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feature, from the stern to the most soft and se- tinued to exist as a respectable literary instituducing. Again, in the vicinity of Wilkesbarre and tion. By the original charter, this college was Kingston, the mineral curiosities are not the least endowed with a clear and certain revenue of £3000 attractive. The formation is transition or leaning; per annum. Recent attempts have been made to the inclination S.E. Embedded in slate from one revive the former prosperous condition of this seto twenty or more feet in thickness lie masses of minary. Population of Williamsburg in 1820, 1402. anthracite coal, which appear more and more WILLIAMSBURG, district of South Carolina, vast as they are better explored.

bounded N.W. by Sumpter; N.E. by Lynche's WILKESBOROUGH, in the post-office list, but creek, separating it from Marian; E. and S.E. by Wilkesville on Tanner's U. S. Map, post village Georgetown district; and S. W. by Santee river; and seat of justice, Wilkes county North Carolina, separating it from Charlestown district. Length situated on the right bank of Yadkin river, 51 between Santee river and Lynche's creek, 40 miles, miles N.E. from Morgantown, in Burke county, mean breadth 30, and area 1200 square miles. Exand by post-road 175 miles a little N. of W. from tending in Lat. from 33° 15' to 34° 02' N. and in Raleigh. N. Lat. 36° 10', Long. 4° 8' W. from Long. from 2° 24' to 3° 12'. The declivity is W. C.

southeastward, in the direction of Lynche's creek, WILKINSON, county of Georgia, bounded S. Santee river, and Black river. The latter stream E. by Laurens; S. W. by Twiggs; N.W. by Jones; rising in Sumpter, traverses Williamsburg, at a N. by Baldwin, and E. by Oconee river, separating mean distance of 16 or 17 miles from Santee river. it from Washington. Length from N.W. to S.E. Chief town, Kingtree. Population in 1820, 8716, 24 miles; mean breadth 18, and area 432 square in 1830, 9018.

DARBY. miles. Extending in Lat. from 32° 37' to 33° 02' WILMINGTON, a post-town of New Castle N., and in Long. from 6° 2' to 6° 30' W. from W.C. county, Delaware, is situate on a point just above Declivity southeastward, towards the Oconee. Chief the junction of Brandywine and Christiana creeks, town, Irvinton. Population in 1820,6992, in 1830, about 28 miles S.W. from Philadelphia, and by 6513. By the post office list of 1831, there were post road 108 N.E. from Washington City. Lat. post-offices at Cool Spring and Irwinton.

39° 44' 15" N., Long. 75° 32' 45" W. WILKINSON, county of the state of Missis The site of the town is of considerable acclivity, sippi, bounded by the Homochitto river, separating being on the dividing ridge between the waters of it from Adams county, on the N.; and Franklin those streams; the summit is 109 feet above tide N.E.; by Amite county E.; by the parish of East water, from which there is a fine prospect of the Feliciana in Louisiana S.E.; by West Feliciana in surrounding country and of the river Delaware, Louisiana S.; and by the Mississippi river sepa- about three miles distant; it is much the largest rating it from the parish of Avoyelles in Louisiana town of the state in which it is situate, and, except W.; and the parish of Concordia Louisiana N.W. Philadelphia, the most extensive in the basin of Greatest length from E. to W. 30, mean breadth the Delaware. The streets cross each other at 20, and area 600 square miles. Extending in Lat. right angles; the side walks are generally paved from 31° to 31° 14' N. and in Long. from 14° 12' with brick, and the carriage ways of some of the to 14° 46' W, from W. C. The general declivity principal streets with stone. The buildings are of this county is westward, but the extreme south- generally good, and some of them very neat and ern border declines in a southern direction, giving capacious. source to Thompson's creek, and Bayou Sara. Wilmington was for many years past a borougi Buffaloe creek rises on the eastern side, and flow- town; but has the present year (1832) received a ing westward, divides the county into two nearly city charter. Its limits embrace an area of one equal sections.

The surface is very much broken mile from N. to S. and one and a half from E. to by hills, however, of no great elevation. Soil ex W. It is under the government of a mayor, an cellent. Principal staple, cotton; chief town, Wood- alderman, and city council, composed of 12 memville. By the post-office list of 1831, there were bers, four of whom are elected annually by the post-offices at Cold Spring, Fort Adams, Keller. citizens, to serve for three years; this body has town, Mount Pleasant, Percy's creek, Pinckney. power to enact the necessary laws for the governville, Rose Hill and Woodville. Population 1820, ment of the city. They also elect the mayor and 9718, in 1830, 11,686.

alderman, the former for a term of three years, and WILLIAMSBURG, post town, and seat of jus- the latter for five years. tice, James City county Virginia, situated on the There are also two courts for the trial of city summit level between York and James rivers, by causes; the mayor's court possessing criminal, and post road 60 miles S.E. by E. from Richmond. the city court civil jurisdiction. The mayor and N. Lat. 37° 16' and Long. 0° 20' E. from W. C. alderman and president of the council, preside in The post road distance from W. C. 163 miles. each of these courts.

This little city, though it has not advanced much Wilmington, though a port of entry, has not an in wealth or population, has many very interesting extensive commerce with foreign countries; but is claims on the student of U. s. Geography. It the centre of a large manufacturing district; it has was the cradle of our political existence, and for a three banking establishments, viz. long period the seat of government of “ Infant

Capital. Virginia." The College of William and Mary, in

The Bank of Delaware,

$110.000 Williamsburg, was founded in 1693, and with va Bank of Wilmington and Brandywine, 130,000 rious fortunes of advance and recession, has con Branch of Farmer's Bank of Delaware, 200,000

The Bank of Delaware was the first established Sumner. Length 38, mean breadth 14, and area in the state, and is one of the oldest in the United 432 square miles. Extending in Lat. from 35° 58' States, its charter having been granted in 1796; to 36° 20' and in Long. from 90 to 9° 44' W. from its business has been extensive and ably conduct. W. C. Declivity a little W. of N. towards Cumed, and few banking institutions in the country berland river; chief town, Lebanon. Population have proved as profitable an investment for their in 1820, 18,730, in 1830, 25,472.

DARBY. stockholders. It has within a few years erected a very neat and commodious banking house, attach WILSON, ALEXANDER, M.D. late Professor of ed io which is a dwelling for the cashier. There Practical Astronomy in Glasgow College, was a are also two fire insurance companies, with an ag- younger son of Patrick Wilson, town-clerk of St. gregate capital of $250,000.

Andrews, and was born there in 1714. There are 13 houses for public worship; viz. Having received the usual education at the difthree Episcopalians, two Friends, three Presbyte- ferent schools, he entered the College of St. rian, one Baptist, one Roman Catholic, and three Andrews, where he made great proficiency in liteMethodists, two of which latter belong to coloured rature and the sciences, and, after completing a congregations.

regular course of studies, he was admitted to the The public buildings are, a United States arse- degree of Master of Arts in his nineteenth year. nal, the city hall, a college, a poor house, and two Upon his leaving the college, he was put as an market houses, at which a market is held twice in apprentice to a surgeon and apothecary in his naeach week alternately; they are well supplied with tive city, with a view of following that profession. meats, fruit and vegetables. The poor house is At this period he became more particularly known erected on a healthy and elevated situation, a short to Dr. Thomas Simson, professor of medicine in distance west of the town, and is well adapted to the university, who ever after treated him with the purposes intended. There is also a public li- much kindness and friendship. brary and academy of natural sciences, in which is In 1537 Mr. Wilson departed from St. Andrews, deposited a fine collection of minerals.

and by the advice of his friends went to London, in Among the private literary establishments in order to seek for employment as a young person this city, there are five boarding schools, which who had been bred to the medical profession. are generally under the superintendence of com- Soon after his arrival there, he engaged himself petent instructors, and afford ample facilities for with a French refugee, a surgeon and apothecary obtaining a liberal education; two of these institu- of good character, who received him into his tions are for young ladies; they have been esta. family, giving him the charge of his shop, and of blished for several years, and are eminently de some of his patients, with a small annual salary. serving of the patronage they have received. About twelve months after he had been fixed in

In the vicinity of Wilmington are the falls of this new situation, Mr. David Gregory, professor the Brandywine, which afford a very extensive wa- of mathematics at St. Andrews, coming to London, ter power, from which the city derives an incalcu- introduced him to Dr. Charles Stewart, physician lable advantage by an adequate supply of pure and to Archibald, Duke of Argyle, then Lord Isla. wholesome water.

- A circumstance of a very accidental nature ocIn 1826 the borough council purchased a large curred, which gave a new direction to his genius, mill on

the Brandywine, and constructed ma- and which in the end led him to an entire change chinery by which the water of this stream is of his profession. This was a transient visit which forced, a distance of 2120 feet, to two handsome he happened one day to make to a letter-foundry, and extensive reservoirs, situate at the summit of along with a friend who wanted to purchase some the town; from these reservoirs a copious supply printing types. In the course of seeing the comof water is distributed to every part of the town mon operation of the workmen usually shown to by means of iron pipes of various dimensions; the strangers, he was much captivated with the curious extent of pipes now laid is about five miles: The contrivances made use of in that business. Some whole machinery for this work is of perfect con short while afterwards, when reflecting upon what struction, and reflects great credit on the skill of had been shown in the letter-foundry, he was led to the engineer. The cost of the works and proper. imagine that a certain great improvement of the ty was about $65,000. The mill is occupied as art might possibly be effected, and of a kind, too, a cotton factory, and the reservoirs are supplied that, if successfully accomplished, promised to rewith water at regular periods by the occupant.

ward the inventor with considerable emolument. The valuable water power of the Brandywine His ideas upon that subject he presently imparted has also been rendered available to a great extent, to a friend a little older than himself, who had also by the erection of mills and machinery for the come from St. Andrews, and who was possessed manufacture of cotton and woollen goods, flour, of a considerable share of ingenuity, constancy, paper, snuff, gun-powder, iron, and various other and enterprize. The consequence of this was, a articles.

resolution on the part of both these young advenPopulation of Wilmington in 1820, 5268, in turers to relinquish, as soon as it could be done 1830, 6663.

ED. with propriety, all other pursuits, and unite their WILSON, county of Tennessee, bounded by exertions in prosecuting the business of letterSmith E.; Warren S.E.; Rutherford S.; Davidson founding upon an improved plan. W.; and Cumberland river N., separating it from It was not long ere they were enabled to carry

into effect this resolution, and they first establish friends, whose meetings were held weekly within ed a small type-foundry at St. Andrews, and one the college, it appears that these hydrostatical on a larger scale, two years afterwards, al Camla bubbles made the subject of a discourse delivered chie, a village near Glasgow.

by Mr. Wilson in the winter of 1757. At this In this situation Mr. Wilson had contracted time he also showed how a single glass-bubble habits of intimacy and friendship with several per may serve for estimating very small differences of sons of the most respectable character, particularly specific gravity of fluids of the same kind, such as with the professors belonging to the university of water taken from different springs, or the like. Glasgow, and with Messrs. Robert and Andrew This he did by varying the temperature of such Foulis, university printers. The growing reputa- fluids, till the same bubble, when immersed, betion of the university press, conducted by these came stationary at every trial, and then expressing gentlemen, gave additional scope to Mr. Wilson to the differences of their specific gravity, by degrees exert his abilities in constructing their types, and of the thermometer, the value of which can be being now left entirely to follow his own judgment computed and stated in the usual manner. and taste, his talents as an artist became every year In the year 1758 he read another discourse to the more conspicuous. When the design was formed same society upon the motion of pendulums. On by the gentlemen of the university, together with this occasion he exhibited a spring-clock of a small Messrs. Foulis, to print splendid editions of the compass, which beat seconds by means of a new Greek classics, he, with great alacrity, undertook pendulum he had contrived, upon the principle of to execute new types upon a model highly im. the balance, whose centres of oscillation and moproved. This he accomplished at an expense of tion were very near to one another. At one of the time and labour which could not be recompensed trials it performed so well as not to vary more than by any profits arising from the sale of the types a second in about forty hours, when compared with themselves.

a very exact astronomical clock near to which it Though he thus continued to prosecute letter was placed. founding as his chief business, yet, from his great Not long after this, he also put in execution a temperance, domestic habits, and activity, he was remarkable improvement of the thermometer, enabled now and then to command intervals of which consists in having the capillary bore drawn leisure, which he never failed to fill up by some very much of an elliptical form, instead of being useful or ingenious employment. One of these in round. By this means the thread of quicksilver which he took great delight was the constructing upon the scale presents itself broad, and much more of reflecting telescopes; an art which he cultivated

visible than it does in a cylindrical bore of the same with unwearied attention, and in the end with capacity. The difficulty of constructing thermomuch success.

meters of this kind had nearly hindered him from ** Among the more advanced students who, in the completing his invention, as the thread of quickyears 1748 and 1749, attended the lectures on di silver was found extremely liable to disunite when vinity in the university, was Mr. Thomas Melvill, descending suddenly in so strait a channel. But, so well known by his mathematical talents, and by by his long experience, he at last discovered a those fine specimens of genius which are to be method of blowing and filling thermometers with found in his posthumous papers, published in the flattened bores, which freed them entirely from this second volume of the Edinburgh Essays Physical defect. and Literary. With this young person Mr. Wil About the same time, also, he conceived the deson then lived in the closest intimacy. Of several sign of converting a thermometer graduated for the philosophical schemes which occurred to them in heat of boiling-water, into a marine barometer, in iheir social hours, Mr. Wilson proposed one, consequence of the well-known difference of tempewhich was to explore the temperature of the at rature which water, when boiling, acquires under mosphere in the higher regions, by raising a num the variable pressure of the atmosphere. This he ber of paper kites, one above another, upon the effected by making a boiling-waler thermometer same tine, with thermometers appended to those about a foot in length, with a pretty large ball, and that were to be most elevated. Though they ex having a thread of quicksilver as broad and as pected in general, that kites thus connected might visible as was consistent with a very perceptible be raised to an unusual height, still they were run upon small alterations of temperature. The somewhat uncertain how far the thing might suc stem of this thermometer he fortified, by inclosing ceed upon trial. But the thought being quite new it in a cylindrical case of white iron, having solto them, and the purpose to be gained of some im- dered to it, at its lower end, a socket of brass for portance, they bogan to prepare for the experiment receiving half of the ball, which afterwards became in the spring of 1749.

entirely defended, by screwing to the socket a In the year 1752, Mr. Wilson, who had married hemispherical cap. At the other end of the case the daughter of William Sharp, a reputable mer which environed the stem, there was soldered a chant of St. Andrews, brought his family 10 Glas- ' tube of brass wide enough to admit a scale of progow. About five years afterwards he invented the per dimensions, before which there was an opening hydrostatical glass-bubbles, for determining the in the tube, defended by glass. strength of spirituous liquors of all kinds. From

The utmost range of the scale he determined by the minutes of a Philosophical and Literary So the points, where the thermometer was found to be ciety, composed of the professors and some of their stationary when the ball, and a certain part of the

stem were immersed in water, boiling under the ed. The other buildings are the town-hall, a methogreatest variations of pressure which ihe climate dist and an independent chapel, a free school and the afforded. The interval so found, he subdivided by alms-house. Wilion was long celebrated for its other observations into degrees, which corresponded cloth and carpet manufactures, but these branches to inches of the barometer, and which were so de- have declined and are replaced by the manufacture nominated upon the scale.

of flannels and other woollen fabrics and fancy goods. In the year 1756, the college of Glasgow, upon The first carpet made in England was made at the death of Dr. Alexander Macfarlane of Jamaica, Wilton. At the east end of the town stands Wilton a great lover of, and proficient in the sciences, re house, the residence of the earls of Pembroke. This ceived a legacy of a valuable collection of astrono- is a large pile erected at different times, and in difmical instruments, which that gentleman had got ferent styles of architecture. It contains an extenconstructed at London, by the best artists, and had sive and fine collection of pictures and sculpture. carried out with him to Jamaica, with a view of A full description of it will be found in our Article cultivating astronomy in that island. The college, Civil ARCHITECTURE. Population of the burgh and upon this, soon built an observatory for their re- parish in 1821, 390 houses, 637 families, 78 do.emception, which, by medals placed under the found. ployed in agriculture, 245 in trade, &c., and total ation, was called by the name of their generous population 2058. benefactor; and Mr. Wilson was immediately WILTSHIRE, an inland county of England. It thought of as a proper person for making the is bounded on the north by the county of Gloucesastronomical observations. At this juncture his ter, on the east by Berkshire and Hampshire, on Grace' Archibald, Duke of Argyle, procured his the south by Dorsetshire, and on the west by Majesty's presentation, nominating him professor Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. It is about 54 of practical astronomy, with an annual salary of miles long and 34 broad, and contains 1379 square fifty pounds; and accordingly, in 1769, he was ad. statute miles, and 882,560 square statute acres. It mitted to this new office.

is the 14th county of England in point of size. Its In 1769, Dr. Wilson made that discovery concern rental and tithe is £810,627 + £88,496, and the ing the solar spots, of which he has treated in the annual value of a square mile is £652. It contains Philosophical Transactions of London for 1774. I city, 29 hundreds, 23 market towns, 304 parishes, Not long after he entered upon this new field, the and sends 32 members to parliament. nature of the solar spots was announced by the The southern and eastern parts of the county conRoyal Society of Copenhagen as the subject of a sist of a broken mass of chalk hills entering the prize essay. This induced him to transmit thither county from Berkshire, Hampshire and Dorsetshire, a paper written in the Latin language, containing and terminating in an irregular range of rugged an account of his observations, and of the conclu- banks and insulated masses, intersected by deep sions drawn from them. In return, he obtained the valleys excavated by the brooks and streams. The honourable distinction of a gold medal of near six. · north and west portions resemble at a distance an teen guineas.

elevated plain, but it consists of a continual series He published in the Philosophical Transactions of fertile eminences, rising occasionally into sand for 1783, the second paper upon that subject, knolls, and descending into smoothsided hollows, wherein, upon the authoriiy of many new observa- and sometimes even extensive valleys. This distions, he obviates objections, and maintains the trict is divided into Marlborough Downs and Salisreality of his discovery with an entire conviction. bury Plain, the most remarkable plain in England. The amount of it is, " That the spots are cavities Between these two divisions there is a tract of rich or depressions in that immensely resplendent sub- land, and to the north of these downs the county is stance which invests the body of the sun to a certain well inclosed, abounding in rich pasture, and prodepth; that the dark nucleus of the spot is at the ducing the excellent Wiltshire cheese. Salisbury bottom of this excavation, which commonly extends Plain is uninclosed, and the land, though chiefly in downwards to a space equal to the semidiameter of pasture, produces excellent crops of wheat, barley our globe; that the shady or dusky zone which sur'- and turnips, when brought under tillage. Vast rounds the nucleus, is nothing but the sloping sides flocks of sheep are fed on this uncultivated waste, of the excavation reaching from the sun's general which is said to produce wild burnet and fine surface downwards to the nucleus or bottom.” grasses, which yield a superior herbage for sheep.

In March and April 1786, when he had nearly Including the whole summer stock, 500,000 sheep completed his seventy-second year, it became appa are said to be bred here annually. They consisted rent to his family and friends, that his constitution formerly of the Wiltshire horned sheep, but the and strength were fast declining. After a gradual South Down are now generally introduced. Saindecay, which he bore with the utmost resignation, foin is cultivated to a great extent, and it is a he expired on the 16th day of October.

general practice with farmers to soil their teams WILTON, a borough of England in Wilishire, is upon vetches. The horses are unusually fine, but are situated between the rivers Nadder and Willey, in a kept at an enormous expense. Hogs are reared in fertile and extensive valley. It consists chiefly of a great quantities. single street formed by the high road from Salisbury The principal rivers of Wiltshire are the Thames, to Hindon, and contains neat but ancient buildings. the Lower Avon, and the Kennet, all of which are The church is an ancient Gothic structure, and is navigable; the Upper Avon, 'the Willey, the Nadthe only one out of the 12 which it formerly possess- der, the Bourne, the Stour and the Brue. The

canals are already described in our Article Naviga

Inner ellipse

19 Tion Inland, Vol. XIV. p. 280.

The altar stone

1 Wiltshire has long been celebrated for its man. Three adjoining the agger

3 ufactures; those of Salisbury, Wilton Devizes, and Large stone in the avenue

1 Chippenham, have been already mentioned under their respective articles. At Mere and its vicinity

109 a great deal of linen, chiefly dowlas and bed-ticks, is made. Broad cloths, kerseymere and fancy

The prevailing opinion is that Stonehenge is a

Druidical monument. cloths are made at Bradford, Trowbridge, Warminster, Westbury, Melksham and Calne, and in

The stone temple at Avebury is considered to all the adjacent towns, &c. from Chippenham to

have been more extensive than Stonehenge. The Heytesbury. Fustians, thicksets, and other cotton greater part of the village of Avebury is surrounded goods are made at Albourn, and gloves at Swindon.

by a deep and wide ditch, and a losiy vallum.

Within this enclosure there are some large upright This county abounds in Roman, Saxon, and Danish antiquities. The most remarkable of these

stones and others prostrate. At some distance

south of the village are other large upright and are the monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury. Stonehenge is at present a ruin, and apparently a

prostrate stones, and half a mile west of the former confused heap of standing and fallen stones. The

are two more upright. Large masses of these whole consisted of two circular rows of huge stones,

broken stones occur in the houses and walls of the

village. and two elliptical rows of circular stones, with

For a more minute account of this re. horizontal stones lying on the outer circle in a con- markable monument we must refer to our Article tinued order all round, and five imposts or horizon

AVEBURY, Vol. III. p. 93. tal stones on ten uprights of the third row. The

The next piece of antiquity in point of magnitude whole are surrounded by a ditch and vallum of is the Wansdyke, a vast earth work which is supearth, which is about 15 feet high and within the

posed to have intersected the county. In one place ditch. There appear to be three entrances through

it is still continuous for 10 or 12 miles, being this vallum, that on the N.E. distinguished by a tolerably entire throughout the range of hills to the bank and ditch being called the avenue.

south and west of Marlborough; upon other places

The up; it is visible only in detached spots. This work is right stones of the outer circle differ in form and size. Their general height is from 13 to 15 feet,

supposed to have enclosed the towns of the ancient and their circumference about 28 feet. Each impost

Britons; others ascribe it to the Belgae, and others has two mortises in it, corresponding with two

to the West Saxons. tenons on the tops of the vertical stones.

Burrows and Tumuli abound in the county, and

The circumserence of this circle is about 300 feet, and the

are most numerous round Stonehenge and Avebury. original nuniber of stones 30, of which 27, are still

There are here three Roman stations, besides vari. standing, but there are now only 6 imposts. At

ous Roman roads, Roman pavements, Roman the disiance of 8 feet 3 inches within this row is

encampments, and entrenched earthen works. the second row, which seems to have consisted of Coins, urns, fragments of sculpture, shields, dag40 upright stones. The stones are smaller and

gers and ornaments of British, Roman, Saxon and more irregular than those in the first row; only 8

Norman workmanship have been discovered. are standing, but the remains of 8 are lying on ihe

The county returns iwo members two parliament, ground. Within these two circles are ihe two

besides two members for Salisbury, Chippenham,

Calne, Cricklade, Downton, Devizes, Heytesbury, grandest portion of Stonehenge. It was formed by Hinden, Great Bedwin, Marlborough, Malmsbury, 5 distinct pairs of trilithons, or two large upright Ludgershall

, Wilton, Wotton-Bassei, Westbury and stones with a third laid over them as an impost.

Old Sarum. The largest trilithon, in the centre opposite to the

The chief towns, &c. of Wiltshire are as follow, entrance, measured when standing, exclusive of the with the population in 1821. impost, 21 feet 6 inches high, the one next to it on

Population. each side was about 17 feet 2 inches, but the ex Salisbury, burgh,

8763 tremes were only 16 feet 3 inches. The inner oval Devizes, burgh,

4208 row is supposed to have consisted of 19 uprights. Marlborough, burgh,

3038 The stones are taller and better shaped than those in the corresponding circle, and incline to a pyra. As the population of the other boroughs is not midal form. The most perfect is 77 feet high, 23 separated from that of the parish, it is impossible inches wide at the base, and 12 inches at top. The to ascertain their relative importance. altar stone, as it is called, is placed within this oval,

The population of the county in 1821 was, forming the centre of the whole. It is 16 feet long houses, 41,782, families, 47,684, do. in agriculture, and almost covered by the two side stones of the 24,972, do. in trade, &c. 16,982 total number of Great Trilithon. The total number of stones is inhabitants 222,157. See Davis's View of the thus estimated:

Agriculture of Wilts, and the Beauties of England

and Wales, vol. xv. Outer circle

30

WIMBORNE-MINSTER, the Vindogladia of Second circle

the Romans, is a market town of England, in DorFirst ellipse

15

setshire, situated between the rivers Slour and

40

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