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Argos, who stood round, commended the strength of the youths, and the women blessed her as the mother of such sons; but the mother herself, transported with joy both on account of the action and its renown, stood before the image, and prayed that the goddess would grant to Cleobis and Biton, her own sons, who had so highly honored her, the greatest blessing man could receive. After this prayer, when they had sacrificed and partaken of the feast, the youths fell asleep in the temple itself, and never awoke more, but met with such a termination of life. Upon this the Argives, in commemoration of their piety, caused their statues to be made and dedicated at Delphi.”
Thus Solon adjudged the second place of felicity to these youths. But Cræsus, being enraged, said : “My Athenian friend, is my happiness, then, so slighted by you as nothing worth, that you do not think me of so much value as private
He answered : “Cresus, do you inquire of me concerning human affairs- of me, who know that the Divinity is always jealous, and delights in confusion ? For in lapse of time men are constrained to see many things they would not willingly see, and to suffer many things. Now I put the term of man's life at seventy years; these seventy years, then, give twentyfive thousand two hundred days [360 to a year], without including the intercalary month; and if we add that month to every other year, in order that the seasons arriving at the proper time may agree, the intercalary months will be thirty-five more in the seventy years, and the days of these months will be one thousand and fifty. Yet in all this number of twenty-six thousand two hundred and fifty days that compose these seventy years, one day produces nothing exactly the same as another. Thus, then, Crcesus, man is altogether the sport of fortune. You appear to me to be master of immense treasures, and king of many nations; but as relates to what you inquire of me, I cannot say till I hear you have ended your life happily. For the richest of men is not more happy than he that has a sufficiency for a day, unless good fortune attend him to the grave, so that he ends his life in happiness. Many men who abound in wealth are unhappy; and many who have only a moderate competency, are fortunate. He that abounds in wealth, and is yet unhappy, surpasses the other only in two things; but the other surpasses the wealthy and the miserable in many things. The former indeed is better able to gratify desire, and to bear the blow of adversity. But the latter surpasses him in this : he is not indeed equally able to bear misfortune or satisfy desire, but his good fortune wards off these things from him; and he enjoys the full use of his limbs, he is free from disease and misfortune, he is blessed with good children and a fine form, and if, in addition to all these things, he shall end his life well, he is the man you seek, and may justly be called happy: but before one dies we ought to suspend our judgment, and not pronounce him happy, but fortunate. Now it is impossible for any one man to comprehend all these advantages : as no one country suffices to produce everything for itself, but affords some and wants others, and that which affords the most is the best ; so no human being is in all respects self-sufficient, but possesses one advantage, and is in need of another: he therefore who has constantly enjoyed the most of these, and then ends his life tranquilly, this man, in my judgment, О king, deserves the name of happy. We ought therefore to consider the end of everything, in what way it will terminate; for the Deity having shown a glimpse of happiness to many, has afterward utterly overthrown them."
When he spoke thus to Cresus, Cresus did not confer any favor on him, and holding him in no account, dismissed him; since he considered him a very ignorant man, because he overlooked present prosperity, and bade men look to the end of everything
After the departure of Solon, the indignation of the gods fell heavy upon Crosus, probably because he thought himself the most happy of all men. A dream soon after visited him while sleeping, which pointed out to him the truth of the misfortunes that were about to befall him in the person of one of his sons. For Cræsus had two sons, of whom one was grievously afflicted, for he was a mute; but the other, whose name was Atys, far surpassed all the young men of his age. Now the dream intimated to Cresus that he would lose this Atys by a wound inflicted by the point of an iron weapon : he, when he awoke, and had considered the matter with himself, dreading the dream, provided a wife for his son ; and though he was accustomed to command the Lydian troops, he did not ever after send him out on that business ; and causing all spears, lances, and such other weapons as men use in war, to be removed from the men's apartments, he had them laid up in private chambers, that none of them, being suspended, might fall upon his son. While Croesus was engaged with his son's nuptials, a man oppressed by misfortune and whose hands were polluted, a Phrygian by birth and of royal family, arrived at Sardis. This man, having come to the palace of Crosus, sought permission to obtain purification according to the custom of the country. Cræsus purified him (the manner of expiation is nearly the same among the Lydians and the Greeks); and when he had performed the usual ceremonies, inquired whence he came, and who he was ; speaking to him as follows: “Stranger, who art thou, and from what part of Phrygia hast thou come as a supphant to my hearth ? and what man or woman hast thou slain ?”
The stranger answered : “Sire, I am the son of Gordius, son of Midas, and am called Adrastus; having unwittingly slain my own brother, and being banished by my father and deprived of everything, I am come hither.”
Cræsus answered as follows : “ You are born of parents who are our friends, and you are come to friends among whom, if you will stay, you shall want nothing; and by bearing your misfortune as lightly as possible, you will be the greatest gainer.” So Adrastus took up his abode in the palace of Croesus.
At this same time a boar of enormous size appeared in Mysian Olympus, and rushing down from that mountain, ravaged the fields of the Mysians. The Mysians, though they often went out against him, could not hurt him, but suffered much from him. At last deputies from the Mysians having come to Cresus, spoke as follows : “O king, a boar of enormous size has appeared in our country, and ravages our fields : though we have often endeavored to take him, we cannot. We therefore earnestly beg that you would send with us your son, and some chosen youths with dogs, that we may drive him from the country.
Such was their entreaty ; but Cræsus, remembering the warning of his dream, answered : “Make no further mention of my son ; for I shall not send him with you, because he is lately married, and that now occupies his attention: but I will send with you chosen Lydians, and the whole hunting train, and will order them to assist you with their best endeavors in driving the monster from your country.”
Such was his answer; and when the Mysians were content with this, the son of Crosus, who had heard of their request, came in ; and when Cræsus refused to send him with them, the youth thus addressed him : “Father, in time past I was permitted to signalize myself in the two most noble and becoming exercises of war and hunting ; but now you keep me excluded from both, without having observed in me either cowardice or want of spirit. How will men look on me when I go or return from the forum ? What kind of man shall I appear to my fellow-citizens ? What to my newly married
What kind of man will she think she has for a partner? Either suffer me, then, to go to this hunt, or convince me that it is better for me to do as you would have me.”
“My son," answered Crosus, “I act thus, not because I have seen any cowardice, or anything else unbecoming in you ; but a vision in a dream appearing to me in my sleep warned me that you would be short-lived, and would die by the point of an iron weapon. On account of this vision, therefore, I hastened your marriage, and now refuse to send you on this expedition ; taking care to preserve you, if by any means I can, as long as I live : for you are my only son ; the other, who is deprived of his hearing, I consider as lost.'
The youth answered : “You are not to blame, my father, if after such a dream you take so much care of me; but it is right for me to explain that which you do not comprehend, and which has escaped your notice in the dream. You say the dream signified that I should die by the point of an iron weapon. But what hand or what pointed iron weapon has a boar, to occasion such fears in you? Had it said I should lose my life by a tusk, or something of like nature, you ought then to have done as you now do; whereas it said by the point of a weapon : since, then, we have not to contend against men,
let me go.'
“ You have surpassed me,” replied Cresus, “ in explaining the import of the dream ; therefore, being overcome by you, I change my resolution, and permit you to go to the chase.”
Cresus, having thus spoken, sent for the Phrygian Adrastus, and, when he came, addressed him as follows: "Adrastus, I purified you when smitten by a grievous misfortune, which I do not upbraid you with, and have received you into my house, and supplied you with everything necessary. Now, therefore (for it is your duty to requite me with kindness, since I have first conferred a kindness on you), I beg you would be my son's guardian, when he goes to the chase, and take care that no skulking villains show themselves in the way to do him harm. Besides, you ought to go for your own sake, where you may signalize yourself by your exploits; for this was the glory of your ancestors, and you are, besides, in full vigor.”
Adrastus answered : “ On no other account, sire, would I have taken part in this enterprise ; for it is not fitting that one in my unfortunate circumstances should join with his prosperous compeers, nor do I desire to do so; and indeed I have often restrained myself. Now, however, since you urge me, and I ought to oblige you (for I am bound to requite the benefits you have conferred on me), I am ready to do as you desire ; and rest assured that your son, whom you bid me take care of, shall, as far as his guardian is concerned, return to you uninjured.
When Adrastus had made this answer to Cresus, they went away, well provided with chosen youths and dogs ; and having arrived at Mount Olympus, they sought the wild beast, and having found him and encircled him around, they hurled their javelins at him. Among the rest, the stranger, the same that had been purified of murder, named Adrastus, throwing his javelin at the boar, missed him, and struck the son of Crosus; thus he, being pierced by the point of the lance, fulfilled the warning of the dream. Upon this, some one ran off to tell Croesus what had happened, and having arrived at Sardis, gave him an account of the action, and of his son's fate.
Cresus, exceedingly distressed by the death of his son, lamented it the more bitterly because he fell by the hand of one whom he himself had purified from blood ; and vehemently deploring his misfortune, he invoked Jove the Expiator, attesting what he had suffered by this stranger. He invoked also the same deity, by the name of the god of hospitality and private friendship : as the god of hospitality, because, by receiving a stranger into his house, he had unawares fostered the murderer of his son ; as the god of private friendship, because, having sent him as a guardian, he found him his greatest enemy.
After this, the Lydians approached, bearing the corpse, and behind it followed the slayer. He, having advanced in front of the corpse, delivered himself up to Cresus, stretching forth his hands and begging of him to kill him upon it; then relating his former misfortune, and how, in addition to that, he had destroyed his purifier, and that he ought to live no longer. When Cresus heard this, though his own affliction was so