« 이전계속 »
S 18. All grants of land within this State, made by the king of Great 2 Britain, or persons acting under his authority, after the fourteenth day of 3 October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, shall be null and void ;
4 but nothing contained in this Constitution shall affect any grants of land
5 within this State, made by the authority of the said king or his predecessors, 6 or shall annul any charters to bodies politic or corporate, by him or them made
7 before that day; or shall affect any such grants or charters, since made by
8 this State, or by persons acting under its authority; or shall impair the obli
9 gation of any debts contracted by this State, or individuals, or bodies cor
10 porate, or any other rights of property, or any suits, actions, rights of action,
11 or other proceedings in courts of justice.(-)
appointed by the Governor, for examination, and if shall be to revise, simplify and abridge the rules, certified by them to be a correct compilation of all practice, pleadings and forms of the courts of justice. general laws in force, shall be printed in such manner And they shall provide for abolishing the distinct as shall be prescribed by law. Mich., 314.
forms of action at law, now in use, and that justice - The Legislature, at its first session after the adop- shall be administered in a uniform mode of pleading, tion of this Constitution, shall provide for the appoint without distinction between law and equity. And ment of three commissioners, whose duty it shall be the General Assembly may also make it the duty of to inquire into, revise and simplify the rules of prac- said Commissioners to reduce into a systematic code tice, pleadings, forms and proceedings, and arrange a the general statute law of the State; and said Comsystem adapted to the courts of record of this State, missioners shall report the result of their labors to the and report the same to the Legislature, subject to General Assembly, with such recommendations and their modification and adoption, and such commis- suggestions as to abridgment and amendment as to sion shall terminate upon the rendering of the report, said Commsssioners may seem necessary or proper. unless otherwise provided by law. Wis., 567. Provision shall be made by law for filling vacancies, - The Legislature shall never adopt any system or
regulating the tenure of office and the compensation code of laws by general reference to such system or
of said Commissioners. Ind., 177. code of laws; but in all cases shall specify the several --The Legislature shall provide for the speedy publiprovisions of the laws it may enact. La., 234.
cation of all strtute laws of a general nature, and -It shall also be the duty of the General Assembly, expedient; and all laws and judicial decisions shall
such decisions of the Supreme Court as it may deem within five years after the adoption of this Constitu- be free for publication by any person ; Provided, That tion, and within every subsequent period of ten years, no judgment of the Supreme Court shall take effect to make provision by law for the revision, digesting and be operative until the opinion of the court in and promulgation of all the public statutes of this
such case shall be filed with the clerk of said court. State, both civil and criminal. Ala., 77.
Nev., 392. -Within five years after the adoption of this Con- - The Legislature, in cases not provided for in this stitution, the laws, civil and criminal, shall be revised, Constitution, shall prescribe by general laws the digested and arranged, and promulgated in such man- terms of office, powers, duties, and compensation of ner as the General Assembly may direct, and a like all public officers and agents, and the manner in revision, digest and promulgation shall be made which they shall be elected, appointed, and removed. within every subsequent period of ten years. Ark., W. Va., 548. 93; nearly similar, Tex., 516. -The Legislature shall, as soon as conveniently may be, provide by law for ascertaining what statutes and parts of statutes shall continue to be in force within (1) Substantially embraced in Constitution of 1777. this State; for reducing them and all acts of the 32. Identical with § 15, Article VII, Constitution of General Assembly into such order, and publishing 1821. p. 43. them in such manner, that thereby the knowledge of them may be generally diffused; for choosing Inspectors and Judges of elections, and regulating the same in such manner as shall most effectually guard the rights of the citizens entitled to vote; for better securing personal liberty, and easily and speedily redressing all wrongful restraints thereof; for
DUELING. more certainly obtaining returns of impartial juries; for dividing lands and tenements in sales by Sheriff's, -Any citizen of this State who may hereafter be where they will bear a division, into as many parcels engaged either directly or indirectly in a duel, either as may be without spoiling the whole, and for adver
as principal or accessory before the fact, shall forever tising and making the sales in such manner, and at
be disqualified from holding any office under the such times and places as may render them most ben
Constitution and laws of this State. lowa, 183. eficial to all persons concerned, and for establishing [Oaths concerning dueling required of public schools, and promoting arts and sciences. Del, 125. officers). Ky., 219.
- The General Assembly, at its first session after the —[Prohibitions against the practice. Ala., 77; Ct., adoption of this Constitution, shall provide for the 112; Ind., 171 ; Kan., 202; Ky., 220; Or., 449; Va., appointment of three Commissioners, whose duty it 537; W. Va., 548; Wis., 570.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES RESERVA- [Iowa, 184; Kan., 197; Md., 256; Min., 320; Neb., TION OF RIGHTS.
371; Nev., 380; N. J., 413; Ohio, 433; Or., 445; R.
I., 474), and to guard against any encroachments on -A frequent recurrence to the fundamental princi- the rights herein retained, or any transgression of ples of the Constitution, and a constant adherence to any of the higher powers herein delegated, we declare those of piety, justice, moderation, temperance, that everything in this article is excepted out of the industry and frugality, are absolutely necessary to general powers of the government, and shall forever preserve the advantages of liberty, and to maintain a remain inviolate; and that all laws contrary thereto, free government. The people ought, consequently, or to the other provisions herein contained, shall be to have a particular attention to all those principles, void. Ark., 85; Ga., 143. in the choice of their officers and representatives; –The Legislature shall assemble for the redress of and they have a right to require of their lawgivers public grievances, and for making such laws as the and magistrates an exact and constant observance of public good may require. N. H., 400. them, in the formation and execution of the laws - The declaration of the political rights and privinecessary for the good administration of the Com- leges of the inhabitants of this State, is hereby monwealth. Mass., 282; N. H., 401; Vt., 523. declared to be a part of the Constitution of this Com-This enumeration of certain rights shall not be monwealth, and ought not to be violated on any construed to deny or disparage others retained by the pretense whatsoever. Vt., 527. people, [U. S., 19), and to guard against any encroach- —That to guard against transgressions upon the ment on the rights hereby retained, or any transgres- rights of the people, we declare that everything in sion of any of the high powers by this Constitution this article is excepted out of the general powers of delegated, we declare, that everything in this article government, and shall forever remain in violate [Tex., is excepted out of the general powers of govern- 507]; and all laws to the contrary thereto, or to the ment, and shall forever remain inviolate, and that all following provisions, shall be void. Fl., 130; (analolaws contrary thereto, or to the following provisions gous provisions) Pa., 468. shall be void. Ala., 74; Tenn., 500.
- The declaration of rights hereto prefixed, is declared to be a part of the Constitution of this State, and shall never be violated on any pretense
HOMESTEAD EXEMPTIONS. whatever. Tenn., 500. -- To guard against transgressions of the high powers - The Legislature shall protect by law from forced which we have delegated, we declare, that every- sale a certain portion of the homestead and other thing in this article is excepted out of the general property of all heads of families. Cal., 104. powers of government, and shall forever remain -A homestead to the extent of one hundred and inviolate; and that all laws contrary thereto, or con- sixty acres of farming land, or of one acre within trary to this Constitution, shall be void. Ky., 224; the limits of an incorporated town or city, occupied Miss., 336; Tenn., 500.
as a residence by the family of the owner, together -That a frequent recurrence to fundamental princi- with all the improvements on the same shall be ples is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings exempted from forced sale under any process of law, of liberty. Fl., 130; Ill., 166; N. C., 422.
and shall not be alienated without the joint consent -The powers not delegated to the United States by of both husband and wife, when that relation exists ; the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, but no property shall be exempt from sale for taxes, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the or for the payment of obligations contracted for the people. U.S., 19.
purchase of said premises, or for the erection of - No law shail be passed, the taking effect of which improvements thereon; Provided, The provisions shall be made to depend upon any authority, except of this section shall not apply to any process of law as provided in this Constitution. Ind., 171; Or., 448. obtained by virtue of a lien given by the consent of -Provided, that laws locating the capital of the both husband and wife. Kan., 206. State, locating county seats, and submitting town -Laws shall be passed by the General Assembly to and city corporate acts and other local and special protect from execution a reasonable amount of proplaws, may take effect or not, upou a vote of the erty of a debtor, not exceeding in value the sum of electors interested. Or., 448.
five hundred dollars. Md., 264. - That no free government, or the blessings of liberty, --The personal property of every resident of this can be preserved to any people, but by a firm adher- State, to consist of such property only as shall be ence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality, designated by law, shall be exempted to the amount and virtue, and by a frequent recurrence to funda- of not less than five hundred dollars from sale on mental principles. Va., 532; Wis., 561; Neb., 371. execution, or other final process of any court, issued -Legislative acts in violation of the Constitution are for the collection of any debt contracted after the void, and the judiciary shall so declare them. Ga., adoption of this Constitution. Mich., 313. 142.
--Every homestead of not exceeding forty acres of - That no power of suspending laws or the execu- land, and the dwelling house thereon, and the appurtion of laws, unless by or derived from the Legisla- tenances to be selected by the owner thereof, and not ture, ought to be exercised or allowed. Md., 254; included in any town plat, city, or village ; or instead Miss., 335.
thereof, at the option of the owner, any lot in any — The power of suspending the laws, or the execu- city, village, or recorded town plat, or such parts of tion of the laws, ought never to be exercised but by lots as shall be equal thereto, and the dwelling-house the Legislature, or by authority derived from it to be thereon and its appurtenances, owned and occupied exercised in such particular cases only as the Legis- by any resident of the State, not exceeding in value lature shall expressly provide for. Mass., 282; N. C., fifteen hundred dollars, shall be exempt from forced 422; N., H., 400; Vt., 522; Va., 532.
sale on execution, or any other final process from a --No power of suspending laws shall be exercised court for any debt contracted after the adoption of but by the authority of the Legislature. Del., 117; this Constitution. Such exemption shall not extend (Similar provisions) Ind., 171; La., 233; Me., 240; to any mortgage thereon lawfully obtained; but such Ohio, 433; Or., 448; Pa., 468; Tec., 506.
mortgage, or other alienation of such land, by the -We declare, that everything in this article is owner thereof, if a married man, shall not be valid reserved out of the general powers of government without the signature of the wife to the same. hereinafter mentioned. Del., 117.
Mich., 313. -The enumeration in the Constitution of certain
of a family, after the death of the rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage
· thereof, shall be exempt from the payment of others retained by the people. U. S., 19. - This enumeration of rights shall not be construed stitution, in
his debts, contra red after the adoption of this conto deny or disparage others retained by the people children. Mich.
during the minority of his
--If the owner of a homestead die, leaving a widow,
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. but no children, the same shall be exempt, and the rents and profits thereof shall accrue to her benefit -The State shall be and remain one of the United during the time of her widowhood, unless she be the States of America. The Constitution of the United owner of a homestead in her own right. Mich., States, and the laws and treaties made in pursuance 313.
thereof, shall be the supreme law of the land. W. --A homestead as provided by law, shall be exempt Va., 546. from forced sale under any process of law, and shall - The people of this Commonwealth have the sole not be alienated without the joint consent of husband and exclusive right of governing themselves as a and wife where that relation exists; but no property free, sovereign and independent State; and do, and shall be exempt from sale for taxes, or for the pay- forever hereafter shall, exercise and enjoy every ment of obligations contracted for the purchase of power, jurisdiction and right, which is not, or may said premises, or for the erection of improvements not hereafter be by them expressly delegated to thereon; Provided, The provisions of this section the United States of America, in Congress assembled. shall not apply to any process of law obtained by Mass., 280. virtue of a lien given by the consent of both husband – That the Legislature shall pass no law providing and wife; and laws shall be enacted providing for for an alteration, change or abolishment of this Conthe recording of such homestead within the county stitution, except in the manner therein prescribed and in which the same shall be situated. Nev., 383. directed. Md., 256. --The homestead of a family not to exceed two hun- -Suits may be brought against the Commonwealth dred acres of land, (not included in a town or city) in such manner, in such courts, and in such cases, as or any town or city lot or lots, in value not to exceed the Legislature may, by law, direct. Pa., 467. two thousand dollars, shall not be subject to forced -All civil officers, whose authority is limited to a sale for any debts hereafter contracted, nor shall the single judicial district, a single election district, or part owner, if a married man, be at liberty to alienate of either, shall be appointed, hold their office, be rethe same, unless by the consent of the wife in such moved from office, and, in addition to liability to manner as the Legislature may hereafter point out. impeachment, may be punished for official misconTex., 516.
duct, in such manner as the General Assembly, - The Legislature shall have power to protect by law, previous to their appointment, may provide. S. C., from forced sale, a certain portion of the property of 487. all heads of families. Tex., 516.
-No person shall hold or exercise, at the same time, - The Legislature shall have power to provide by more than one civil office of trust or profit, except law for [exemption) from taxation, two hundred and that of Justice of the Peace. La., 234. fifty-dollars' worth of household furniture, or other - The Legislature shall pass no law excluding citizens property belonging to each family in this State. of this State from office for not being conversant with Texc., 516.
any language except that in which the Constitution -All property used exclusively for State, county, of the United States is written. La., 235. municipal, scientific, religious, benevolent, and chari- -All officers elected or appointed under this Constitable purposes, and personal property to the amount tution may be removed from office for misconduct, of at least two hundred dollars for each family, shall incompetence, neglect of duty, or other causes, in be exempted from taxation. Kan., 214.
such manner as may be prescribed by general laws; and unless so removed, shall continue to discharge the duties of their respective offices, until their successors are elected or appointed and qualified. W. Va., 548. – The Legislature may determine the mode of filling
vacancies in all offices for which provision is not made PROPERTY OF MARRIED WOMEN. in this Constitution. La., 235.
-No mechanical trade shall hereafter be taught to
convicts in the State prison of this State, except the -All property, both real and personal, of the wife, manufacture of those articles, of which the chief owned or claimed by marriage, and that acquired supply for home consumption is imported from other afterward by gift, devise, or descent, shall be her States or countries. Mich., 314. separate property; and laws shall be passed more – To deter more effectually from the commission of clearly defining the rights of the wife, in relation as crimes, by continued visible punishments of long well to her separate property as to that held in com- duration, and to make sanguinary punishments less mon with her husband. Laws shall also be passed necessary, means ought to be provided for punishing providing for the registration of the wife's separate by hard labor, those who shall be convicted of crimes property. Cal., 104; Nev., 383; Tex., 516.
not capital, whereby the criminal shall be employed --The Legislature shall provide for the protection of for the benefit of the public, or for the reparation of the rights of women in acquiring and possessing injuries done to private persons; and all persons, at property, real, personal and mixed, separate and proper times, ought to be permitted to see them at apart from the husband; and shall also provide for their labor. Vt., 526. their equal rights in the possession of their children. - The Legislature shall not pass any act authorizing Kan., 206.
the grant of license for the sale of ardent spirits or -The General Assembly shall pass laws necessary to other intoxicating liquors. Mich., 304. protect the property of the wife from the debts of -Laws may be passed regulating or prohibiting the the husband during her life, and for securing the same sale of intoxicating liquor within the limits of this to her issue after her death. Md., 266.
State. W. Va., 558. --The real and personal estate of every female, -The Legislature shall provide by law that the furacquired before marriage, and all property to which nishing of fuel and stationery for the use of the State. she may afterward become entitled, by gift, grant, Mich., 303. inheritance or devise, shall be and remain the estate --It shall be the duty of the General Assembly at and property of such female, and shall not be liable its next session, and from time to time thereafter as for the debts, obligations, or engagements of her hus- it may deem proper to enact laws prohibiting the band; and may be devised or bequeathed by her as intermarriage of white persons with negroes, or with if she were unmarried. Mich., 313.
persons of mixed blood, declaring such marriages null - The property and pecuniary rights of every married and void ab initio, and making the parties to any such woman, at the time of marriage, or afterward, acquired marriage subject to criminal prosecutions, with such by gift devise, or inheritance, shall not be subject to penalties as may be by law prescribed. Ala., 77. the debts or contracts of the husband, and laws shall — The inhabitants of this State shall have liberty, in be passed providing for the registration of the wife's seasonable times, to hunt and fowl on the lands they separate property. Or., 458.
hold, and on other lands not inclosed, and in like
1 SECTION 1. Every male citizen of the age of twenty-one years who shall 2 have been a citizen for ten days and an inhabitant of this State one year 3 next preceding an election, and for the last four months a resident of the
4 county where he may offer his vote, shall be entitled to vote at such election
5 in the election district of which he shall at the time be a resident, and not
6 elsewhere, for all officers that now are or hereafter may be elective by the
7 people; but such citizen shall have been for thirty days next preceding the
8 election, a resident of the district from which the officer is to be chosen for
9 whom he offers his vote. But no man of color, unless he shall have been for
10 three years a citizen of this State, and for one year next preceding any elec11 tion, shall have been seized and possessed of a freehold estate of the value of
manner to fish in all boatable and other waters (not —[Senate and Governor.) Freeholders possessed of
-1821. Every male citizen of the age of twenty- The people shall continue to enjoy and freely exer- one years who shall have been an inhabitant of this cise all the rights of fishery, and privileges of the State one year next preceding any election, and for shore, to which they have been heretofore entitled, the last six months a resident of the town or county under the charter and usages of this State. But no where he may offer his vote, and shall have, within new right is intended to be granted, nor any existing the year next preceding the election paid a tax to the right impaired by this declaration. 'R. I., 473. State or county assessed upon his real or personal —The Legislature is forbidden to pass any laws im- property, or shall by law be exempted from taxation, posing disabilities, or impairing civil rights, on account or, being armed and equipped according to law shall of acts done in late rebellion. S. C., 489.
have performed within that year military duty in the -That, for redress of grievances, and for amending militia of this State, or who shall be exempted from and strengthening the laws, elections ought to be performing militia duty in consequence of being a often held. N. C., 422.
fireman in any city, town or village in this State, and -The rate of interest in this State shall not exceed also, every male citizen of the age of twenty-one six per centum per annum, and no higher rate shall years, who shall have been for three years next prebe taken or demanded; and the General Assembly ceding such election, an inhabitant of this State, and shall provide by law all necessary forfeitures and pen- for the last year a resident in the town or county alties against usury. Md., 265.
where he mảy offer his vote, and shall have been, -The Legislature shall fix the rate of interest; and within the last year assessed to labor upon the public the rate so established shall be equal and uniform highways, and shall have performed the labor, or paid throughout the State. Tenn., 499.
an equivalent therefor, according to law, shall be
years a citizen of this State, and for one year next QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS FORMERLY preceding any election shall be seized and possessed
of a freehold estate of the value of two hundred and REQUIRED IN NEW YORK ASSEMBLY.
fifty dollars, over and above all debts and incum
brances charged thereon ; and shall have been -1777. That every male inhabitant, of full age, actually rated, and paid a tax thereon, shall be who shall have personally resided within one of the entitled to vote at any such election. And no person counties of this state for six months immediately of color shall be subject to direct taxation unless he preceding the day of election, shall at such election shall be seized and possessed of such real estate as be entitled to vote for representatives of the said aforesaid. p. 37. county in Assembly; if, during the time aforesaid he
[Property qualification abrogated in 1826), p. 45. shall have been a freeholder, possessing a freehold of the value of twenty pounds, within the said county, or have rented a tenement therein of the yearly value of forty shillings, and been rated and actually paid taxes to this State: provided, always, that every QUALIFICATIONS OF AGE, CITIZENSHIP person who now is a freeman of the city of Albany, or who was made a freeman of the city of New
AND RESIDENCE. York, on or before the fourteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred
[Age 21, in every State except Delaware, where it and seventy-five, and shall be actually and usually is 22 years.] resident in the said cities respectively, shall be enti- Citizen of Unired States. Ala., 82; Ark., 82., Cl., tled to vote for representatives in Assembly, within 111; Fl., 135. Ja., 149; Ind., 171; Iowa, 184; Ky., his said place of residence. P. 27.
218; La., 227)
,240; Md., 256, Miss., 336, Mo.,
12 two hundred and fifty dollars over and above all debts and incumbrances
13 charged thereon, and shall have been actually rated and paid a tax thereon,
14 shall be entitled to vote at such election. And no person of color shall be
15 subject to direct taxation unless he shall be seized and possessed of such real
16 estate as aforesaid : Provided, that in time of war no elector in the actual
17 military service of the United States, in the army or navy thereof, shall
18 be deprived of his vote by reason of his absence from the State, and the Leg19 islature shall have power to provide the manner in which, and the time and
20 place at which such absent electors may vote, and for the canvass and returns
21 of their votes in the election districts in which they respectively reside or
350; Neb., 373; Nev., 380; N. J., 413; N. C., 428;
, 474; Tenn., 495; Ter., QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS.
Citizen of U. S. 2 years after naturalization, if of foreign birth. Mass., 300.
-Every free white male citizen, of the age of twentyCitizen of State. Ct., 111; Ga., 149; II., 162; one years, who has resided in the State two years, or Mich., 307; W. Va., 547.
in the county, town or city, in which he offers to vote, Citizen of State 2 years. S. C., 486.
one year next preceding the election, shall be a voter; Residence in U. S. 1 year. 325.
but such voter shall have been, for sixty days next Residence in State 3 months. Me., 240; Mich., 308. preceding the election, a resident of the precinct in do do 4 months. Minn., 325.
which he offers to vote, and he shall vote in said predo do 6 months. Cal., 97; Ind., 171; cinct, and not elsewhere. Ky., 210. Iowa, 184; Kan., 202; Nev. 380; Or., 448.
-Shall have paid, by himself, master or guardian, Residence in State 1 year. Ala., 82; Ct., 115; any State or county tax, which shall, within two Del., 120; Fl., 135; II., 162 ; La., 227; Md., 256; years next preceding such election, have been assessed Mass., 294; Miss., 336; Mo., 350; N. J., 413; Ohio, upon him, in any town or district of this Common438; Pa., 464; R. I.,'474 ; Tex., 507; V., 525; Va., wealth; and also, every citizen who shall be by law 533; W. 'Va., 567; Wis., 561. If formerly a resident exempted from taxation, and who shall be in all other of State 6 months, after return entitles to vote. Pa., respects qualified as above mentioned, shall have a 464.
right to vote in such election of Governor, LieutenResidence in State 2 years. Ga., 149; Ky., 218. ant-Governor, Senators and Representatives; and no
do do time to be provided by law. other person shall be entitled to vote in such elections. Neb., 371.
resided in the United States one year, and shall have Residence in State 2 years (if alien). S. C., 486. resided in this State during the six months imme
do no time mentioned after decla- diately preceding such election, and shall have declared ration. Minn., 325; Neb., 371; Wis., 561.
his intention to become a citizen of the United States, Resident in county 1 month. Del., 120; Neb., 380; conformably to the laws of the United States on the W. Va., 547.
subject of naturalization, shall be entitled to vote in Residence in the county 2 months. Iowa, 184; the township or precinct where he may reside. Mo., 350.
Ind., 171. Residence in county 3 months. Ali., 82; La., 227. -Every white male inhabitant residing in the State do do 4 months. Miss., 336.
on the twenty-fourth day of June, one thousand do 5 months. N. J., 413.
eight hundred and thirty-five; every white male do
do 6 months. Fl., 135; Ga., inhabitant residing in this State on the first day of 149; Md., 256; Tenn., 495; Tex., 507; Va., 533. January, one thousand eight hundred and fifty, who Residence in county 1 year. Ky., 212.
has declared his intention to become a citizen of the do
do time to be fixed by law. Neb., United States, pursuant to the laws thereof, six months 371; Ohio, 138.
preceding an election, or who has resided in this State Residence in town 4 months. Miss., 336.
two years and six months, and declared his intention do do 6 months. Ct., 111, 115; R. I., as aforesaid. Mich., 307. 474; Tex., 507; Va., 533.
-And who has paid all taxes assessed to him, after Residence in town — time to be fixed by law. the adoption of this Constitution, under the laws of Ohio, 438.
the Commonwealth after the re-organization of the Residence in district 10 days. Mich., 308; Minn., county, city or town where he offers to vote. Va., 533. 325; Pa., 464.
-And having within two years next before the elecResidence in district 30 days. Cal., 97; Kan., 202: tion paid a county tax, which shall have been assessed Nev., 380.
at least six months before the election, shall enjoy the Residence in district 6 months. Fl., 135; Ga., right of an elector; and every free white male citizen 149; Mass., 294; S. C., 484; Tex., 507.
of the age of twenty-one years, and under the age Residence in district 1 year. Ky., 218; N. C., 428. of twenty-two years, having resided as aforesaid, do
do time to be fixed by law. shall be entitled to vote without payment of any tax. Ohio, 438.