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$ 7. When private property shall be taken for any public use, the compen

2 sation to be made therefor,(') when such compensation is not made by the State, 3 shall be ascertained by a jury, or by not less than three commissioners appointed

4 by

court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. Private roads may be

5 opened in the manner to be prescribed by law; but in every case the necessity of

6 the road, and the amount of all damage to be sustained by the opening thereof 7 shall be first determined by a jury of freeholders, and such amount, together 8 with the expenses of the proceeding, shall be paid by the person to be benefited.

185; Me., 230; Min., 319; Mo., 347; Miss., 335; N. J., -That no person shall, for any indictable offense, be 412; N.' C., 422; Or., 447; Pa., 467; R. I., 473; proceeded against criminally, by information, except Tenn., 491 ; Tex., 506; Va., 532.

in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the -All courts shall be open, and every person, for an militia when in actual service, in time of war or pubinjury done him in his person, property or reputa- lic danger, or by leave of the court for oppression or tion, shall have remedy by due course of law, and misdemeanor in office.

Ky., 223. right and justice administered without sale, denial or - In the trial of all causes in equity in the District delay. Ct., 108; Fl., 129; Ind., 170; La., 234; Miss., Courts, the plaintiff or defendant shall, upon applica315; Mo., 347; Neb., 370; Ohio, 433; Or., 447; Pa., tion made in open court, have the right of trial by 467; Tenn., 491.

jury, to be governed by the rules and regulations --Justice shall be administered freely and without prescribed in trials at law. Trx.,-510. purchase; completely, and without denial; speedily, --The General Assembly shall provide for the comand without delay. Ind., 170.

pensation of jurors, but appropriations for that ---That in all criminal prosecutions every man hath purpose shall not be made from the State treasury, a right to be informed of the accusation against him; except in prosecutions for felony and misdemeanor. to have a copy of the indictment or charge in due

Va., 543. time (if required) to prepare for his defense; to be -The General Assembly may modify or abolish the allowed counsel; to be confronted with the wit- grand jury system. Ind., 177. nesses against him; to have process for his witnesses; to examine the witnesses for and against him on oath;

DUELING. and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury, without whose unanimous consent he ought not to be found -Any person who shall, after the adoption of this guilty. Md., 254.

Constitution, fight a duel, or send or accept a chal--Every person charged with an offense against the lenge for that purpose, or be aider or abettor in fighting State, shall have the privilege and benefit of counsel, a duel, shall be deprived of the right of holding any shall be furnished on demand with a copy of the office of honor or profit in this State, and shall be accusation, and list of the witnesses on whose testi- punished otherwise, in such manner as is or may be mony the charge against him is founded; shall have prescribed by law. IV., 166. compulsory process to obtain the attendance of his —[A stringent oath, relating to dueling, required.] own witnesses; shall be confronted with the wit- IU., 166; Miss.. 343. nesses testifying against him, and shall have a public [Disqualification from holding office and other penand speedy trial by an impartial jury, as hieretofore alties.] Cal., 104; Fl., 136; Ky., 220; Md., 264; practiced. Ga., 142.

Mo., 362; Ohio, 443; La., 466; Tenn., 498; Ter. - The powers of the courts to punish for contempt 515; Va., 537; W. Va., 548; Wis., 570. shall be limited by legislative acts. Ga., 142, --Every person within this State ought to find a certain remedy in the laws for all injuries or wrongs (1). Ct., 107; Fl., 129; Miss., 335. which he may receive in his person, property, or character; he ought to obtain right and justice freely, COMPENSATION FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY an 1 without being obliged to purchase it; completely OR SERVICES FOR PUBLIC USE. and without denial, promptly and without delay, conformably to the laws. Il., 166.

--Each individual of the society has a right to be --No subject shall be held to answer for any crimes protected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty or no offense until the same is fully and plainly, sub- and property, according to standing laws. He is stantially and formally, described to him; or be com- obliged, consequently, to contribute his share to the pelled to accuse, or furnish evidence against himself; expense of this protection; to give his personal serand every subject shall have a right to produce all vice, or an equivalent, when necessary; but no part proofs that may be favorable to him; to meet the of the property of any individual can, with justice, witnesses against him face to face, and to be fully be taken from him, or applied to public uses, without heard in his defense by himself or his counsel, at his his own consent, or that of the representative body election. And no subject shall be arrested, impris- of the people. In fine, the people of this Commononed, despoiled or deprived of his property, immuni- wealth are not controllable by any other laws than ties or privileges, put out of the protection of the those to which their Constitutional representative law, exiled or deprived of his life, liberty or estate, body have given their consent. And whenever the but by the judgment of his peers, or the law of the public exigencies require that the property of any land. Mass., 281.

individual should be appropriated to public uses, he --And the Legislature shall not make any law that shall receive a reasonable compensation therefor. shall subject any person to a capital or infamous pun- Mass., 281. ishment, excepting for the government of the army --No person's property shall be taken, or applied to and navy, without trial by jury. Mass., 281. public use, without adequate compensation being -In the trial of all criminal cases the jury shall be made, unless by the consent of such person. Tex. the judges of law as well as fact. Md., 277.

506.

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-The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to roads may be opened in the manner to be prescribed
each House of the General Assembly shall be required by law; but in every case the necessity of the road
to every bill appropriating the public money or public and the amount of all damages to be sustained by
property for local or private purpose. Pa., 476. the opening thereof, shall be first determined by a

--Lands may be taken for public way, for the purpose jury of freeholders; and such amount, together with
of granting to any corporation the franchise of way the expenses of proceedings, shall be paid by the
for public use. In all cases, however, a fair and equit- person or persons to be benefited. Mich., 314.
able compensation shall be paid for such land and the --Nor shall any man's property be taken or applied
damages arising from the taking of the same; but all to public use without the consent of his Representa
corporations being common carriers, enjoying the tives in the General Assembly, nor without just com-
right of way in pursuance to the provisions of this pensation being made to him. IV., 166; Va., 537.
section, shall be bound to carry the mineral, agricul- -Private property shall not be taken for public use
tural and other productions or manufactures on equal without just compensation first being made or secured,
and reasonable terms. Min., 328.

to be paid to the owner thereof, as soon as the dam-
—The Legislature shall not authorize by private or ages shall be assessed by a jury, who shall not take
special law, the sale or conveyance of any real estate into consideration any advantages that may result to
belonging to any person; nor vacate, nor alter any said owner on account of the improvement for which
road laid out by commissioners of highways, or any it is taken. Iowa., 186.
street in any city or village, or in any recorded town --Private property shall not be taken for public uses
plat. Mich., 303.

without just compensation ; [Mo., 344; Neb., 371; - The General Assembly shall have no power to N. J., 412; R. I., 453; W. Va., 547; Wis., 560;] nor authorize, by private or special law, the sale of any unless the public exigencies require it. [Me., 240; to lands or other real estate belonging in whole or in be previously paid. Min., 320]; except in cases of part to any individual or indviduals. III., 154. war, riot, fire or great public peril, in which cases --- Private property shall not be taken for public compensation shall be afterwards made. Nev., 380. improvements in cities and villages without the con- --Private property shall not be taken for public use, sent of the owner, unless the compensation therefor nor the particular services of any man be demanded, shall first be determined by a jury of freeholders, and without just compensation; nor except in the case actually paid or secured in the manner provided by of the State, without such compensation first assessed law. Mich., 313.

and tendered. Or., 448. -No person's property shall be taken by any cor- - That private property ought to be subservient to poration under authority of law, without compensa- public uses, when necessity requires it; nevertheless, tion being first made or secured in such manner as whenever any person's property is taken for the use may be prescribed by law. Or., 457.

of the public, the owner ought to receive an equiva-No right of way shall be appropriated to the use lent in money. Vt., 521. But land may be taken of any corporation, until full compensation thereforfor public highways, as heretofore, until the Legisshall be first made in money, or first secured by a lature shall direct compensation to be made. N. J., deposit of money, to the owner, irrespective of any 412. benefit from any improvement proposed by such cor- - Private property shall ever be held inviolate, but poration; which compensation shall be ascertained subservient to the public welfare. When taken in by a jury of twelve men, in a Court of Record, as time of war or other public exigency, imperatively shall be prescribed by law. Ohio, 443.

requiring its immediate seizure, or for the purpose of - The General Assembly shall enact no law authoriz- making or repairing roads, which shall be open to the ing private property to be taken for public use, with- public, without chargo, a compensation shall be made out just compensation, as agreed upon between the to the owner, in money, and in all other cases where parties, or awarded by a jury, being first paid or private property shall be taken for public use, a comtendered to the party entitled to such compensation. pensation therefor shall be first made in money, or Md., 264.

first secured by a deposit of money; and such com- That private property shall not be taken or applied pensation shall be assessed by a jury, without deduction for public use, unless just compensation be made for the benefits to any property of the owner. therefor; nor shall private property be taken for Ohio, 433. private use, or for the use of corporations other than -No part of a man's property shall be taken from him municipal, without the consent of the owner; Pro- cr applied to public uses, without his own consent, or vided, However, that laws may be made securing to that of the Representative body of the people. Nor persons or corporations the right of way over the are the inhabitants of this State controllable by any lands of other persons or corporations, and, for other laws than those to which they, or their represenworks of internal improvement, the right to establish tative body have given their consent. N. H., 399; depots, stations, and turn-outs; but just compensa

Vt., 522. tion shall, in such cases, be first made to the owner.

-Laws should have a general operation, and no genAla., 73.

eral law affecting private rights shall be varied in any --No man's property shall be taken by law without particular case by special legislation, except with the just compensation; nor except in case of the State, free consent, in writing, of all persons to be affected without such compensation first assessed and ten- thereby; and no person being under a legal disability dered. Ind., 170.

to contract, is capable of such free consent Ga., 142. -When private property is taken for the use or ben- --No man's particular service shall be demanded withefit of the public, the necessity for using such property out just compensation. Or., 448; Ind., 170. and the just compensation to be made therefor, except -That no man's particular services shall be demanded, when to be made by the State, shall be ascertained or property taken, or applied to public use, without by a jury of twelve freeholders, residing in the vicin- the consent of his Representatives, or without just ity of such property, or by not less than three com- compensation being made therefor. Tenn., 491. missioners, appointed by a Court of Record, as shall be prescribed by law. Mich., 314. - In cases of necessity, private ways may be granted upon just compensation being first paid; and with

SUITS AGAINST THE STATE. this exception private property shall not be taken, save for public use, and then only on just compensa- -Suits may be brought against the State, according tion to be first provided and paid, unless there be a to such regulations as shall be made by law. Ala., pressing, unforeseen necessity; in which event the 73; Cal., 104; Del., 117. General Assembly shall make early provision for -The General Assembly may direct, by law, in what such compensation. Ga., 143.

manner, and in what courts, suits may be brought - The property of no person shall be taken for pub. against the State. Ark., 87; II., 154; Ind, 174; lic use without just compensation therefor. Private Ky., 220; Msis., 343; Nev., 383; Wis., 563.

1

S 8. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on

2 all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be

3 passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or the press. In all criminal

4 prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the

5 jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is 6 true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall 7 be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact(1)

--But no special act authorizing such suit to be -The liberty of the press is essential to the security brought, or making compensation to any person of freedom in a State; it ought, therefore, to be claiming damages against the State, shall ever be inviolably preserved. N. H., 400. passed. Ind., 174; Or., 451.

-The press shall be free to every citizen who under-It shall be the duty of the Clerk of the Court of takes to examine the official conduct of men acting Appeals and the Commissioner of the Land Office in a public capacity; and any citizen may print on respectively, whenever a case shall be brought into any such subject, being responsible, for the abuse of said court or office, in which the State is a party or that liberty. In prosecutions for publications inveshas an interest, immediately to notify the Attorney- tigating the proceedings of officers, or where the General thereof. Md., 271.

matter published is proper for public information, the -No State officer or member of the Legislative truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all Assembly shall

, directly or indirectly, receive a fee, indictments for libels, the jury may determine the or be engaged as counsel, agent, or attorney in the facts and the law, as in other cases. "IU., 116. prosecution of any claim against this State. Or., 458. —No law abridging freedom of speech or of the press

shall be passed, but the Legislature may provide for the restraint and punishment of the publishing and vending of obscene books, papers and pictures, and of libel and defamation of character, and for the recov

ery, in civil actions, by the aggrieved party, of suitable (1). N. Y. (1821), 42; Cal., 96; (nearly similar), damages for such libel or defamation. Attempts to Cl., 107; F1, 129; Neb., 370; Miss., 334 ; Tex., 506; justify and uphold an armed invasion of the State, or Wis., 559.

an organized insurrection therein, during the continuance of such invasion or insurrection, by publicly

speaking, writing, or printing, or by publishing or FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND OF THE PRESS. circulating such writing or printing, may be, by law;

declared a misdemeanor, and punished accordingly. - That the free communication of thought and opin- W. Va., 547. ions is one of the invaluable rights of man, and that -The liberty of the press is essential to the security every person may freely speak, write, and print, on of freedom in a State; it ought not, therefore, to be any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that restrained in this Commonwealth.

Mass., 281. liberty; and in all prosecutions for libel, the truth – That the freedom of the press is one of the great thereof may be given in evidence, and the jury may bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained but determine the law and thu facts, under the direction by despotic governments. N. C., 422; Va., 532. of the court. Mo., 348.

-No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the - That every citizen may freely speak, write and liberty of speech of the press. Miss., 334; Mich., 304. publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsi- — The liberty of the press shall be inviolate; and all ble for the abuse of that liberty. Ala., 72; Fl., 129. persons may freely speak, write, or publish their sen

- The press shall be free; every citizen may freely timents on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse speak, write and publish his sentiments on all sub- of such right; and in all civil or criminal actions for jects, being responsible for an abuse of this liberty. libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, La., 234.

and if it shall appear that the alleged libellous matter _That printing presses shall be free to every person; was published for justifiable ends, the accused party and no law shall ever be made to restrain the rights shall be acquitted. Kan., 197. thereof. The free communication of thoughts and -Freedom of speech, and freedom of the press, are opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and inherent elements of political liberty. But while every citizen may freely speak, write and print, on every citizen may freely speak or write, or print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that any subject, he shall be responsible for the abuse of liberty. Ark., 84 ; Pa., 467.

the liberty. Min., 319. -That the liberty of the press ought to be inviolably –That the people have a right to freedom of speech, preserved; that every citizen of the State ought to and of writing and publishing their sentiments conbe allowed to speak, write and publish his sentiments cerning the transactions of government, therefore the on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that freedom of the press ought not to be restrained. liberty. Md., 256.

Nt., 522. -In prosecutions for the publication of papers inves- –The liberty of the press being essential to the tigating the official conduct of officers or men in security of freedom in a State, any person may pubpublic capacity, or where the matter published is lish his sentiments on any subject

, being responsible proper for public information, the truth thereof may for the abuse of that liberty; and in all trials for libel, be given in evidence, and in all indictments for libels both civil and criminal, the truth, unless published the jury shall have the right to determine the law from malicious motives, shall be sufficient defense to and the facts. Ala., 73; Ark., 84; I U., 166; Ky., 223; the person charged. R. I., 474. Pa., 467 ; Tex., 506.

—The printing presses shall be free to every person - In all indictments for libels, the jury, after having who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the received the direction of the court, shall have a right General Assembly, or of any branch of government; to determine, at their discretion, the law and the fact. and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right Me., 239.

thereof. The free communication of thoughts and

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1 $ 9. The assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the 2 Legislature, shall be requisite to every bill appropriating the public moneys 3 or property for local or private purposes(').

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opinions is one of the invaluable rights of man; and -No moneys shall be issued out of the Treasury of every citizen may freely speak, write and print on this Commonwealth and disposed of (except such any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that sums as may be appropriated for the redemption of liberty. Iủ, 166; K., 222; Tenm, 491.

bills of credit or Treasurer's notes, or for the payBut in prosecutions for the publication of papers ment of interest arising thereon) but by warrant investigating the official conduct of officers or men in under the hand of the Governor for the time being, public capacity, the truth thereof may be given in with the advice and consent of the council for the evidence; and in all indictments for libels, the jury necessary defense and support of the Commonwealth, shall have a right to determine the law and the facts, and for the protection and preservation of the inhabunder the direction of the court, as in other criminal itants thereof, agreeably to the acts and resolves of Tenn., 491.

the General Court. Mass., 288. -No law shall be passed restraining the free inter- -No money shall be drawn from the Treasury change of thought and opinion, or restricting the except in pursuance of a specific appropriation made right to speak, write or print freely on any subject by law; and no appropriation shall be made for a whatever; but for the abuse of that right every per- longer period than two years. Neb., 373; Ohio, 434. son shall be responsible. Ind., 170; Or., 447. -No money shall be drawn from the treasury but --In prosecutions and civil suits for libel, the truth in consequence of an appropriation made by law, nor may be given in evidence; and if it shall appear to shall any appropriation of money for the support of the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, an army be made for a longer time than one year. and was published with good motives and for justifia- Miss., 342. ble ends, the verdict shall be for the defendant. -No money shall be drawn from the treasury except Va., 547.

in pursuance of a specific appropriation made by law, -In all prosecutions for libel, the truth of the matters and no appropriation shall be for a longer term than alleged to be libelous may be given in justification. one year. Kun., 200. Ind., 170.

-No vote, resolution, law or order shall pass grant-In all prosecutions for libels, the truth may be given ing a donation or gratuity in favor of any person, in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the except by the concurrence of two-thirds of the Genjury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and eral Assembly. Ga., 146. was published with good motives and for justifiable -No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in ends, the party shall be acquitted. The jury shall consequence of appropriations made by law; and a have the right to determine the law and the fact. regular statement and account of the receipts and Mich., 307.

expenditures of all public money shall be published -Every person may speak, write and publish his at least once in every two years. Del., 119. sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the

-No money shall be appropriated except by bill abuse of that right. No law shall be passed to restrain

Miss, 322. or abridge the liberty of speech, or of the press In -No moneys shall be issued out of the treasury of all prosecutions or indictments for libel, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury, and if it appear to

this State, and disposed of (except such sums as may

be the jury that the matter charged as libelous was true,

appropriated for the redemption of bills of credit or and was published with good motives and justifiable

treasurer's notes, or for the payment of interest arising ends, the party shall be acquitted. Iowa, 183; sub

thereon) but by warrant under the hand of the Govstantially the same, Me., 239; Ohio, 433; Nev, 380;

ernor for the time being, by and with the advice and N. J., 412.

consent of Council, for the necessary support and defense of this State, and for the necessary protection and preservation of the inhabitants thereof, agreeably to the acts and resolves of the General Court. N. H., 406.

-No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but (1). Mich., 304; [or creating, continuing, altering in pursuance of specific appropriations made by law; or renewing any body politic or corporate). N. Y., nor shall any appropriation of money be made for a (1821), 42.

longer term than two years, except for purposes of education; and no appropriation for private or indi

vidual purposes, or for purposes of internal improveLAWS FOR APPROPRIATION OF MONEY. ment, shall be made, without the concurrence of

two-thirds of both houses of the Legislature. A -The assent of two-thirds of the members elected regular statement and account of the receipts and to each branch of the Legislature shall be requisite expenditures of all public money shall be published to every bill appropriating the public moneys or annually in such manner as shall be prescribed by property for local or private purposes, or creating, law. And in no case shall the Legislature have the continning, altering or renewing any body politic or power to issue "treasury warrants." "treasury notes," corporate. N. Y., (1821), 42.

or paper of any description, intended to circulate as --No money shall be drawn from the treasury of the

money. Tex., 515. State except in accordance with an appropriation by -Laws making appropriations for the salaries of publaw, and every such law shall distinctly specify the lic officers, and other current expenses of the State, sum appropriated, and the object to which it shall be shall contain provisions upon no other subject. Or., applied; Provided, That nothing herein contained 456. . shall prevent the General Assembly from placing a -In all cases where sums of money are mentioned contingent fund at the disposal of the Executive, in this Constitution, the value thereof shall be comwho shall report to the General Assembly at each puted in silver, at six shillings and eight pence per session the amount expended and the purposes to ounce; and it shall be in the power of the Legislawhich it was applied; an accurate statement of the ture, from time to time, to increase such qualifications, receipts and expenditures of the public money shall as to property, of the persons to be elected to offices, be attached to and published with the laws after each as the circumstances of the Commonwealth shali regular session of the General Assembly. Md., 263. require. Mass., 293.

ounce.

--In all cases where sums of money are mentioned ject-matter of which shall not have been provided for in this Constitution, the value thereof shall be com- by the pre-existing law, unless such compensation, or puted in silver at six shillings and eight pence per claim, be allowed by two-thirds of the members N. H., 410.

elected to each branch of the General Assembly. [Two-thirds vote requisite for a tax). Vt., 523. Ohio, 435. -No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in -The Legislature shall provide by law for the compursuance of [specific, La.,] appropriations made by pensation of all officers, servants, agents, and public law, nor shall any appropriations of money for the contractors, not provided for by this Constitution, and support of an army be made for a longer time than shall not grant extra compensation to any officer, two years, and a regular statement and account of agent, servant, or public contractor, after such public the receipts and expenditures of all public money service shall have been performed, or contract entered shall be published annually. [Ky., 220; La., 233; into for the performance of the same; nor grant, by Tenn., 491; W. Va., 556), in such manner as shall be appropriation, or otherwise, any amount of money prescribed by law. La., 233; S. C., 484.

out of the treasury of the State, to any individual on -No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in a claim, real or pretended, where the same shall not consequence of appropriations made by law, [Ala., have been provided for by pre-existing law; Pro78; Ark., 93; Cal., 99; Fl., 137; Ga., 146; Ind., vided, That nothing in this section shall be so construed 179; Iowa, 186; Mich., 312, Miss., 342; Mo. 362; as to affect the claims of persons against the RepubNeb., 376 ; Nev., 382 ; N. J., 414; Ohio, 440; Or., lic of Texas, heretofore existing. Tex., 515. 456, Pa., 462; Vl., 525; Wis, 567), and a regular —No money shall be drawn from the State treasury statement and account of the receipts and expen- as salary or compensation for any officer or employee ditures of all public money shall be published from of the Legislature, or either branch thereof, except in time to time. U. S., 13; (similar provision), Va., 538. such cases where such salary or compensation has -No subsidy, charge, tax, impost or duties, ought to been fixed by a law in force prior to the election or be established, fixed, laid or levied, under any pretext appointment of such officer or employee of the Legiswhatsoever, without the consent of the people, or lature, or either branch thereof, at such session of the their Representatives in the Legislature. Mass., 282; Legislature. Nev., 383. N. H., 400; Md., 254; Or., 448,

-No extra compensation shall be granted or allowed -That the people of this State ought not to be taxed to any public officer, agent, or contractor, after the or made subject to the payment of any impost or services shall have been rendered, or the contract duty, without the consent of themselves, or their entered into. Nor shall the salary or compensation Representatives in General Assembly freely given. of any public officer be increased or diminished during N. C., 422.

his term of office. W. Va., 548. -An accurate statement of the receipts and expen- -No money shall be drawn from the treasury but ditures of the public moneys shall be attached to and in consequence of appropriations made by law; and published with the laws, at every regular session of an accurate statement of the receipts and expendithe Legislature. Mich., 314; (nearly similar), Ala., tures of the public money shall be attached to, ani 78; Ark., 93; Cal., 99; Ct., 111; Fl., 137; Ga., published with the laws at the rising of each session 146; Ind., 119; Iowa, 186; Kan., 201; Me., 246; of the General Assembly. And no person who has Mo., 362; Nev., 382; Ohio, 443; Or., 456.

been or may be a collector of public moneys shall be -And previous to any law being made to raise a tax, eligible to a seat in either House of the General the purpose for which it is to be raised ought to appear Assembly, nor be eligible to any office of profit or evident to the Legislature to be of more service to trust in this state, until such person shall have the community than the money would be if not col- accounted for and paid into the treasury all sums for lected.

which he may be accountable. IU., 153.

-- The officers mentioned in this article shall, at stated

times, receive for their services a compensation to be EXTRA COMPENSATION FOR SERVICES AND establıshed by law, which shall neither be increased CONTRACTS.

nor diminished during the period for which they shall

have been elected, Ohio, 436. -No extra compensation shall be made to any officer, -As every freeman, to preserve his independence public agent, or contractor, after the service shall (if without a sufficient estate), ought to have some have been rendered, or the contract entered into; profession, calling, trade or farm whereby he may nor shall any money be paid on any claim, the sub- honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for nor ject-matter of which shall not have been provided use in establishing offices of profit, the usual effects for by pre-existing laws, and no public money or of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming property shall be appropriated for local or private freemen, in the possessors or expectants, and faction, purposes, unless such appropriation, compensation, or contention and discord among the people. But if claim be allowed by two-thirds of the members any man is called into public service to the prejudice elected to each branch of the General Assembly. of his private affairs, he has a right to a reasonable Iowa, 187.

compensation; and whenever an office, through -No extra compensation shall be granted or allowed increase of fees, or otherwise, becomes so profitable by the General Assembly to any public officer, agent, as to occasion many to apply for it, the profits ought servant, or contractor, after the services shall have to be lessened by the Legislature. And if any officer been rendered or the contract entered into; nor shall shall wittingly and wilfully take greater fees than the the salary or compensation of any public officer be law allows him, it shall ever after disqualify him from increased or diminished during his term of office. holding any office in this State, until he shall be M1., 263.

restored by act of legislation. Vt., 525. --The Legislature shall not grant nor authorize extra compensation to any public officer, agent, or contractor, after the service has been rendered or the

DEDUCTION FROM SALARIES. contract entered into. Mich., 303; IU., 154. -The Legislature shall never grant any extra com- -All salaries and fees annexed to offices shall be pensation to any public officer, agent, servant, or moderate; and no officer shall receive any fees whatcontractor, after the services shall have been rendered ever without giving to the person who pays a receipt or the contract entered into. Nor shall the compen- for them, if required, therein specifying every particsation of any public officer be increased or diminished ular and the charge for it. Del., 125. during his term of office. Neb., 373; Wis., 563. --It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to -No extra compensation shall be made to any officer, regulate by law in what cases and what deductions public agent, or contractor, after the service shall from the salaries of public officers shall be made, for have been rendered, or the contract entered into; any neglect of duty in their official capacity. Fl., nor shall any money be paid, on any claim, the sub- 136; Ky., 220.

Vt., 522.

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