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SHAW, HENRY WHEELER (pseudonym, Josh Billings), an American humorist, born at Lanesborough, Mass., April 21, 1818; died at Monterey, Cal., October 14, 1885. About 1832 he entered Hamilton College, but soon left it and went West. For a time he worked on steamboats on the Ohio River, then became a farmer and afterward an auctioneer. In 1858 he settled at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and began his humorous sketches for the newspapers. These did not, however, become popular until he adopted his method of spelling. His lectures, which he began in 1863, became as popular as his sketches. For many years before his death he was a regular contributor to the New York Weekly. His published works include Josh Billings, His Sayings (1866); Josh Billings on Ice (1875); Every Body's Friend (1876); Josh Billings's Spice Box (1881). In 1870 he began the publication of Josh Billings's Farmer's Allminax, which appeared annually.

- He was undoubtedly,” says a writer in the New York Herald (October 15, 1885), “one of the quaintest writers of his time, and although his works are not likely to be immortal, they have been and still are widely read, and have afforded innocent mirth for thousands."

JOSH BILLINGS'S ADVERTISEMENT. I kan sell for eighteen hundred and thirty-nine dol. lars, a pallas, a sweet and pensive retirement, lokated on the virgin banks ov the Hudson, kontaining 85 acres. The land is luxuriously divided by ihe hand of natur and art, into pastor and tillage, into plain and deklivity, into stern abruptness, and the dallianse ov moss-tufted medders • streams ov sparkling gladness (thick with trout) danse through this wilderness ov buty, tew the low musik of the kricket and grasshopper. The ever. green sighs as the evening zephir fits through its shadowy buzzum, and the aspen trembles like the luv-smitten harte ova damsell. Fruits ov the tropicks, in goldey buty, melt on the bows, and the bees go heavy and sweet from the fields to their garnering hives. The manshun iz ov Parian marble, the porch iz a single diamond, set with rubiz and the mother ov pearl ; the floors are ov rosewood, and the ceilings are more butiful than the starry vault of heavin. Hot and cold water bubbles and squirts in evry apartment and nothing is wanted that a poet could pra for, or art could portray. The stables are worthy ov the steeds ov Nimrod, or the stud ov Akilles, and its henery was bilt expressly for the birds of paradice ; while somber in the distance, like the cave ov a hermit, glimpses are caught of the dorg-house. Here poets hav cum and warbled their laze-here skulptors hav cut, here painters have robbec the scene of dreamy landskapes, and here the philosopher diskovered the stun, which made him the alkimist ov natur. Nex northward ov this thing ov buty, sleeps the residence and domain ov the Duke John Smith; while southward, and nearer the spice-breathing tropicks, may be seen the barronial villy ov Earl Brown, and the Duches, Widder Betsy Stevens. Walls ov primi'iff rock, laid in Roman cement, bound the estate, while upward and downward, the eye catches far away the magesta and slow grander ov the Hudson. As the young moon hangs like a cutting ov silver from the blu brest ov the ski, an angel may be seen each night dansing with golden tiptoes on the green. (N. B. This angel goes with the place). Josh Billings, His Works.


Rats originally cum from Norway, and i wish they had originally staid thare.

They are about az uncalled for az a pain in the small ov the back.

They can be domestikated dredful eazy ; that iz, as far as gitting in cupboards, and eating cheese, and knawing pie, iz concerned.

The best way to domestikate them that ever i saw is tew surround them gently with a steel trap ; yu can reason with them then tu great advantage.

Rats are migratorious, they migrate wharever they hav a mind to.

Pizen iz also good for rats; it softens their whole moral naturs.

Cats hate rats, and rats hate cats, and—who don't ?

I serpoze thare iz between 50 and 60 millions of rats in Amerika (i quote now entirely from memory), and i don't serpoze thare iz a single necessary rat in the whole lot. This shows at a glance how menny waste cats thare iz. Rats enhance in numbers faster than shoe-pegs do by machinery. One pair ov helthy rats iz awl that enny man wants to start the rat bizziness with, and in ninety daze, without enny outlay, he will begin tew have rats tew turn oph.

Rats, viewed from enny platform yu kan bild, are unspeakibly cussed, and i would be willing tew make enny man who could destroy awl the rats in the United States, a valuable keepsake, say, for instance, either the life and sufferings of Andy Johnson, in one vollum calf bound, or a receipt tew kure the blind staggers.


Fust appearances are ced tu be everything. I don't put all my fathe into this saying ; i think oysters and klams, for instanse, will bear looking into.

If you want tew git a sure krop, and a big yield for the seed, sow wild oats.

Humin natur is the same all over the world, 'cept in New England, and thar it's akordin tu sarcumstances.

If i had a boy who didn't lie well enuff to sute me, i wud set him tu tendin a retale dri good store.

Man was created a little lower than the angells, and has bin gittin a little lower ever sinse.

When a feller gits a goin down hil, it dus seem as tho evry thing had been greased for the okashun.

It is dredful easy tew be a phool-a man kan be one and not know it.

Ignorance is ced to be bliss. This ma be so, I never tried it.

The man who kan wear a shirt a hole weak and keap it klean, ain't fit for enny thing else.

When a man's dog deserts him on akount ov his poverty, he kant git enny lower down in this world, not bi land.

Luv is like the measels, we kant alwas tell when we ketched it, and ain't apt tew hav it severe but onst, and then it ain't kounted mutch unless it strikes inly.


SHEA, JOHN GILMARY, an American philologist and historical writer, born in New York City, July 22, 1824; died at Elizabeth, N. J., February 22, 1892. He was educated for the law, and was admitted to the bar, but preferred to devote him. self to literature. From 1859 to 1865 he edited the Historical Magazine, and was for many years editor-in-chief for the Frank Leslie publishing house. He gave much time to the study of the history and languages of the North American Indians, and published a series of Grammars and Dictionaries of the Indian languages in fifteen volumes (1860–74). He was a member of many histori. cal societies in the United States, and of the Royal Academy of History of Madrid, Spain. Besides contributing largely to periodicals and to publications of historical societies, he translated Charlevoix's History and General Description of New France (1866–72); Le Clercq's Establishment of the Faith ; Perralosa's Expedition to Quivira, and other works; edited the Cramoisy series of Relations and Documents in French Bearing on the Early History of the French-American Colonies (20 vols., 1857–68); Washington's Private Diary (1861); Colden's History of Five Indian Nations, edition of 1727 (1866); Alsop's Maryland (1869). Among his works are The Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley (1853); History of French and

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