7' E. grandson of Allan, and possessed great estates in from W. C. Wigtonshire. The most powerful families of this Wilkes-barre was laid out about the year 1775, province (the M'Cullochs, the MDowalls, the Han- by Col. John Durkee, who imposed the compound nays, the Adairs, ) swore fealty to Edward I. and he name as a grateful tribute to two eminent members appointed Thomas M'Culloch sheriff of the county of the British parliament, for their exertions in faThis county, with the title of earl, was conferred by vour of the North American colonies. The plan is David II. in 1341 on Sir Malcolm Fleming: but perhaps entirely singular. The streets form a paFleming, amid the disasters of the times, was rallelogram, extending along or at right angles to obliged, in 1372, to dispose of his estates (though the river; in the centre is a public square, conhe retained the title) to Archibald Douglas. From taining the county buildings, but this square stands this period the Douglasses ruled supreme till their at an angle of 45 degrees to the streets; form of the forfeiture in 1453. The county was then parcelled latter extending from each corner of the former. out among different families, most of which still The western angle of the square is opposite a remain: and the Agnews of Lochnaw were created bridge over the Susquehanna, with a portion of the heritable chiefs. The office remained in that family main street intervening: The bridge connects till the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in 1747, Wilkes-barre with the village of Kingston. Populawith the exception of 17 years previous to the Re- tion of Wilkes-barre in 1830, 2232. volution, when the infamous Graham of Claver WILKES-BARRE, valley of, usually called the house and his brother were appointed joint sheriffs. valley of Wyoming, is amongst the natural scenes

See the Statistical Accounts of the several pa- in the United States that richly deserve a visit. rishes; Caledonia, iii. S Wigton; Symon's Galloway; The Susquehanna river may be said to rush into Smith's Survey; Murray's Galloway. (T.M.) and break through the Appalachian system of

mountains. Passing ihe first great chain at ToWILCOX, county of Alabama, bounded S. by wanda, the large volume of water in its rocky bed Monroe; S.W. by Clarke; N. W. by Marengo; N. and rolls through several other chains in quick sucN.E., by Dallas; E. by Montgomery, and S.E. by cession, at length reaches Wyoming valley at the Butler. Length, from E. to W., 60 miles; mean mouth of Lackawannoc river, by a very striking breadth 20, and area 1200 square miles. Extending mountain gorge, inflecting at right angles, and in Lat. from 31° 49' to 32° 15', and in Long. from 90 turning from S.E. to S.W.; the stream with very 56' to 10° 56' W. from W.C. Declivity S.W. and gentle partial windings flows down the Wyoming traversed in that direction by Alabama river; chief valley nine miles, passes Wilkes-barre and Kingtown, Canton. By the post-office list of 1831, there, ston, and six miles farther leaves the valley by were post-offices at Allentown, Barge's, Black's another mountain pass. The bed of Susquehanna Bluff

, Canton, Daletown, Lower Peach Tree, Up- merely touches the western river of this vale, which per Peach Tree, Mott's, Norrisville, and Womacks. is indeed extended up the Lackawannoc, and to Population in 1820, 2917, in 1830, 9548. DARBY. the southwestward, some miles below where it is

abandoned by the river. The valley is distinci, WILKES, John, a celebrated political charac- therefore, 25 miles above and seven or eight below ter, was born in London in 1727, and died in 1797. the borough of Wilkes-barre, exceeding 30 miles See our Article Britain, Vol. IV. p. 613-617, and in length, but with a width that does not at the Almon's Memoirs of John Wilkes.

utmost exceed a mean of two and a-half miles.

Enclosed between mountains every where steep and WILKES, county of North Carolina, bounded rugged, in many places precipitous, and in some N.E. and E. by Surry; S.E. by Iredell; S.W. by rising into naked summits, spreads alluvial flats Burke, and W.N.W. and N. by Blue Ridge, se- of exuberant fertility. Here, as along the Susqueparating it from Ashe. Length from S.W. to N.E. hanna generally, there are two stages of bottoms. 48 miles; mean breadth 18, and area 864 square The lower, and of course most recent, are much the miles. Extending in Lat. from 35° 56' to 36° 24', most productive, and least admixed with rounded and in Long. from 3° 51' !0 4° 35' W. from W. C. pebble, but are still subject to casual submersion. This county is a real mountain valley, environed 'The higher stages, on one of which stands Wilkeson every side, but to that of the northeast, by the barre, are, in the cxisting order of things, above all Blue Ridge and adjacent chains. It is commen- floods, but both have been evidently once under surate with the extreme higher valley of Yadkin water. This conclusion is almost irresistible to river, by the confluents of which it is entirely any observer in the vicinity of Wilkes-barre. In drained. Declivity portheastward; chief town brief, it may be asserted that many of our citiWilkesville. By the post-office list of 1831, there zens who admire natural scenery, know the wealth were post-offices at Brier creek, Fort Defiance, of the Alps in objects of taste infinitely better than New Castle, and Wilkesborough. Population in they do regions at their door. The Wyoming is 1820, 9967, in 1830, 11,968.

only one of the innumerable pictures along the WILKES-BARRE, borough, post town, and seat Appalachian system where are combined every VOL. XVIII.-Part II.

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