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over with a colony, and fixed on a neck of land between Alley and Cooper Rivers. Thus commenced the settlement of Carolina, which then included the whole territory between the 29th and 36th 30' degrees, north latitude, together with the Bahama Iflands, lying between latitude 22 and 27° north. 1681.- The Royal charter for Pennsylvania was granted to William

Penn on the 4th of March, 1681. The firit colony came over the 1632 next year, and settled under the proprietor, William Penn, who

acted as Governor from O&tober 1682 to August 1684. The firft assembly in the province of Pennsylvanią was held at Chester, on the 4th of December, 1682. Thus William Penn, a Quaker, justly celebrated as a great and good man, had the honour of laying the foundation of the present populous and very flourishing State of Pennfylvania

The proprietory government in Carolina, was attended with so many inconveniences, and occasioned such violent diffentions among the settlers, that the Parliament of Great-Britain was induced to take the province under their immediate care. The proprietors (except Lord Granville) accepted of £.22,500 fterling, from the crown for the pro

perty and jurisdiction. This agreement was ratified by act of 1729 Parliament in 1729. A clause in this act reserved to Lord

Granville his eighth share of the property and arrears of quitrents, which continued legally vested in his family till the revolution in 1776. Lord Granville's share made a part of the prefent ftate of North-Carolina. About the year 1729, the extensive territory belonging to the proprietors, was divided into North and South Carolina. They remained separate royal governments until they became independent States.

For the relief of poor indigent people of Great Britain and Ireland, and for the security of Carolina, a project was formed for planting a colony between the rivers Savannah and Alatamaha. Accordingly appli

cation being made to king George the Second, he issued letters 1732 patent, bearing date June 9th, 1732, for legally carrying into ex

tion the benevolent plan. In honour of the king, who greatly encouraged the plan, they called the new province Georgia. Twenty-one trustees were appointed to conduct the affairs relating to the settlement of the province. The November following, one hundred and fifteen perfons, one of whom was General Oglethorpe, embarked for Georgia, where they arrived, and landed at Yamacraw. In exploring the country, they found an elevated pleasant spot of ground on the bank of a navigable river, upon which they marked out a town, and froin the Vol. I.

Z

Indian

Indian name of the river which passed by it, called it Savannah. From this period we may date the settlement of Georgia.

The country now called Kentucky, was well known to the Indian traders many years before its settlement. They gave a description of it

to Lewis Evans, who published his first map of it as early as the 1752 year 1752. James Macbride, with some others, explored this 1754 country in 1754. Col. Daniel Boon visited it in 1969.

1773.-Four years after Col. Boon and his family, with five other families, who were joined by forty men from Powle's valley, began the settlement of Kentucky*, which is now one of the most growing colonies, perhaps, in the world, and was erected into an independent state, by act of Congress, December 6th, 1790, and received into the Union, June 1st, 1792.

The tract of country called Vermont, before the late war, was claimed both by New-York and New Hampshire. When hoftilities commenced between Great Britain and her Colonies, the inhabitants confidering themselves as in a state of nature, as to civil government, and not within any legal jurisdiction, associated and formed for themselves a conftitution of government. Under this conftitution, they have ever fince continued to exercise all the powers of an independent State. Vermont was not admitted into union with the other ftates till March

4, 1791, yet we may venture to date her political existence as a 1777 separate government, from the year 1777, because, since that

time, Vermont has, to all intents and purposes, been a sovereign and independent State. The first settlement in this state was made at Bennington as early as about 1764.

The extensive tract of country lying north-west of the Ohio River, within the limits of the United States, was erected into a separate tempo

tary government by an Ordinance of Congress passed the 13th of 1987 July, 1787.

Thus we have given a summary view of the first discoveries and progressive settlement of North America in their chronological order. The following recapitulation will comprehend the whole in one view.

This settlement was made in violation of the Treaty, in 1768, at Fort Stanwix, which expressly ftipulates, that this tra& of country should be reserved for the western nations to hunt upon, until they and the crown of England should otherwise agree. This has been one great cause of the enmity of those Indian nations to the Virginians.

Names

{ Brement of Mr. Robinson's congres

, }

Names of places. When settled.

By whom. Quebec,

1608 By the French Virginia,

June 10, 1610 By Lord De la War. Newfoundland, June, 1610 By Governor John Guy. New-York

about 1614 By the Dutch. New-Jersey, s

1620 Plymouth,

By part of Mr. Robinson's congres

gation. New Hampshire,

1623

By a small English colony near the

mouth of Piscataqua river.

1627. By the Swedes and Fins. Pennsylvania, Maflachusett's Bay,

1628 By Capt. John Endicot and company.

S ByLord Baltimore, with a colony of Maryland,

1633

Roman Catholics.

By Mr. Fenwick, at Saybrook, near Connecticut,

1635

the mouth of Connecticut river. Rhode Island,

By Mr. Roger Williams and his per

fecuted brethren. Granted to the Duke of York by

Charles II. and made a diftinct New Jersey,

1664

government, and settled some

time before this by the English. Souch Carolina,

1669 By Governor Sayle. Pennsylvania,

1682 { By William Penn, with a colony of

Quakers.

Erected into a separate government, North Carolina,

about 1728

settled before by the English. Georgia,

1732 By General Oglethorpe. Kentucky,

1773 By Col. Daniel Boon. Vermont, Territory N. W. of Ohio river,

} 1787 By the Ohio and other companies. The above dates are from the periods, when the first permanent settlements were made,

2635

about 1764 { By emigrants from Connecticut and

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NORTH AMERIC A.

BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT.

North America comprehends all that part of the western continent which lies north of the Ifthmus of Darien, extending north and south from about the oth degree north latitude to the north pole ; and east and west from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, between the 45th and 165th degrees weft longitude from London. Beyond the 7oth degree N. Lat. few discoveries have been made. In July 1779, Capt. Cook proceeded as far as lat. 71", when he came to a solid body of ice extending from continent to continent,

Bays, SOUNDS, STRAITS AND ISLANDS.–Of these (except those in the United States, which we fall describe under that head) we know little more than their names. Baffin's Bay, lying between the 70th and 8oth degrees N. Lat. is the largest and most northern, that has yet been discovered in North America. It opens into the Atlantic Ocean through Baffin's and Davis's Straits, between Cape Chidley, on the Labrador coaft, and Cape Farewell. It communicates with Hudson's Bay to the south, through a cluster of islands. In this capacious bay or gulph is James Island, the south point of which is called Cape Bedford; and the smaller islands of Waygate and Disko. Davis's Straits separate Greenland from the American continent, and are between Cape Walfingham, on James Illand, and South Bay in Greenland, where they are about 60 leagues broad, and extend from the 67th to the 71st degrees of latitude above Disko island. The most southern point of Greenland is called Cape Farewell.

Hudson's Bay took its name from Henry Hudson, who discovered it in 1610. It lies between 51 and 69 degrees of north latitude. The eastern boundary of the Bay is Terra de Labrador; the northern part has a straight coast, facing the bay, guarded with a line of illes innumerable. A vaft bay, called the Archiwinnipy Sea, lies within it, and opens into Hudson's Bay, by means of gulph Hazard, through which the Beluga whales pass in great numbers. The entrance of the bay, from the At. lantic ocean, after leaving, to the north, Cape Farewell and Davis's Straits, i le.wein Resolution isles on the north, and Button's ifles, on the Labra for ccali, to the south, forming the eastern extremity of Hud. fon's Straits.

The

The coasts are very high, rocky and rugged at top; in some places precipitous, but sometimes exhibit extensive beaches. The islands of Salisbury, Nottingham, and Digges are very lofty and naked. The depth of water in the middle of the bay is 140 fathoms. From Cape Churchill to the south end of the bay are regular foundings; near the fhore, shallow, with muddy or faudy bottom. To the northward of Churchill, the foundings are irregular, the bottom rocky, and in some parts the rocks appear above the surface at low water.

James's Bay lies at the bottoin, or moft fouthern part of Hudson's Bay, with which it communicates, and divides New Britain from South Wales. To the northwestward of Hudson's Bay is an extensive chain of lakes, among which is Lake Menichlick, lat. 61°, long. 105o W. North of this is Lake Dobount, to the northward of which lies the extensive country of the northern Indians. Weft of these lakes, between the latitudes of 60 and 66 degrees, after pafling a large cluster of unnamed lakes, kes the lake or fea Arathapescow, whose fouthern shores are inhabited by the Arathapcscow Indians. North of this, and near the Arctic circle, is Lake Edlande, around which live the Dog ribbed Indians. Further north is Buffaloe lake, near which, is Copper Minc river, in lat. 720 N. and long. 119° W. of Greenwich. The Copper Mine Indians inhabit this country.

Between Copper Mine river, which, accerding to Mr. Herne, empties into the Northern sea, where the tide rises 12 or 14 feet, and which in its whole course is encumbered with foals and falls, and the North-west coast of America, is an extensive tract of unexplored country. As you descend from north to fouth on the western coast of America, just south of the Arêtic circle, you come to Cape Prince of Wales, opposite Eat Cape on the eastern continent; and here the two continents approach nearest to each other. Proceeding south ward you pass Norton Sound, Cape Stephen's, Shoalness, Britol Bay, Prince William's Sound, Cook's River, Admiralty Bay, and Port Mulgrare, Nootka Sound, &c. From Nootka Sound proceeding fouth, you pass the unexplored country of New Albion, thence to California, and New Mexico.

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