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He found fault with me for using the phrase to make money:

“ Don't you see (said he) the impropriety of it? To make money is to coin it: you should say get money.” The phrase, howerer, is, I think, pretty current.

But Johnson was at all times jealous of infractions upon the genuine English Language, and prompt to repress colloquial barbarisms; such as pledging myself, for undertaking; line, for department, or branch, as, the civil line, the banking line. He was particularly indignant against the almost universal use of the word idea in the sense of notion or opinion, when it is clear that idea can only signify something of which an image can be formed in the mind. We may have an idea or image of a mountain, a tree, a building; but we cannot surely have an idea or image of an argument or proposition. Yet we hear the sages of the law “delivering their ideas upon the question under consideration;" and the first speakers in parliament “ entirely coinciding in the idea which has been ably stated by an honourable member;"-or“ reprobating an idea unconstitutional, and fraught with the most dangerous consequences to a great and free country.” Johnson called this “ modern cant.”

I perceived that he pronounced the word heard, as if spelt with a double e, heerd, instead of sounding it herd, as is most usually done.' He said, his reason was, that if it were pronounced herd, there would be a single exception from the English pronunciation of the syllable ear, and he thought it better not to have that exception.

He praised Grainger's “Ode on Solitude," in Dodsley's collection, and repeated, with great energy, the exordium :

1 [In the age of Queen Elizabeth this word was frequently written, as doubtless it was pronounced, hard. M.]

VOL. IV.

E

“O Solitude, romantick maid,

Whether by nodding towers you tread ;
Or haunt the desert's trackless gloom,
Or hover o'er the yawning tomb;
Or climb the Andes' clifted side,
Or by the Nile's coy source abide;
Or, starting from your half-year's sleep,
From Hecla view the thawing deep ;
Or, at the purple dawn of day,
Tadmor's marble waste survey."

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observing, “ This, sir, is very noble."

In the evening our gentleman-farmer, and two others, entertained themselves and the

company

with a great number of tunes on the fiddle. Johnson desired to have “ Let ambition fire thy mind” played over again, and appeared to give a patient attention to it; though he owned to me that he was very insensible to the power of musick. I told him that it affected me to such a degree, as often to agitate my nerves painfully, producing in my mind alternate sensations of pathetick dejection, so that I was ready to shed tears, and of daring resolution, so that I was inclined to rush into the thickest part of the battle. « Sir (said he), I should never hear it, if it made me such a fool.”

Much of the effect of musick, I am satisfied, is owing to the association of ideas. That air, which instantly and irresistibly excites in the Swiss, when in a foreign land, the maladie du pais, has, I am told, no intrinsick power of sound. And I know from my own experience, that Scotch reels, though brisk, make me melancholy, because I used to hear them in my early years, at a time when Mr. Pitt called for soldiers “ from the mountains of the north,” and numbers of brave Highlanders were going abroad, never to return. Whereas the airs in “ The Beg

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gar's Opera,” many of which are very soft, never fail to render me gay, because they are associated with the warm sensations and high spirits of London. This evening, while some of the tunes of ordinary composition were played with no great skill, my frame was agitated, and I was conscious of a generous attachment to Dr. Johnson, as my preceptor and friend, mixed with an affectionate regret that he was an old man, whom I should probably lose in a short time. I thought I could defend him at the point of my

sword. My reverence and affection for him were in full glow. I said to him, “ My dear sir, we must meet every year, if you don't quarrel with me.” Johnson.'« Nay, sir, you are more likely to quarrel with me, than I with you. My regard for you is greater almost than I have words to express; but I do not choose to be always repeating it; write it down in the first leaf of your pocket-book, and never doub of it again."

I talked to him of misery being " the doom of man,” in this life, as displayed in his “Vanity of Human Wishes." Yet Lobserved that things were done upon the supposition of happiness; grand houses were built, fine gardens were made, splendid places of publick amusement were contrived, and crowded with company.

JOHNSON. Alas, sir, these are all only struggles for happiness. When I first entered Ranelagh, it gave an expansion and gay sensation to my mind, such as I never experienced any where else. But, as Xerxes wept when he viewed his immense army, and considered that not one of that great multitude would be alive a hundred years afterwards, so it went to my heart to consider that there was not one in all that brilliant circle, that was not afraid to go home and think; but that the thoughts of each individual there would be distressing when alone.” This reflection was experimentally just. The feeling of languor,' which succeeds the animation of gaiety, is itself a very severe pain ; and when the mind is then vacant, a thousand disappointments and vexations rush in and excruciate. Will not many even of my fairest readers allow this to be true ?

I suggested, that being in love, and flattered with hopes of success, or having some favourite scheme in view for the next day, might prevent that wretchedness of which we had been talking. Johnson.“ Why, sir, it may sometimes be so as you suppose ; but my conclusion is in general but too true.”

While Johnson and I stood in calm conference by ourselves in Dr. Taylor's garden, at a pretty late hour in a serene autumn night, looking up to the heavens, I directed the discourse to the subject of a future state. My friend was in a placid and most benignant frame of mind. “ Sir (said he), I do not imagine that all things will be made clear to us immediately after death, but that the ways of Providence will be explained to us very gradually." I ventured to ask him whether; although the words of some texts of Scripture seemed strong in support of the dreadful doctrine of an eternity of punishment, we might not hope that the denunciation was figurative, and would not literally be executed. Johnson. “ Sir, you are to consider the intention of punishment in a future state. We have no reason to be sure that we shall then be no longer liable to offend against God.

. 1 Pope mentions,

“ Stretch'd on the rack of a too easy chair.” But I recollect a couplet quite apposite to my subject in " Virtue, an Ethick Epistle,” a beautiful and instructive poem, by an anonymous writer, in 1758; who, treating of pleasure in excess, says,

“ Till languor, suffering on the rack of bliss,

Confess that man was never made for this.”

We do not know that even the angels are quite in a state of security; nay we know that some of them have fallen. It may therefore, perhaps, be necessary, in order to preserve both men and angels in a state of rectitude, that they should have continually before them the punishment of those who have deviated from it; but we may hope that by some other means a fall from rectitude may be prevented. Some of the texts of Scripture upon this subject are, as you observe, indeed strong; but they may admit of a mitigated interpretation.” He talked to me upon this awful and delicate question in a gentle tone, and as

if afraid to be decisive.

After supper I accompanied him to his apartment, and at my request he dictated to me an argument in favour of the negro who was then claiming his liberty, in an action in the Court of Session in Scotland. He had always been very zealous against slavery in every form, in which I with all deference thought that he discovered " a zeal without knowledge." Upon one occasion, when in company with some very grave men at Oxford, his toast was, “ Here's to the next insurrection of the negroes in the West Indies.” His violent prejudice against our West Indian and American settlers appeared whenever there was an opportunity. Towards the conclusion of his “ Taxation no Tyranny," he says,

" how is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of negroes?" and in his conversation'with Mr. Wilkes' he asked, “Where did Beckford and Trecothick learn English?” That Trecothick could both speak and write good English is well known. I myself was favoared with his correspondence concerning the brave Corsicans. And that Beckford could speak it with a spirit of honest resolution even to his Majesty, as his as faith

1 See Vol. III. p. 268.

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