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1 $ 5. The Legislature shall have the same powers to alter and regulate the 2 jurisdiction and proceedings in law and equity as they have heretofore

3 possessed.

1 $ 6. Provision may be made by law for designating from time to time one 2 or more of the said justices, who is not a judge of the Court of Appeals, to

--The General Assembly may provide by law that — The District Courts shall, in their respective counthe Judge of one circuit may hold the courts of ties, be the successors of the present Supreme Court, another circuit, in cases of necessity or convenience; and all suits, prosecutions, judgments, records and and in case of temporary inability of any judge, from proceedings, pending and remaining in said Supreme sickness or other cause, to hold the courts in his cir- Court, in the several counties of any district, shall be cuit, provision shall be made by law for holding such transferred to the respective District Courts of such courts. Ind., 177.

counties, and be proceeded in as though no change -A Circuit Court shall be established in each county had been made in said Supreme Court. Ohio, 445. now existing, or which may hereafter be erected in --The General Assembly shall provide by law for this Commonwealth. Ky., 216.

holding Circuit Courts, when, for any cause, the --The Circuit Court shall be held twice, at least, in judge shall fail to attend, or, if'in attendance, cannot each year, in each county organized for judicial pur- properly preside. Ky., 217. poses, by one of the Justices of the Supreme Court, -A Circuit Court shall be held at least twice a year at times to be appointed by law; and at such other by the judge of each circuit, in every county and cortimes as may be appointed by the judges severally in poration thereof, wherein a Circuit Court is now or pursuance of law. Or., 454.

may hereafter be established. But the judges in the -For each circuit, the thirteenth excepted, there same district may be required or authorized to hold shall be one Judge, who shall be styled Circuit Judge, the courts of their respective circuits alternately, and who, during his term of office, shall reside in one of a judge of one circuit to hold a court in any other the counties composing the circuit for which he may circuit. Va., 542. be elected; the said judges shall hold a term of their --A District Court shall be held at least once a year courts in each of the counties composing their respec- in every district, by the judges of the circuits constitive circuits at such times as now are or may here- tuting the section and the Judge of the Supreme after be fixed by law, such terms to be never less Court of Appeals for the section of which the district than two in each year in each county; special terms forms a part, any three of whom may hold a court; may be held by said judges in their discretion, when- but no judge shall sit or decide upon an appeal taken ever the business of their several counties renders from his own decision. The Judge of the Supreme such terms necessary. Md., 268.

Court of Appeals of one section may sit in District - The Judges of the respective Circuit Courts of this Courts of another section, when required or authorState, and of the courts of Baltimore city, shall renderized by law to do so. Va., 542. their decisions, in all cases argued before them, or --A Circuit Court shall be held in every county at submitted to their judgment, within two months least four times a year, unless otherwise provided by after the same shall have been so argued or submit law, in pursuance of the third section of this article. ted. Md., 268.

The judges may be required or authorized to hold -A Circuit Court shall be held at least twice in each the courts of their respective circuits alternately, and year in every county organized for judicial purposes, a judge of one circuit to hold a court in any other and four times in each year in counties containing circuit. W. Va., 553. ten thousand inhabitants. Judges of the Circuit Court may hold courts for each other, and shall do so when required by law. Mich., 306.

JURISDICTION OF COURTS. -A Circuit Court shall be held in each county of this State, at least twice in each year; and the Judges of — The Judges of the Supreme Court shall, by virtue said courts, shall interchange circuits with each other, of their offices, be conservators of the peace throughin such manner as may be prescribed by law, and out the State; as also the Judges of the Circuit shall receive for their services a compensation to be Courts within their respective circuits, and the Judges fixed by law, which shall not be diminished during of the Inferior courts within their respective countheir continuance in office. Miss., 329.

ties. Ala., 81. - The Circuit Courts shall be held in every county of —The Circuit Court shall have original jurisdiction in this State, by one or more of the justices of the all matters, civil and criminal, within this State, not Supreme Court, or a judge appointed for that pur- otherwise excepted in this Constitution : but in civil pose; and shall, in all places within the county, except cases only, where the matter or sum in controversy in those of a criminal nature, have common law juris- exceeds fifty dollars. Ala., 80. diction concurrent with the Supreme Court, and any –Except in cases otherwise directed in this Constifinal judgment of a Circuit Court may be docketted tution, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisin the Supreme Court and shall operate as a judgment diction only, which shall be co-extensive with the obtained in the Supreme Court from the time of such State, under such restrictions and regulations, not docketing. N. J., 418.

repugnant to this Constitution, as may from time to - District Courts shall be composed of the Judges of time be prescribed by law. Provided, That said court the Courts of Common Pleas of the respective dis- shall have power to issue writs of injunction, mantricts, and one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, damus, quo warranto, habeas corpus, and such other any three of whom shall be a quorum, and shall be remedial and original writs as may be necessary to held in each county therein, at least once in each give it a general superintendence and control of infeyear; but if it shall be found inexpedient to hold rior jurisdictions. Ala., 80. such court annually, in each county of any district, -The Supreme Court, except in cases otherwise the General Assembly may, for such district, provide directed by this Constitution, shall have appellate that said court shall hold at least three annual ses- jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with the sions therein, in not less than three places; Provided, State, under such restrictions and regulations as may, That the General Assembly may, by law, authorize from time to time be prescribed by law. Ark., 90. the judges of each district to fix the times of holding - It shall have a general superintending control over the courts therein. Ohio, 437.

all inferior and other courts of law and equity. It

3 preside at the general term of the said court to be held in the several districts.

4 Any three or more of the said justices, of whom one of the said justices so

5 designated shall always be one, may hold such general terms. And any one

6 or more of the justices may hold special terms and Circuit Courts, and any

7 one of them may preside in Courts of Oyer and Terminer in any county.

shall have power to issue writs of error, supersedeas, Courts, and Probate Courts, and such other courts as certiorari and habeas corpus, mandamus and quo the Legislature shall prescribe, shall be courts of warranto, and other remedial writs, and to hear and record. Cal., (amended in 1862). determine the same. Said judges shall be conserva- — The Legislature shall fix by law the jurisdiction of tors of the peace throughout the State, and shall have Recorders' or other inferior municipal courts, which power to issue any of the aforesaid writs. Ark., 90. may be established in pursuance of section one of —The Circuit Court shall have original jurisdiction this article, and shall fix by law the powers, duties over all criminal cases which shall not be otherwise and responsibilities of the judges thereof. Cal., provided for by law; and exclusive original jurisdic- (amended in 1862). tion of all crimes amounting to felony at the common -The General Assembly, notwithstanding anything law, and original jurisdiction of all civil cases which contained in this article, shall have power to repeal shall not be cognizable before Justices of the Peace, or alter any act of the General Assembly, giving jurisuntil otherwise directed by the General Assembly; diction to the Courts of Oyer and Terminer and and original jurisdiction in all matters of contract, General Jail Delivery, or to the Supreme Court, or where the sum in controversy is over two hundred the Court of Common Pleas, or the Court of General dollars. It shall hold its terms at such place in each Quarter Sessions of the Peace and General Jail county as may be by law directed. Ark., 91. Delivery, or the Orphans' Court, or to the Court of The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdic- Chancery, in any matter, or giving any, power to tion in all cases in equity, also in all cases at law either of said courts. Until the General Assembly which involve the title or possession of real estate, or shall otherwise direct, there shall be an appeal to the the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, toll, or Court of Errors and Appeals in all cases in which municipal fine, or in which the demand, exclusive of there is an appeal, according to an act of the General interest, or the value of the property in controversy Assembly, to the High Court of Errors and Appeals. amounts to $300; also in all cases arising in the pro- Del. 123. bate courts; and also in all criminal cases amounting '-The members of the Senate and House of Repreto felony, on questions of law alone. The Court shall sentatives, the Chancellor, the Judges, and the also have power to issue writs of mandamus, certiorari, Attorney-General shall, by virtue of their offices, be prohibition, and habeas corpus, and also all writs nec- conservators of the peace throughout the State; and essary or proper to the complete exercise of its the Treasurer, Secretary, Prothonotaries, Registers, appellate jurisdiction. Each of the justices shall have Recorders, Sheriffs, and Coroners shall, by virtue of power to issue writs of habeas corpus to any part of their offices, be conservators thereof within the the State, upon petition on behalf of any person held counties respectively in which they reside. Del., 125. in actual custody, and may make such writs return- --The jurisdiction of each of the aforesaid courts, able before himself

, or the Supreme Court, or before Superior Court, Chancery and Orphans' Court, shall any District Court, or any County Court in the State, be co-extensive with the State. Process may be or before any judge of said courts. Cal., (as amended issued out of each court, in either county, into every in 1862.)

county. Del., 122. --- The District Courts shall have original jurisdiction - The General Assembly may by law give to any in all cases in equity; also in all cases at law which inserior courts by them to be established, or to one or involve the title or possession of real property, or the more Justices of the Peace, jurisdiction of the crimilegality of any tax, impost, assessment, toll or munici- nal matters following, that is to say, assaults and pal fine, and in all other cases in which the demand, batteries, keeping without license a public house of exclusive of interest, or the value of the property in entertainment, tavern, inn, ale house, ordinary or controvery amounts to $300; and also in all criminal victualing house, retailing or selling without license cases not otherwise provided for. The District Courts wine, rum, brandy, gin, whiskey, or spirituous or and their judges shall have power to issue writs of mixed liquors contrary to law, disturbing camp-meethabeas corpus, on petition by or on behalf of any per- ings held for the purpose of religious worship, disson held in actual custody in their respective districts. turbing other meetings for the purpose of religious Cal., (amended in 1862.)

worship, nuisances, horse-racing, cock-fighting and --Said [County) Courts shall also have power to issue shooting matches, larcenies committed by negroes or naturalization papers. Cal., (amended in 1862.) mulattoes, and the offense of knowingly buying, --The County Courts shall have original jurisdiction receiving or concealing by negroes or mulattoes, of of actions of forcible entry and detainer, of proceed- stolen goods and things the subject of larceny, and of ings of insolvency, of actions to prevent or abate a any negro or mulatto being accessary to any larceny. nuisance, and of all such special cases and proceedings The General Assembly may by law regulate this as are not otherwise provided for; and also such jurisdiction, and provide that the proceedings shall be criminal jurisdiction as the Legislature may prescribe. with or without indictment by grand jury, or trial by They shall also have appellate jurisdiction in all cases petit jury, and may grant or deny the priviledge of arising in courts held by Justices of the Peace and appeal to the Court of General Sessions of the Peace. Recorders, and in such inferior courts as may be The matters within this section shall be and the established in pursuance of section one of this article, same hereby are excepted and excluded from the in their respective counties. The County Judges provision of the Constitution, that—"No person shall also hold in their several counties Probate Courts, shall for an indictable offense be proceeded against and perform such duties as Probate Judges as may be criminally by information," and also from the proviprescribed by law. The County Courts and their sion of the Constitution concerning trial by jury. Judges shall also have power to issue writs of habeas Del., 123. corpus, on petition or on behalf of any person in actual - In civil causes when pending, the Superior Court custody, in their respective counties. Cal., (amended shall have the power, before judgment, of directing in 1862.)

upon such terms as they shall deem reasonable, — The Supreme Court, the District Courts, County amendments in pleadings and legal proceedings, so that by error in any of them, the determination of —It shall have appellate jurisdiction in all such cases causes, according to their real merits, shall not be as may be provided by law. Ga., 149. hindered; and also of directing the examination of — It shall have power to issue writs of mandamus, witnesses that are aged, very infirm, or going out of prohibition, scire facius, and all other writs which may the State, upon interrogatories de bene esse, to be read be necessary for carrying its powers fully into effect. . in evidence, in case of the death or departure of the Ga., 149. witnesses before the trial, or inability by reason of — The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction in all age, sickness, bodily infirmity or imprisonment, then other civil cases, and in them the General Assembly to attend; and also the power of obtaining evidence may give concurrent jurisdiction to the inferior court, from places not within this State. Del., 123.

or such other County Courts as they may hereafter -The Supreme Court, except in cases otherwise create, which cases shall be tried in the county where directed in this Constitution, shall have appellate the defendant resides. Ga., 149. jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with -In cases of joint obligors, or joint promisors or cothe State, under such restrictions and regulations, partners, or joint trespassers residing in different not repugnant to this Constitution, as may from time counties the suit may be brought in either county. to time be prescribed by law, provided that the said Ga., 149. court shall always have power to issue writs of - In case of a maker and indorser, or indorsers of injunction, mandamus, quo warranto, habeas corpus, promissory notes residing in different counties in this and such other original and remedial writs as may be State, the same may be sued in the county where the necessary to give it a general superintendence and maker resides. Ga., 149. control of all other courts. Fl., 133.

--The Supreme Court may have original jurisdiction - The Justices of the Supreme Court, Chancellors in cases relative to the revenue, in cases of manand Judges of the Circuit Courts, shall, by virtue of damus, habeas corpus, and in such cases of impeachtheir offices, be conservators of the peace throughout ment as may be by law directed to be tried before it, the State. Fl., 135.

and shall have appellate jurisdiction in all other cases. - The Circuit Courts shall have original jurisdiction I11., 160. in all matters, civil and criminal, not otherwise –On the first Monday of December, one thousand excepted in this Constitution. Fl., 134.

eight hundred and forty-eight, jurisdiction of all suits - The General Assembly shall by law authorize the and proceedings, then pending in the present Supreme Circuit Court to grant licenses for building toll- Court, shall become vested in the Supreme Court estabbridges, and to establish ferries, and to regulate the lished by this Constitution, and shall be finally adjutolls of both, to construct dams across streams not dicated by the Court where the same may be pending. navigable; to ascertain and declare what streams are The jurisdiction of all suits and proceedings then navigable; but no special law for such purpose shall pending in Circuit Courts of the several counties shall be made. Fl., 133.

be vested in the Circuit Courts of said counties. IU., -The said (Supreme] court shall have no original 168. jurisdiction, but shall be a court alone for the trial - The Judges of the Supreme Court, elected as aforeand correction of errors in law and equity from the said, shall have and exercise the powers and jurisdicSuperior Courts of the several circuits, and from tion conferred upon the present Judges of that Court; the City Courts of the cities of Savannah and and the said Judges of the Circuit Courts shall have Augusta, and such other like courts as may be here- and exercise the powers and jurisdictions conferred after established in other cities; and shall sit “at the upon the Judges of those Courts, subject to the proseat of government” at such time or times in each visions of this Constitution. III., 168. year, as the General Assembly shall prescribe, for -The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction cothe trial and determination of writs of error from extensive with the limits of the State, in appeals and said courts. Ga., 148.

writs of error, under such regulations and restrictions - The said (Supreme] Court shall dispose of and as may be prescribed by law. It shall also have such finally determine every case on the docket of such original jurisdiction as the General Assembly may court, at the first or second term after such writ of confer. Ind., 177. error brought, and in case the plaintiff in error shall -All judicial officers shall be conservators of the not be prepared at the first term of such court, after peace in their respective jurisdictions. Ind., 177; error brought, to prosecute the case, unless precluded (nearly similar), Ky., 215; La., 231; Md., 266; by some providential cause from such prosecution, it Mich., 306; Tex., 511. shall be stricken from the docket, and the judgment The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction below affirmed. And in any case that may occur, the only in all cases in chancery, and shall constitute a court may, in its discretion, withhold its judgment, until Court for the Correction of Errors at law, under such the term next after the argument thereon. Ga., 148. restrictions as the General Assembly may, by law,

— The Superior Courts shall also have exclusive juris- prescribe; and shall have power to issue all writs and diction in all criminal cases, except as relates to fines process necessary to secure justice to parties, and for neglect of duty, contempts of court, violation of exercise a supervisory control over all inferior judicial road laws, obstructions of water-courses, and in all tribunals thruughout the State. Iowa, 189. other minor offenses which do not subject the —The Judges of the Supreme and District Courts offender or offenders to loss of life, limb or member, shall be conservators of the peace throughout the or to confinement in the penitentiary; jurisdiction of same. Toua, 189. all such cases shall be vested in such County or Cor- – The District Court shall be a court of law and poration Courts, or such other courts, judicatures, or equity, which shall be distinct and separate jurisdictribunals as now exist, or may hereafter be consti- tions, and have jurisdiction in civil and criminal ted, under such rules and regulations as the Legisla- matters arising in their respective districts, in such ture may have directed, or may hereafter by law manner as shall be prescribed by law. Iowa, 189. direct. Ga., 148.

-The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction -The Superior Court shall have exclusive jnrisdic- in proceedings in quo warranto, mandamus, and habeas tion in all cases of divorce, both total and partial; corpus; and such appellate jurisdiction as may be but no total divorce shall be granted except on the provided by law. It shall hold one term each year concurrent verdicts of two special juries. In each at the seat of government, and such other terms at divorce case the court shall regulate the rights and such places as may be provided by law, and its jurisdisabilities of the parties. Ga., 148.

diction shall be co-extensive with the State. Kan., 200. -The Superior Court shall have exclusive jurisdic- -The District Courts shall have such jurisdiction in tion in all cases respecting titles to land, which their respective districts as may be provided by law. shall be tried in the county where the land lies; and Kan., 201, also in all equity causes which shall be tried in the —The several Justices and Judges of the Courts of county where one or more of the defendants reside, record in this State shall have such jurisdiction at against whom substantial relief is prayed. Ga., 148. chambers as may be provided by law. Kan., 201.

--The jurisdiction af said [Circuit] Court shall be and in all civil cases, both in law and equity, where the
remain as now established, hereby giving to the amount in controversy exceeds one hundred dollars,
General Assembly the power to change or alter it. and in all criminal cases where the punishment shall
Ky., 216.

exceed three months' imprisonment, or a fine of more
– The Supreme Court, except in cases hereafter pro- than one hundred dollars, and shall have such appel-
vided, shall have appellate jurisdiction only; which late jurisdiction as may be prescribed by law. The
jurisdiction shall extend to all cases when the matter Legislature may provide by law that the judge of
in dispute shall exceed three hundred dollars; to all one district may discharge the duties of the judge of
cases in which the constitutionality or legality of any any other district not his own, when convenience or
tax, toll or impost whatsoever, or of any fine, forfeit- the public interest may require it. Min., 324.
ure or penalty imposed by a municipal corporation, The Circuit Court shall have original jurisdiction
shall be in contestation; and to all criminal cases on in all matters, civil and criminal, within this State ;
questions of law alone, whenever the offense charged but in civil cases only when the principal of the
is punishable with death or imprisonment at hard sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars. Miss., 339.
labor, or when a fine exceeding three hundred dollars —The judges of all the courts of the State, and also
is actually imposed. La., 231.

the members of the Board of County Police, shall in -The Supreme Court, and each of the Judges thereof, virtue of their offices be conservators of the peace, shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, at

and shall be by law vested with ample powers in this the instance of all persons in actual custody under respect. Miss., 340. process, in all cases in which they may have appellate - The Supreme Court, except in cases otherwise jurisdiction. La., 231.

directed by this Constitution, shall have appellate --The Legislature shall have power to vest in clerks jurisdiction only, which shall be co-extensive with of courts authority to grant such orders, and do such the State, under the restrictions and limitations in acts as may be deemed necessary for the furtherance this Constitution provided. Mo., 357. of the administration of justice, and in all cases the — The Supreme Court shall have a general superinpowers thus granted shall be specified and deter- tending control over all inferior courts of law. It mined. La., 232.

shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, —The judge or judges of any court of this State, mandamus, quo warranto, certiorari, and other original except the Court of Appeals, shall order and direct remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same. the record of proceedings in any suit of action, issue Mo., 357. or petition, presentment or indictment pending in --The Circuit Court shall have jurisdictien over all such court, to be transmitted to some other court in the criminal cases, which shall not be otherwise provided same or any adjoining circuit having jurisdiction in for by law; and exclusive original jurisdiction in all such cases, whenever any party to such cause, or the civil cases, which shall not be cognizable before Juscounsel of any party shall make it satisfactorily appear tices of the Peace, until otherwise directed by the to the court that such party cannot have a fair and General Assembly. It shall hold its terms at such impartial trial in the court in which such suit or action, time and place in each county, as may be by law issue or petition, presentment or indictment is pend- directed. Mo.

, 358. ing; and the General Assembly shall make such – The Circuit Court shall exercise a superintending modifications of existing law as may be necessary to

control over all such inferior tribunals as the General regulate and give force to this provision. Md., 266. Assembly may establish, and over Justices of the

- The several courts, except as herein otherwise pro- Peace in each county in their respective circuits. Mo.,
vided, shall continue with like powers and jurisdic- 359.
tion, both at law and in equity, as if this Constitution - The jurisdiction of the several courts herein pro-
had not been adopted, and until the organization of vided for, both appellate and original, shall be as fixed
the Judicial Departinent provided by this Constitu- by law; Provided, That Probate Courts, Justices of
tion. Md., 276.

the Peace or any inferior court that may be estab-The trial by jury of all issues of fact in civil pro

lished by the Legislature shall not have jurisdiction ceedings in the several courts of law in this State, in any matter wherein the title or boundaries of land where the amount in controversy exceeds the sum of may be in dispute. Nor shall either of the courts five dollars, shall be inviolably preserved. Md., 277. mentioned in this proviso have power to order or -One court shall be held in each county of the State: decree the sale or partition of real estate; And, prothe suid courts shall be called Circuit Courts for the vided further, That Justices of the Peace and such county in which they may be held, and shall have inferior courts as may be established by the Legislaand exercise all the power, authority and jurisdiction, ture, shall not have jurisdiction when the debt or sum original and appellate, which the present Circuit claimed shall exceed one hundred dollars; and the Courts of this State now have and exercise, or which jurisdiction of the District and Probate Courts, and may hereafter be prescribed by law. Md., 267. Justices of the Peace shall be uniform throughout the -The Circuit Courts shall have original jurisdiction State. Neb., 379. in all matters civil and criminal, not excepted in this - The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdicConstitution, and not prohibited by law; and appel- tion only except in cases relating to revenue, manlate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals, damus, quo warranto, habeas corpus, and such cases and a supervisory control of the same. They shall of impeachment as may be required to be tried also have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, man- before it; and both the Supreme and District Courts damus, injunctions, quo warranto, certiorari, and other shall have both chancery and common law jurisdicwrits necessary to carry into effect their orders, judy- tion. Neb., 375. ments, and decrees, and give them a general control - The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdicover inferior courts and tribunals within their respec- tion in all cases in equity; also in all cases at law in tive jurisdictions. Mich., 306.

which is involved the title or right of possession to, -The Supreme Court shall have a general superin- or the possession of real estate or mining claims, or tending control over all inferior courts, and shall have the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, toll

, or power to issue writs of error, habeas corpus, man- municipal fine, or in which the demand, exclusive of damus, quo warranto, procedendo, and other original interest or the value of the property in controversy, and remedial writs, and to hear and determine the exceeds three hundred dollars; also in all other civil saine. In all other cases it shall have appellate juris- cases not included in the general subdivisions of law diction only. Mich., 305.

and equity, and also on questions of law alone in all -The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction criminal cases in which the offense charged amounts in such remedial cases as may be prescribed by law, to felony. The court shall also have power to issue and appellate jurisdiction in all cases, both in law and writs of mandamas, certiorari, prohibition, quo warequity, but there shall be no trial by jury in said ranto, habeas corpus, and also all writs necessary or court. Min., 324.

proper to the complete exercise of its appellate jurisdic– The District Courts shall have original jurisdiction tion. Each of the justices shall have power to issue

1

writs of habeas corpus to any part of the State upon the Legislature shall vest in the said courts such othe petition by or on behalf of any person held in actual powers to grant relief in equity, as shall be found custody, and may make such writs returnable before necessary; and may, from time to time, enlarge or himself or the Supreme Court, or before any district diminish those powers or vest them in such other court of the State or before any judge of said courts. courts as they shall judge proper, for the due adminNev., 386.

istration of justice. Pa., 465. -The District Courts in the several judicial districts –The President of the Court in each circuit within of this State shall have original jurisdiction in all cases such circuit, and the Judges of the Court of Common in equity; also, in all cases at law which involve the Pleas within their respective counties, shall be Justitle, or the right of possession to, or the possession tices of the Peace, so far as relates to criminal matters. of real property or mining claims, or the legality of Pa., 465. any tax, impost, assessment, toll or municipal fine, –The several courts shall have such jurisdiction as and in all other cases in which the demand, exclusive may, from time to time, be prescribed by law. Chanof interest, or the value of the property in controversy cery powers may be conferred on the Supreme Court, exceeds three hundred dollars; also, in all cases but on no other court to any greater extent than is relating to estate of deceased persons, and the persons now provided by law. R. I., 479. and estates of minors and insane persons, and of the - The Supreme Court, established by this Constituaction of forcible entry and unlawful detainer; and tion, shall have the same jurisdiction as the Supreme also in all criminal cases not otherwise provided for Judicial Court at present established, and shall have by law. They shall also have final appellate jurisdiction of all causes which may be appealed to, jurisdiction in cases arising in Justices' Courts, and or pending in the same; and shall be held at the same such other inferior tribunals as may be established by time and places, and in each county, as the present law. The District Courts, and the judges thereof, Supreme Judicial Court, until otherwise prescribed shall have power to issue writs of mandamus, injunc- by the General Assembly.. R. I., 481. tion, quo warranto, certiorari, and all other writs -The jurisdiction of this [the Supreme Court), proper and necessary to the complete exercise of shall be appellate only, under such restrictions and their jurisdiction, and also shall have power to issue regulations as may from time to time be prescribed writs of habeas corpus on petition by, or on behalf of, by law; but it may possess such other jurisdiction as any person held in actual custody in their respective is now conferred by law on the present Supreme districts. Nev., 387.

Court Said courts shall be held at one place, and at — The Legislature may vest in the Circuit Courts or one place only, in each of the three grand divisions Courts of Common Pleas, within the several counties in the State. Tenn., 496. of this State, chancery powers, so far as relates to the Judges shall not charge juries with respect to matforeclosure of mortgages and sale of mortgaged ters of fact, but may state the testimony and declare premises. N. Y., 415.

the law. Tenn., 496. -The several Judges of the Suprme Court, of the — The jurisdiction of such inferior courts, as the LegisCommon Pleas, and of such other courts as may be lature may from time to time establish, shall be regucreated, shall, respectively, have and exercise such lated by law. Tenn , 496. power and jurisdiction, at chambers, or otherwise, as — The Legislature shall have the right to vest such may be directed by law. Ohio, 438.

powers in the courts of justice, with regard to private -It [the Supreme Court] shall have original jurisdic- and local affairs, as may be deemed expedient. Tenn., tion in quo warranto, mandamus, habeas corpus and 499. procedendo, and such appellate jurisdiction as may be - The Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction provided by law. Ohio, 437.

only, which shall be co-extensive with the limits of --The District Court shall have like original jurisdic- the State; but in criminal cases below the grade of tion with the Supreme Court, and such appellate juris- felony, and in appeals from interlocutory judgments, diction as may be provided by law. Ohio, 437. with such exceptions and under such regulations as -The jurisdiction of the Courts of Common Pleas, the Legislature shall make; and the Supreme Court and of the Judges thereof, shall be fixed by law. and the judges thereof, shall have power to issue the Ohio, 437.

writ of habeas corpus, and under such regulations as -The General Assembly shall have no power to pass, may be prescribed by law, the said court and the but may, by general laws, authorize courts to carry Judges thereof, may issue the writ of mandamus, and into effect, upon such terms as shall be just and such other writs as may be necessary to enforce its equitable, the manifest intention of parties, and offi- own jurisdiction. The Supreme Court shall also have cers, by curing omissions, defects and

errors, in instru- power upon affidavit, or otherwise, as by the court ments and proceedings, arising out of their want of inay be thought proper, to ascertain such matters conformity with the laws of this State. Ohio, 435. of fact as may be necessary to the proper exercise of

– The Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction only to its jurisdiction. The Supreme Court shall sit for the revise the final decisions of the Circuit Courts; and transaction of business, from the first Monday of every cause shall be tried, and every decision shall be October until the last Saturday of June of every year, made by those judges only, or a majority of them, at the capital, and at not more than two other places who did not try the cause, or make the decision in in the State. Tex., 510. Circuit Court. Or., 454,

- The District Court shall have original jurisdiction -All judicial power, authority and jurisdiction not of all criminal cases; of all suits in behalf of the vested by this Constitution, or by laws consistent State to recover penalties, forfeitures and escheats; therewith, exclusively in some other court, shall of all cases of divorce; of all suits to recover dambelong to the Circuit Courts; and they shall have ages for slander or defamation of character; of all appellate jurisdiction, and supervisory control over suits for the trial of title of land; of all suits for the the County Courts, and all other inferior courts, offi- enforcement of liens; of all suits for the trial of the cers and tribunals. Or., 454.

right of property, levied on by virtue of any writ of -The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court shall extend execution, sequestration or attachment, when the over the State, and the judges thereof shall, by virtue property levied on shall be equal to, or exceed in of their offices, be Justices of Oyer and Terminer and value one hundred dollars; and of all suits, comGeneral Jail Delivery, in the several counties. Pa., plaints or pleas whatever, without regard to any dis465.

tinction between law and equity, when the matter -The Supreme Court, and the several Courts of in controversy shall be valued at, or amount to, one Common Pleas, shall, beside the powers heretofore hundred dollars, exclusive of interest; and the said usually exercised by them, have the powers of a Court courts and the judges thereof shall have power to of Chancery, so far as relates to the perpetuating of issue writs of injunction, certiorari, and all other writs testimony, the obtaining of evidence from places not necessary to enforce their own jurisdiction, and to within the State, and the care of the persons and give them a general superintendence and control estates of those who are non compotes mentis. And over inferior tribunals. The District Courts shall

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