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innumerable positions in which the hands and fingers can be placed.

Fig. 1, is the usual opening position, and is employed in narrating, addressing, or appealing generally.

Fig. 2, may be used to vary the previous position, and where greater emphasis is to be given to a statement, may be advantageously substituted for it.

Fig. 3. the same position, with the hand raised obliquely, is used to express denial, forbidding, rejection, or reproach.

Fig. 4, with the finger extended, is used in indication (whence the name index), in pointing, warning, or reproving.

Fig. 5, with the index of the right hand laid successively upon the index or the other fingers of the left, is employed in enumerating, arguing, and in positive assertions generally.

Fig. 6, with both hands clasped, is used in supplication, entreaty, or distress.

THE ARMS.

51. The arm is called by Cicero the 'weapon of the orator,' because it is by it that the vehemence, energy, and passion of delivery are chiefly expressed, and the sentiments of the speaker enforced on his audience. The rule cannot be too carefully impressed on the mind, that the arms should always perform their principal motions from the shoulders, and that the elbow should not be drawn backward or inclined too closely to the body. Narrow and constrained movements are always ungraceful, for which reason the gestures made by the arms should be free and waving, moving through wide curves at a proper distance from the centre of motion, the shoulder. Perpendicular motions—that is, in a straight line up and down-should, as a rule, be avoided, as they do not admit of that prompt transition and variety of action on which the grace and effect of gesture so greatly depend. As a general direction, too, the arm should rarely be raised much above the level of the eyes, and its action should proceed from that side on which the foot is advanced and the body bears.

THE HEAD AND COUNTENANCE.

52. The head is capable of many appropriate expressions. 'Besides the motions,' remarks Quintilian, which by nod signify assent, rejection, or approbation, there are other motions of the head known and common to all, which express modesty, doubt, admiration, and indignation. But to use the gesture of the head alone unaccompanied by any other gesture even on the stage is considered faulty. It is also a

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fault to shake or nod the head too frequently, to toss it violently, or to agitate the hair by rolling it about.'

The countenance is the true index of the soul. By it every feeling is expressed, and it often affords a more real knowledge of the speaker's sentiments than his words, and often says more than language can express.

A single look more marks the internal woe
Than all the windings of the lengthened oh!
Up to the face the quick sensation flies,
And darts its meaning from the speaking eyes:
Love, transport, madness, anger, scorn, despair,
And all the passions, all the soul, is there.'

THE TRUNK AND SHOULDERS.

53. The motions of the trunk contribute much to the effect of delivery. The gestures of the arms and hands, therefore, should always be supported by the body, which should obey the excellent precept of Cicero:-Let the orator's action proceed from the motions of his whole body, and a manly flexibility of his sides.' This object is to be attained, not by exaggerated or affected contortions, but by the free action of the muscles, the general concurrence of which is indispensable to the production of the movements which constitute graceful and effective gesture. Such motions it is unnecessary to particularise, as they are generally sufficiently understood, being the necessary accompaniments of the motions of the head, the arms, and the hands.

CHART OF GESTURE.

54. The Chart of Gesture contains sixteen positions, which by easy variations can be converted into sixty-four different attitudes. The first variation is effected by the simple expedient described under § 48, of throwing the weight of the body forward on the right, and back on the left foot alternately, but without changing the position of either. The positions may next be reversed by advancing the left foot and hand instead of the right, or vice versa, and then going through the same changes of poising the body on each foot alternately as before. Minor variations, imparting life and animation to the gesture, may be introduced by easy movements of the hands and arms, which should never be allowed to remain motionless in one attitude for any considerable time, unless for some special and exceptional object. When the pupil has by practice become so familiar with the various positions figured on the Chart and their combinations, as to be able to reproduce them readily when required, he will have no difficulty in building other attitudes of his own upon them, and thus giving additional force and variety to his action. The manner of using the Chart will be sufficiently understood from the exercises which follow. To assist the pupil the attitudes to be employed are, in the first exercises, placed over the extract; afterwards they are indicated only by the figures attached to them on the Chart, which, after a little practice, will be found sufficient to suggest the proper positions.

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1 Romans, Countrymen, and Lovers !-Hear me for my cause; and be silent that you may hear. Believe me, for mine honour; and have respect to mine honour, that you

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may believe. Censure me, in your wisdom; and awake your senses, that you may the better judge.-1If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar's, to him I say, that Brutus' love to Cæsar was no less than his. 10 If, then, that friend demand why Brutus rose against Cæsar, this is my answer; not that I loved Cæsar less, but that Í loved Rome more. 1 Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all slaves; 10 than that Cæsar were dead, to live all freemen? As Cæsar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but as he was ambitious, I slew him! 10 There are tears

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The pupil can add gestures of his own, or reverse those given by changing the right hand and foot for the left, and vice versa.

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