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ORDER 5.-Lamellifera, Lamarck.

horny substance, forms tubular cells or sheaths This extensive order comprehends most of the for containing the polypi. They are fixed animals, large and elegant tropical species of the calcareous generally ramified, and the horny axis is placed on large and elegant tropical species of the calcareous the surface. The tentacula of the polypi are very zoophytes, whose vast operations in the seas of the

numerous, and are generally furnished with vibrasouthern hemisphere are so well calculated to excite our admiration, and to interest the attention tory cilia. This order comprehends almost all of the navigator. They have a calcareous axis, cies in every sea, and so much distinguished for

the flexible horny zoophytes, so numerous in speoften of great density, and marked on the surface their delicate plant-like ramifications. They have with radiated, stellular, or undulated impressions generally also a ramified base like a root. The formed by thin elevated lamellæ. In the recent gemmules are produced in vesicles which extend state the whole body is covered with a soft gela- from the surface, and which fall off when the gem. tinous flesh, in which the polypi are lodged. gemmules are formed in clusters at the base of mules have escaped. The gemmules are at first

connected by filaments like umbilical cords, with each polypus, and pass out through these organs.

the fleshy matter contained within the horny axis. The genera of this order are,

The genera of this order are, i. Oculina. 7. Explanaria. 13. Fungia.

1. Polyphysa. 6. Cellaria. 11. Sertularia. 2. Seriatopora. 8. Echinopora. 14. Cyclolites.

2. Acetabulum. 7. Liriozoa. 12. Campanularia. 3. Madrepora. 9. Monticularia. 15. Turbinolia.

3. Tibiana. 8. Serialaria. 13. Cornularia. 4. Pocillopora. 10. Meandrina. 16. Caryophyllia.

4. Dichotomaria. 9. Plumularia. 14. Tubularia. 5. Porites. 11. Agaricia. 17. Sarcinula.

5. Anguinaria. 10. Antennularia. 6. Astrea. 12. Pavonia. 18. Stylina.

ORDER 9.-Lacustria.
ORDER 6.-Foraminata, Lamarck.

This order comprehends a few fresh water ge. In the zoophytes of this group the tubular per- nera grouped together more by their abode than forations or cells for lodging the polypi are not their organization. Three of the genera are fixed formed by delicate radiating lamellæ, as in the zoophytes, and the other two move freely to and preceding order. They have a compact calcareous fro. They are found encrusting stones and other axis, sometimes beautifully coloured, and the polypi objects on the margin of fresh water lakes. They have a complicated structure. The greater num. form irregular masses perforated on the surface by ber of the zoophytes of this order are fossil. The the cells of the polypi, or by canals which traverse genera are,

their whole interior. The polypi have an incom1. Tubipora. 4. Millepora. 7. Lunulites. plete circle of tentacula around the mouth. In the 2. Catenipora. 5. Distichopora. 8. Oyulites. Spongilla there are pores and internal canals with3. Favosites. 6. Orbulites.

out polypi. The genera of this order are,

1. Plumatella. 3. Spongilla. 5. Difflugia. ORDER 7.- Reteformia, Lamarck.

2. Alcyonella. 4. Cristatella. The axis of the zoophytes, belonging to this group, is composed of delicate calcareous expan

ORDER 10.-Denudata, Lamarck. sions generally cellular or reticulated, and never forms compact masses as in some of the preceding the four genera, Zoantha, Pedicellaria, Coryna,

Lamarck has comprehended under this name orders. The surface is composed of minute shal and Hydra. The first of these belongs to the Ra. low cells, arranged for the most part in regular diata.' The second appears to be merely organs series, for the lodgment of the polypi, and for the formation of the gemmules. The polypi have other two genera are distinguished by being naked,

of the Echini on which it is always found. The generally very numerous tentacula furnished with soft, Aeshy zoophytes, without any distinct aris, vibratory cilia. The polypi and gemmules appear, The tentacula in these genera are not furnished from observations made on several species of the with vibratory cilia. They present an external Frith of Forth, to succeed each other alternately in the same cells, and in those which have been gemmiparous mode of generation. The Hydræ examined the gemmules are irritable, and have found only in the sea.

are all fresh water animals, and the Corynæ are

Genera. cilia on their surface, by which they move freely to and fro after their separation. The calcareous

1. Coryna. 2. Hydra. zoophytes most common in our northern latitudes belong to this order. The genera are,

ORDER 11.-Ciliata, Lamarck. 1. Dactylopora. 5. Adeona. 9. Tubulipora. This order comprehends the minutest and sim2. Ocellaria. 6. Eschara. 10. Flustra. plest animals of the whole class. From their small3. Alveolites. 7. Cellepora.

ness, and their body being generally free, they were 4. Retepora. 8. Discopora.

classed among the Infusoria by former naturalists. ORDER 8.-Vaginiformia, Lamarck.

Their body is naked, soft, transparent, and with

out any distinct internal axis or skeleton. There The zoophytes of this order have seldom a cal. are no tentacula around the mouths of the polypi, careous axis. The axis, composed generally of a but the margin of the oral disk is surrounded with

vibratory cilia. Some of these animals are beau- in the waters of lakes and rivers. They are the food tifully ramified, and all the ramifications are com- of zoophytes. We have found them in incalculable posed of the same gelatinous contractile substance myriads in the water of harbours, and along our as the polypi. They are called Ciliata by Lamarck, coasts, and at many miles distance from land from the cilia supplying in them the place of the among the Western Islands, and they probably tentacula of the other orders. The genera of this abound not only in the waters of tropical seas, but order are

in every drop of the ocean. They possess great 1. Tubicolaria. 4. Furcularia. 7. Vaginicola.

tenacity of life. They suffer exposure to very high 2. Norticella. 5. Brachionus. 8. Trichocerca.

and very low temperatures without perishing. 3. Urceolaria. 6. Folliculina. 9. Rattulus.

They may be dried to hardness, and again resus

citated by the application of moisture. According CLASS IV.-INFUSORIA, Lam. (Agastrica Latr).

to the experiments of Baker, Need ham, and others,

they may be revived by moisture, after remaining The class of Infusory animalcules, as now de- many years in a dried and apparently lifeless state. fined by Lamarck, is limited to those microscopic, They form by far the most numerous class of betransparent, gelatinous, aquatic animals, of a sim- ings with which we are acquainted, although, ple structure and form, which are destitute of an from the difficulty of examining their structure internal digestive sac or stomach, and are nourish- and economy, they have least engaged the atten. ed by superficial absorption. They are found only tion of naturalists. in fluids. They present no trace of an osseous, These animals were discovered by Lewenhoek, muscular, nervous, or vascular system, nor any dis- who has described and figured many of the species. tinct internal organs for respiration, secretion, or Muller has greatly extended our acquaintance with generation. They generate either by a simple di. this class by his numerous, accurate, and full devision of their body, or exhibit a gemmiparous scriptions, and elegant coloured delineations of in. mode of generation. The minutest animalcules fusoria. The labours of Bruguiere in the Encyclop. discoverable by the aid of the microscope appear Method. form also a valuable contribution. Baker, only as transparent moving points, or extremely Needham, Ledermuller, Roesel, Buffon, Schrank, minute gelatinous globules, without any perceptible Baron Gleichen, Spallanzani, Lamarck, Bory de external or internal parts. Some present a colour. St. Vincent, Prevost, and Dumas, have added ed and somewhat opaque point in their centre, greatly to our knowledge of the Infusoria by their others are distinctly observed to move by the vi. interesting observations on the economy of the spebration of very minute cilia variously disposed on cies, or by their general views of their classificatheir surface. In many animalcules we perceive a tion. They are called Agastrica by Latreille, from distinct internal cavity, which contains, not food, their having no internal stomach; Prolozoa by but the young, in form of minute globular gem- Meckel, from their being in all probability the first mules, as in the Volvox and Enchelis. The body formed of animals; Microscopica by Bory St. Vinof the parent sometimes bursts to allow the escape cent, from their minuteness. This class has been of the young, and these species thus perish, like divided by most writers into three distinct groups, most insects, after a first generation. Many In- which may be considered as orders, though still fusoria have distinct external appendices, generally founded on unimportant characters, viz. Appendiin form of a single or of a bifurcated tail. Some culata, Membranacea, and Incrassata. present circles of vibratory cilia on the anterior extremity of the body which, when in motion, ap

Order 1. Appendiculata. pear like rotating wheels. The simplest animal. cules, as the monads, give origin to new in

This order comprehends the most highly ordividuals, by their bodies gradually dividing either ganized species belonging to this class, some of transversely or longitudinally, a mode of generation which make a near approach to the simplest of the which is termed fissiparous. This fissiparous mode ciliated zoophytes. They present distinct projectof generation is compatible only with the simplest ing parts, variously situated on the surface of the kind of internal organization, and accords with di body, sometimes extending from the anterior part rect observation in proving their almost homoge- like tentacula or like feet, and sometimes from the neous internal structure. Blumenbach, and many posterior extremity like a simple or a bifurcated other naturalists, have been led by numerous ex.

tail. These animalcules sometimes multiply with periments to believe that some kinds of animal. great rapidity in our fresh water stagnant pools, cules may originate from mere combinations of the giving a lively green, red, brown, or other colour elements of vegetable or animal matter in a fluid

to the surface. We have observed the Furcularia state, without the aid of a previously existing pa- coloured film on the surface of our stagnant ponds,

viridis, Lam, which often forms a lively greenrent. They have no distinction of sex, nor organs of generation. The spermatic animalcules which to be affected by light precisely in the same manabound in the seminal fluid of all classes of the

ner as the Hydra among zoophytes. They seek higher animals, form a connecting link between always the illuminated side of the vessel or of the this class and the simplest Entozoa. Animalcules

pond in which they are observed. Lamarck comabound in decayed infusions of vegetable or animal

prehends under this order the Genera, matter, in decayed vinegar, in the secreted fluids of

1. Furcocerca. 3. Kerona. animals in the living state, in all stagnant waters, and

2. Cercaria. 4. Trichoda.

ORDER 2. Membranacea.

ORDER 3. Incrassata. The animalcules of this order have a simpler form and struciure than the preceding. They have

This order comprehends the smallest and simgenerally a depressed or fattened body, with an

plest animalcules hitherto discovered by the aid of ovoidal or circular form. They have not those

the microscope. They have neither the external projecting paris like members seen in the former appendices of the first order, nor the Aattened order. The body is sometimes long, slender and membranous form of the second, but have generally flattened like a membrane, as in some of the Kol. a spherical, oblong, or cylindrical body. They are podæ, in others it is nearly circular, as in the Cy. termed Incrassata from the thickness of the body clidium, in others irregularly ovoidal, as in the compared with its other dimensions. In some the Paramæcium, and in others angular, as in the body has a regular spherical form, as in some Gonium. In the Bursaria, the absorbing surface Monades and Volvoces; some of the Enchilides of the animalcules is increased by the body being have the body pear-shaped or fusiform, and in concave or hollow like a purse, which probably many of the Vibriones it is of a lengthened cylinalso affords a safer position for

the development of drical serpentine form. The genera of this order the reproductive gemmules. This order is composed of the genera,

1. Vibrio.

4. Volvox. 1. Bursaria. 3. Paramæcium. 5. Gonium.

2. Enchilis.

5. Monas. 2. Kolpoda. 4. Cyclidium.

3. Proteus.


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ZUINGLE, ULRIC, a celebrated Swiss reformer, front and five windows in a line on the side, and is was born on January 1, 1484, at Wildhausen, and three stories high. fell in the battle at Cappel between the Catholic The Meiser is a very neat public building on the and Protestant cantons in October 1531, in the south-east side of the river, and at the end of the 47th year of his age. See our article ECCLESIASTI- High Bridge. It has six Ionic columns in front, and CAL HISTORY.

is three stories high. There are eleven windows in ZURICH, CANTON OF. See SWITZERLAND.

line in front, and seven in a line in the side. The ZURICH, a city of Switzerland, and capital of centre windows both at the front and side have a a canton of the same name, is beautifully situated large balcony of stone. Above each window is a on the lake of Zurich, where the river Limmat sculptured ornament. Above the centre of the discharges itself. This river, which divides the building is a semicircular pediment with a triangucity into two parts, is crossed by three bridges. It lar pediment on each side of it. The cabinet Phymay also be crossed at the flour-mills, which are siognomique is contained in this building. built in the middle of this river. The principal The Maison de Ville is an elegant building, begun public buildings are the cathedral, the Maison des in 1794. It is built upon the river (which runs Orphelins, the Meiser, the Maison de Ville, the below it), at the north-east extremity of the low Helmshouse which contains the library, the Cas wooden bridge. Itis a mixture of Greek and Gothic, sino, and the churches of Notre Dame and St. and is three stories high. The first storey has Tus. Pierre.

can pilasters, the second Ionic, and the third CorinThe cathedral is a large Gothic building, but des. thian. There are nine windows in a line in front and titute of those beauties which belong to that style threein depth, each window having above it a semicir. of architecture. It consists of a body and two cular and a tringular pediment alternately. Above square towers 262 feet it height, placed at the south the windows of the first storey all around there are ern extremity of the church. The towers are placed within the pediments statues of eminent men. square, and built of stone for about two-thirds of The list commences with Junius Brutus, Cocles, their height. The rest, which is polygonal and ter Scævola, all the rest being chiefly Swiss. The minating in a pointed dome, is built of wood and is name of the person is engraven on the stone, and an covered with copper on the outside. The seats in appropriate Latin motto is carved beneath each. the cathedral turn up, and each has arms like an The principal door is of black marble, with a gilt arm-chair. It contains two churches. The cathe lion above each column. In the lobby are two picdral has a good library.

tures containing representations of all the fish found The Maison des Orphelins, situated on the south in the lake, to the number of 30. west side of the river upon its banks, is a very neat The Helmhouse is built a little farther up the river building, having its principal and its back front of on the same side, and at the north-east extremity of the same form. It is ornamented with six Ionic the Haut Pont. It is a good building, with arcades pilasters and a pediment. It has 13 windows in

It has 13 windows in and shops below, and contains the public library


above. There are five arcades fronting down the whose banks are covered with villages and country
river, and three across it, and the water runs below houses. On the south side the ground is gently
it. The library is three stories high, and is like a undulating, and behind it is a high wooden ridge.
church within, with two galleries supported by col. From the north side the banks rise into a fine height,
umns. It contains besides the books two large and are covered with numerous vineyards, while
globes, a bronze bust of Heidegger upon a marble the snowy Alps rise majestically in the distance.
pyramid, and several Roman monuments, some of The view of the town and the lake from this spot
which were found at Kloffen. In the apartments above is truly enchanting.
is a small collection of minerals, and in one apart The promenade of Lindenhoff is ornamented with
ment is a marble bust of Lavater and one of Gesner, large trees, and furnished with seats on an elevated
and an alto-relievo of Bodmer, with some other spot on the south bank of the river, a little below
busts of eminent men, and paintings of many of the the lower bridge.

The principal promenade, however, extends from The Cassino is a very neat building of one storey, the Maison des Orphelins, along the banks of the with a portal and six fluted Tuscan columns. Limmat, to its junction with the Sihl, and then turns

The church of Notre Dame has a neat spire, but up the right bank of the latter river. A fine monuis in no other respect deserving of notice. The ment is erected here to the memory of Solomon Geschurch of St. Pierre has a square tower and pyra

It consists of a square pyramid of marble, surmid, and contains besides the pulpit a monumental mounted with a white marble urn; on one side is a inscription in honour of Lavater.

bronze bust of him, and the date of his birth and There is a small green island at the mouth of the death, and on the other is a long German inscription. lake, belonging to the town; and a little below it, a At the south-east end of the promenade is the tirage, prison, rising out of the water, and which is used or place for shooting, with a number of small houses for confining criminals condemned to death.

for that purpose. Below the lower bridge, there are a number of The walks which surround Zurich are very handwarehouses, built in the very middle of the river; some, and the fir green mounds along their sumand farther down are the mills for grinding corn, mits are extremely beautiful. A stream from the already mentioned. From these mills to the south- lake runs around them on the south, and joins the west bank, there is a wooden bridge, through which Limmat on the Sihl. The canal enters the river at the water rushes with great velocity. In the mid- the mill. dle of both the upper and the lower bridges, a wheel The lake of Zurich is about thirty miles long, and is placed, for the purpose of raising water.

is divided into the upper and lower lake by the strait There are at Zurich twenty schools and literary of Rapperschwyl, where it is crossed by a wooden establishments. The chief of these are the Colle. bridge a little more than a quarter of a mile long. gium Carolinum, a military and a medical seminary, The greatest breadth of the lake is about five miles. with two schools. Philosophy, divinity, and clas- The upper lake freezes in winter, but the lower lake sics are taught in the college. A society of phy. is frozen only in severe seasons.

The scenery on sics, æconomics, and natural history has been es. its banks is remarkably beautiful. tablished. Cotton works to a considerable extent The inhabitants, who are almost all Calvinists, have been established.

amount to about 11,000. East Long. 8° 31' 30'. The new promenade on the north-east side of the North Lat. 47° 22' 33". town is very elegant, with a bosquet at its farther ex. ZURICH MACHINE. See HYDRODYNAMICS. tremity, from which there is a fine view of the lake,

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Fig. 1. Represents the Air Thermometer of Sanc. Fig. 1, 2. Contain an Isometrical view of the Plantorius and Drebbel.

ing Engine. Fig. 2. Boyle's improvement upon it.

Fig. 1-5. Represent the Tunnel across the Thames, Fig. 3. Referred to by mistake.

and Mr. Brunel's method of excavating it. Fig. 4. Mercurial Thermometer. Fig. 5, 6. Breguet's Metallic Thermometer. Fig. 7. Breguet's Spiral Thermometer.

PLATE DXXVII. Fig. 8-11. Show the method of blowing the bulbs of Thermometers.

Fig. 1-7. Contain an Isometrical view of a Slide Fig. 12. Represents the Rev. Mr. Wollaston's Rest, Turning Lathe and apparatus.

Thermometrical Barometer.
Fig. 13. Lord Charles Cavendish's Self-Registering
Thermometer for the maximum temperature.

Fig. 14. His instrument for the minimum tempe-

Fig. 1. Represents the magnetic curves of equal inFig. 15. Mr Forbes's maximum and minimum tensity in the Northern Hemisphere, accordSelf-registering Thermometer.

ing to the observations of Hansteen and Fig. 16. Six's Self-registering Thermometer.

Fig. 2. Is Colonel Beaufoy's variation instrument.


PLATE DXXVIX, Fig. !. Fig !, 2. Dr. Rutherford's Self-registering Thermometer.

Fig. 1. Represents Mr. Dollond's variation Transit. Fig. 3. Dr. Trail's Self-registering Thermometer. Fig. 2. Represents Mr. Dollond's Dipping Needle. Fig. 4. Mr. Keith of Ravelstone's Registering Fig. 3, 4, 5, 6. Show Mr. Dollond's Diurnal VariaThermometer.

tion instrument. Fig. 5, 6. Mr. Blackadder's Registering Thermom Fig. 7. Is a sketch of professor Hansteen's instrueter.

ment for determining the Magnetic Intensity. Fig. 7, 8. Show the Differential thermometer of

Sturmius revived by Rumford and Leslie. Fig. 9. Is Baron Fourier's Thermometer of Contact. PLATES DXXX, DXXXI, DXXXII. Fig. 10. Represents Kewley's balance Thermometer. Fig. 11. Represents the Horary Thermometriccurve Are illustrative of the article Veterinary Medicine,

of 1824 and 1825 as deduced by Dr. Brew. and are minutely explained in pages 212, ster from the Leith hourly Observations.

213 of this volume.

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