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to cross the deep and navigable part of the river, noitring a fit place for a battery. An account of leaving over the crown of the tunnel a head of earth his military life has already been given in sufficient of from twelve to seventeen feet in thickness quite detail in our article France, Vol. IX. p. 316-320. undisturbed, (See Fig. 5.)

See also Ramsay's Life of Marshal Turenne. Admitting that, in descending to, or ascending TURGOT ANNE, -Robert Jacques, a celebratfrom that line, we should come to a body of quick- ed minister and political economist, was born at sand, such as that which was found within about Paris in 1727. He was educated for the church, 200 feet from the shore, it is then we should find in and in the 22d year of his age he delivered two the combinations of the framing, before described, discourses in Latin, one on the “Progress of the the means that are necessary for effecting, upon a Understanding,” and the other “ On the advantalarge scale, what is practised on a very small one, ges derived to Mankind from the Christian Reliby miners, when they meet with similar obstacles. gion.” In 1751 he translated the Georgics of VirIndeed, were it not for the means of security that gil, and about this time he began to devote himare resorted to on many occasions, mines would in. self to the study of political economy. Upon quit. evitably be overwhelmed and lost.

ting the Sorbonne, he was appointed Intendant of Although we may encounter obstacles that may Limoges, a situation which he filled with the highest retard the daily progress of the work, it is with sa credit for twelve years. In 1775, he was appointed tisfaction we contemplate that every step we take Comptroller General of Finance, a situation in which tends to the performance and ultimate completion he made many great reforms; but as he did not of the object; and, if we consider that the body of possess the public confidence, he was obliged to rethe tunnel must exceed the length of Waterloo sign, and was succeeded by M. Neckar. In order Bridge, it must be admitted that, if instead of two to stimulate his industry, he was in the habit of years, three were necessary to complete the under stating that, in his family, life was not protracted taking, it would still prove to be the most economi- beyond 50, and he completed all his undertakings cal plan practicable for opening a land communica- in reference to this event. He died in 1781, at the tion across a navigable river.

age of 49, thus carrying on what seemed to be the In order to execute the tunnel beneath the Thames destiny of his family. In our article France, Vol. by the method described in the preceding paper, it IX. p. 334, we have given an account of his labours is proposed to raise a capital of £160,000, by trans as Comptroller General of Finance, and we must ferable shares of £100 each. The following are the refer the reader for further information respecting heads of expense:

his life and character to the Marquis Condorcet's Preparatory expenses,


" Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Turgot,"

1782, 8vo. Expenses of the execution of the work, which will require two years,


TURIN, a large city of Italy, and capital of the Expense of materials,

kingdom of Sardinia. It is situated on a fine plain

87,000 Purchase of ground,


on the western banks of the Po, at the conflux of Unforeseen expenses,


that river with the Grand Doria, and about seven

miles from the foot of the Cotrian Alps. The apTotal,


proach to the town is magnificent, through a beauValue of steam engine, &c.


iiful country, filled with villas and gardens. The

town is of an oblong form, and is about four miles £160,000

in circuit, including the ramparts. The streets in

the new town are wide, clean, and straight, runOur readers are already acquainted with the ning generally in direct lines, and intersecting one great disasters which have obstructed the comple- another at right angles, so as to divide the town tion of this great undertaking; disasters which af- into 145 parts or squares. Arcades or piazzas are fect neither the judgment nor the foresight of the common in many of them. The houses are of engineer, but which arose from circumstances brick stuccoed, and the streets often terminate which could neither be foreseen nor prevented. It with some agreeable object. The best streets are could scarcely have been expected that private en-' the Strada di Po, extending to the river from the terprise would again be embarked in this national great central square, the Contrada di Dora Grande, work; but we anxiously hope that in better times extending 500 fathoms in length, from that same this will be the first national work on which the square in the opposite direction, the Via Nuova, public capital will be expended. The minister who and the Sta Theresa.

and the Sta Theresa. The principal or central lends his aid to its completion will acquire a repu. square, called the Piazza Reale, is one of the finest tation which no other public measure could confer in Europe. In the centre is the Castello Reale,

built by the Duke of Savoy; on one side is the TUNNY FISHERY. See FRANCE, Vol. IX. p. Royal Palace, containing splendid furniture and 437.

fine paintings, and the other three sides are occuTURBOT. See IchthyOLOGY, Vol. XI.

pied with houses having arcades. The Piazza de TURENNE, HENRY DE LA Tour, Viscount of, a St. Carlo is on a smaller scale, but preferred by celebrated general, was the son of the Duke of Bou some as handsomer than the Piazza Reale. The illon, by Elizabeth, daughter of William I. Prince facades are uniform, and its two larger sides have of Orange. He was born at Sedan in 1611. He arcades supported by pillars. There are other was killed on the 27th July, 1675, while recon- eight squares in the town. The old town of Turin

upon him.

forms only a sixth of the city, but the streets, beginning of the fifteenth century, was endowed for though narrow and less elegant than those of the twenty-four professors, but it has been subsequentnew town, are in general straight and contain ly greatly extended. It has a museum, library, many good houses. The cathedral is an old Gothic collections of statues, medals and vases, an obser. building, with a marble cupola, and with several vatory, and an anatomical theatre. Two schools, valuable articles in its treasury. The church of both of which are well attended, are dependant on St. Suaire is the finest in the town; that of St. the University. Laurent is celebrated for its bold cupola. The The manufactures of Turin consist of woollen, church of St. Croix has a fine rotunda. The church cotton, and silk fabrics, damasks and velvets. of St. Philippe de Neri is very beautiful. That of Leather, stone-ware, liqueurs, works in marble, St. Cristine contains the fine statue of St. Therese, wood and wax, are also made here. The paper mills a chef d'ouvre of Legros. In the church of St. The are on a large scale, and the government has a manu. rese, the chapel of St. Joseph is ornamented with factory of saltpetre and gunpowder, and another of the fine pictures of Corrado. The other churches tobacco and snuff. The Po, which is navigable, faare those of the Visitation and Conception, Conso- cilitates greatly the trade of the place. The public lata, St. Salvadore, and Corpus Domini, which is walks are the Royal Gardens, the morning resort of the most highly ornamented of them all. There the gay, the terrace on the other side of the river, are in all 110 churches and chapels. The royal the Rondo between the walls of the banks of the Po palace, already mentioned, is a brick building of used as an evening rendezvous, and the Valentino. great extent, covered with tiles, and consists of The Corso contains all the fashionable world in three wings surrounded with a court. The Castello their carriages between 5 and 6 in the evening. Reale has a handsome front of the Corinthian or The environs of Turin are beautiful. About a der, while the other three sides are Gothic. The mile beyond the eastern ramparts is the ancient buildings of the academy and university occupy place called the Queen's Chateau, situated at the the four sides of a square, surrounded with ar base of a hill; the ascent to which is adorned with cades, the whole of which are covered with inscrip- the villas and gardens of the wealthier inhabitants. tions and basso-relievos. The opera house, or At some distance from the city is the church of principal theatre, is a large building, and the La Superga, a large and noble building, erected in largest in Italy. The arsenal, besides armories, memory of the defeat of the French in 1706. The and workshops for the manufacture of fire-arms, Royal Mausoleum, containing the tombs of the has a chemical laboratory, a cabinet of minerals, kings of Sardinia, occupies the subterraneous pora library of metallurgical and mineralogical books, tion of this building. From the summit of its cuand furnaces for casting cannon. There are also pola may be scen the whole plain and the moun. teachers in it who instruct engineers, miners, &c. tains of Piedmont. In fine weather the view exin their respective professions. The Royal Hos- tends even to Milan. pital of Charity is on the plan of a celebrated one The mountain of the Capuchins is resorted to at Rome, where employment is found for its in- for a view of the city, and of the beds of ihe Po and mates and education for the children. The Palaz- the Doria. The other objects of notice in the zo Carignani is a building of importance and even vicinity of Turin, are the Chateau of Shipiniggi, elegance, though its facade is only of brick. The the church of St. Sauveur; the Venerie, once the barracks were regarded as among the finest in Eu- chief country house of the king; the celebrated oak, rope. When the French occupied Turin in 1778, half way between Turin and Venerie, beneath they destroyed the fine city gates, which were band which a council of war resolved upon the attack of some. The citadel and other fortifications were the French lines in 1706; Moncalderi on the Po, also destroyed.

and the ruins of the ancient town of Industria, six The Royal Academy of Turin has long held a leagues from Turin, in the direction of Verceil. high place among the learned societies of Europe, Turin is a place of great antiquity. Hannibal and continues to publish very valuable volumes of sacked the town which then occupied its present transactions, a particular account of which has site, because the inhabitants refused to join his been given in our article Academy, Vol. I. p. 69. standard. It was afterwards rebuilt, and was called It is particularly celebrated as having given to the by Cæsar Colonia Julia, a name which his succesworld some of the finest productions of La Grange.* sor changed into Augusta Taurinorum. There is also at Turin, a school for educating The population of Turin in 1816 was 38,500, young men of rank, a lyceum, an institution for and in 1820 it was 90,000. East Lon. 7° 40' 15'', educating clergymen, and agricultural and veteri. Lat. 45° 4' 6". nary schools. The University, instituted in the

• A fuller account of this Academy will be found in our Life of M. De la GRANGE.


II. Ejalet Bosna (Country of Bosnia.) Sangiacs.

Ancient Divisions. Banyaluka.





III. Ejalet Morah (Country of the Morea.) Tripolitza.

Peloponnesus. Mistra.

Laconia and Messenia.

IV. Ejalet Dschesair (Country of the Islands and Coasts.)

Southern Thrace.

Beotia, &c.

Western Hellade.


Northern Cyclades.

Southern Cyclades.
V. Ejalet Kirid (Country of Crete.)


TURKEY, an extensive empire which comprehends some of the richest portions of Asia, Africa, and Europe, extends nearly 35° from east to west, and above 20° from north to south, and embraces within its limits various separate states, having each its own political and natural boundaries, and differing from each other in laws, language, customs, and religion.

As the modern divisions of this empire, esta. blished by the Turks, are altogether artificial, and ill adapted for geographical purposes, it has been considered expedient to adhere to its ancient divi. sions in the progress of this work, and we consequently refer our readers to the articles in the following table. Moldavia,












Egypt. It may, however, be proper to exhibit tables of its modern divisions and population, which we have abridged from M. Malte Brun's Universal Geography.

I. Ejalet Roumili (Country of the Romans.)

Ancient Divisions.


Kirk kissa.

Romania or Thrace.

Bulgaria and part of







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Catholics, Armenians, Jews,


85,000 312,000

Sandgiacats. Orfa. Mosul. Koordistan. Bagdat.

Chief Towns. Orfa (Edessa.) Mosul (Labbana.) Bedlis. Bagdat.



Asia Minor, with the Coasts of the Black Sea.

Pachalic of Anadhouly. Sandgiacats.

Chief Towns. Kutaiah.

Kutaiah (Cotyæum.) Sarou Khan.

Magnisa (Magnesia.) Aidin.

Tireh. Mentesche.

Mullah. Tekieh.

Antaliah. Hamid,

Isparteh. Karahissar,

Karahissar. Sultan Eugny.

Eskishebr (Dorylæum.) Angouri.

Angouri (Ancyra.) Kiangari.

Kiangari. Kastamooni.

Kastamooni. Boli.

Boli (Claudiopolis.) Khudavendkiar.

Broussah (Prusa.) Karassi.

Balikesri. Kodja-lli.

Isnikmid (Nicomedia.) Bigah.

Bigah. Sogla.

Ismir (Smyrna.)

Pachalic of Siwas. Siwas.

Siwas. Djanick.

Samsoun. Arebkir.

Arebkir. Diwriki.

Diwriki. Tchouroum.

Tchouroum. Amassiah.

Amassiah. Bouzok.


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Saide or Acre.


Famieh (Apamea.) “ It would be vain,” says M. Malte Brun, “to expect a near approximation to the truth in any conjectures which we might indulge respecting the population of a state in which registers and a regular census are unknown. Some writers estimate that of European Turkey at twenty-two, while others have reduced it to eight millions, and both assign equally plausible grounds for their opinion. Respecting Asiatic Turkey, the uncertainty, if not still greater, is at least more generally acknowledged. Supposing the houses to be as thinly scattered as in the less populous parts of Spain, the population of all Turkey in Europe, Asia, and Africa, may amount lo twenty-five or thirty millions, of which one-half belongs to Asia. Under the want of any thing like positive evidence, we shall not deviate far from probability in allowing to Anatolia five millions; to Armenia two; to Koordistan one; to the pachalics of Bagdat, Mosul, and Diarbekir one and a half; and to Syria 1,800,000, or at most two millions."

The Turks can scarcely be said to have a country. Since their first establishment in Europe until the present day, they have never almost in any degree intermixed with the nations which they overcame; but have continued a distinct and separate people, oppressing their vanquished subjects with cruelty and scorn, and regarding them as a degraded class, unworthy of exchanging with their conquerors the civilities of social life. Except in Asia Minor and in Constantinople, the Turks throughout this extensive empire can be regarded only as military colonists. They form the garrisons in the fortresses, or live on their incomes or pay from the government, or on the money which they are continually extorting by force from the unhappy unbelievers. Thus while the other nations of Europe have been gradually advancing in civilization, in science, and in letters, this people, wrapped up in their own self-sufficiency, despise every improvement that does not minister to their arrogance and sensuality,

The government of the Turks is a pure despot, ism. Both the executive and legislative authorities essentially reside in the sovereign. His spiritual rule, as successor of the caliphs, is implied by the title of Imamul-musliminn (pontiff of Mussulmans), and Padishah Islam (emperor of Islamism) indicates his temporal power. He is the sole fountain of honour, for here birth confers no privilege. He raises and debases whom he wills, and disposes of the lives and properties of his subjects. His actions are regarded as prescribed by inevitable fate; and his subjects suffer with resignation, believing that


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they have neither right nor reason to complain. points and changes the first officers of the state. Indeed it is esteemed an honour, and a passport to When a sovereign of this country, therefore, at paradise, to die by his hand; and some of his mi. any time rises superior to the difficulties of his situnisters are said to have courted this martyrdom as tion, and, in spite of a neglected and degraded eduthe last reward of their faithful services. The cation, directs with energy and discretion the reTurkish casuists declare, that the sultan is above sources of the state, he must be possessed of no the law, and attribute to him a character of holi. common talents. ness which no immoral conduct can destroy. This Under the sultan, the civil or temporal governpower

is supposed to be balanced in some degreement of Turkey is carried on by the vizier and by that of the grand mufti and ulema; but, as Ba. other principal ministers, who form the divan or ron de Tott observes, though they can interpret great council of state, which, on solemn occasions, the law as they please, and animate the people is called upon to direct the sovereign by their adagainst their sovereign, he, on the other hand, can vice; when the sultan witnesses their deliberations, with a single word depose and banish the mufti, but is separated from them by a curtain or latticed with as many of the ulema as may fall under his window. The members of this body are, the grand displeasure. The restraints of law and custom vizier, the capudan pacha or lord high admiral, the form but a feeble barrier against the sallies of pas. two cazy-askers or military judges, the grand treasion, pride, and selfishness, supported by unlimited surer of the empire, the second treasurer, chief of power; and hence the sultan is styled by his sub- the war department, the grand purveyor, and the jects yoularsiz arslan, “the unmuzzled lion.” The nishandji effendi, who affixes the cypher of the only effectual check to tyrannical conduct on the grand signior to public acts. part of the sultan is the mob of Constantinople, who The grand vizier is the vice-regent of the sultan, freely vent their complaints. Individual petitions and has the charge of the imperial seal. All the are presented to the sultan while on his way to the affairs of the empire come under his inspection. mosque, where he goes every Friday; but when the To him the grand admirals and pachas address complaint is of a general nature, the popular dis. their official reports. He is the supreme judge in content is shown by setting fire to different parts of civil and criminal affairs, from whose sentence the city. The sovereign is obliged to appear in there is no appeal; and he commands the army in person to assist in extinguishing the flames, and time of war. But his responsibility is in proportion then he is compelled to listen to the public voice, to his power. As his most important duty is to and to hear truths which none of his ministers had keep the empire and capital quiet, he is held acdared to breathe. These tumultuous movements, countable for all the misfortunes which befal the however, seldom stop with the redress of griev state; and in scarcities, defeats, or any other ca. ances, but are not unfrequently followed by the lamity, the resentment of the people is directed in deposition or execution of the monarch himself. the first instance against the person and adminisHence it is a great object of the government to tration of the grand vizier. Such are the dangers keep the capital and other great cities in good hu to which this minister is exposed, that he rarely mour; and consequently the price of provisions is escapes confiscation and exile, or a sudden death.* always kept at a low rate within their walls, though The other officers of state are, the minister of the provinces should starve to furnish the supply. the interior, who bears the title of kethkudai sadri

The evils of absolute power are aggravated in aly, the reis-efendy, or minister of foreign affairs, the this country by the ignorance and effeminacy of defter-dari-chikki-evvel or minister of finance, the those who are called to exercise it. The princes of capudan pacha or grand admiral, and others of inthe blood are, from their infancy, confined in the ferior importance. They all remain during the day Cafesse, a palace in the seraglio, attended by only at the vizier's palace, and superintend the affairs four or five eunuchs as their pages, and a few fe- of their several departments. male slaves old enough not to become mothers. The government of the provinces is intrusted to Sequestered from general society, they are kept puchas or viziers, beys and agas. The pachas are in complete ignorance of what is passing in the distinguished, after a Tartar custom, by three horse empire. With minds uncultivated by education, tails on the side of their tents, and receive by courand bodies enervated by idleness and indulgence, tesy the appellation of beyler beg or prince of they are little prepared for the important and diffi- princes; but this title, by way of eminence, belongs cult duties which may await them; and consequent- only to the pachas of Romelia, Anatolia, and Daly, when they are called to the throne, they often mascus. The next in rank are, the pachas of two abandon the affairs of state to the mercy of their tails, the beys who are honoured with one tail, and eunuchs and flatterers, who are equally ignorant of the agas or military governors, who have only the the art of governing as their master. Perhaps a sanjac or standard. There are also vaivodaliks, favourite page, a black eunuch, rendered hideous which are in general small districts, or single ciby his physical impotence, becomes the dispenser ties or towns separate from the greater of the dignities of the empire, and, by a word, ap- ments, as being in most instances the appanage of

• Rycaut mentions a prime vizier, who put the following question to certain pachas ; and which was considered a problem of rather difficult solution. “What courses were possible to be found out for a first vizier to maintain and continue his office, and acquit this so dangerous charge, from the hazard and uncertainty to which it is liable; for you see, brothers, said he, bow few enjoy or grow old therein ; their virtue, their care, and their innocence, are no protection; some remain a day, a week, a month; others protract the thread to a year or two, but at length they are like the ant, to whom God gives wings for their speedier destruction.

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