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SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE, an English poet, born at Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, August 4, 1792. His great-grandfather, Timothy, lived for a number of years in America; and his grandfather, Bysshe, was born in Newark, N. J., of an American mother. The family was wealthy and of local distinction in Sussex. Timothy, the poet's father, succeeded in 1815 to the baronetcy giver. Bysshe in 1806. Shelley's schooling began at six. At ten he was sent to Sion House, near Brentford, and at twelve to Eton. In the fall of 1810, having finished in good standing at Eton, he entered Oxford. He was an incessant reader, speculator, and writer from his early days at Eton, and, though he slighted the prescribed studies, he became greatly interested in chemistry and read deeply in the works of Locke, Hume, D'Holbach, Volney, Rousseau, and Voltaire. By March, 1811, he had produced two novels, a rhymed narrative, a play (now lost), a great quantity of verse of indifferent or wholly bad quality, and was joint author with his cousin Medwin of a romance. He had also already begun Queen Mab. On March 25, 1811, he, with his friend Thomas Jefferson Hogg, was expelled from Oxford for having written, printed, and circulated a pamphlet, The Necessity of Atheism. Shelley's father cut off the boy's allowance, and for a time

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he was reduced to want, living upon small sums sent him by his relatives, the Medwins and Groves, and the pocket-money of his sisters, at school at Clapham, near London. A girl of sixteen, Harriet Westbrook, the daughter of a retired tavernkeeper and a school-mate of his sisters, acted as message-bearer between the Shelleys. Early in June, a family truce having been patched up, Shel. ley returned home. From there he made a visit to Wales, but on receiving a despairing letter from Harriet, went to London. In August the pair eloped, and on the 28th were married in Edinburgh. Shelley's father again cut off his allow

In December Harriet's father allowed his daughter $1,000 a year, and in January, 1812, Shelley's father made an equal allowance. From this time until March, 1814, the youthful pair wandered about England, Wales, and Ireland, Shelley finishing Queen Mab, and producing some miscellaneous verse, and a number of pamphlets urging political reforms. The union had now become uncongenial, Harriet evincing a growing indifference to the subjects which were the life and soul of the reformer and poet, and concerning herself more and more regarding the possessions and attributes necessary for a “fine lady.” Shelley, however, doubtful of the validity of the Scotch marriage, remarried Harriet on March 26th. In April the break came, and Harriet (whether intending a separation or only a long visit is not known) left him and joined her sister. It is not believed that the couple ever again lived together. The stanzas “ To Harriet, May, 1814," appeal to her to return to him, and beg her to “pity if thou canst not love." Shelley had in the meantime met Mary, the sixteen-year-old daughter of William Godwin, a political writer for whom he entertained the most extravagant admi. ration, and of Mary Wollstonecraft, the gifted author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. By June the new friends had become very much attached to each other. Mary had grown up in an atmosphere wherein hostility to the marriage institution was a philosophic creed, and Shelley had given voice to this sentiment years before. Early in July the pair determined to unite. Shelley summoned Harriet to London, told her of his determination, made certain settlements with her regarding property, and on July 28th left Eng. land for the Continent with Mary, accompanied by Jane Clermont, the daughter of Mrs. Godwin by a former marriage. September 13th they returned, settling in London. His grandfather dying in January, 1815, a settlement of Shelley's succession to the estate was made, the poet having been made to relinquish the greater part in favor of a younger brother. He now paid Harriet's debts and allowed her $1,000 a year. In August he took a house near Windsor Park, and in May, 1816, Sheiley, Mary, Jane Clermont, and the child, William (born January, 1816) made another trip to the Continent. At Lake Geneva they met Lord Byron, and Jane Clermont renewed the intrigue begun in London, the fruit of which was the child, Allegra, born after the return of the party to England, where they arrived September 7th. It

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