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first boar that is well made in marble, should be

preserved as a wonder. When men arrive at a facility of making boars well, then the workmanship is not of such value, but they should however be preserved as examples, and as a greater security for the restoration of the art, should it be lost.”

E. “We hear prodigious complaints at present emigration. I am convinced that emigration makes a country more populous.” J. “That sounds very much like a paradox.” E. “Exportation of men, like exportation of all other commodities, makes more be produced.” Johnson. “But there would be more people were there not emigration, provided there were food for more.' E. “No; leave a few breeders, and you'll have more people than if there were no emigration." Johnson. «Nay, sir, it is plain there will be more people, if there are more breeders. Thirty cows in good pasture will produce more calves than ten cows, provided they have good bulls.” E. “ There are bulls enouģh in Ireland.” Johnson, (smiling.) “So, sir, I should think from your argument.” BOSWELL. “ You said, exportation of men, like exportation of other commodities, makes more be produced. But a bounty is given to encourage the exportation of corn, and no bounty is given for the exportation of men; though, indeed, those who go gain by it." R.

« But the bounty on the exportation of corn is paid at home.” E. “ That's the same thing." Johnson. “ No, sir.” R. “A man who stays at home, gains nothing by his neighbour's emigrating.” BOSWELL. “I can understand that emigration may be the cause that more people may be produced in a country; but the country will not therefore be the more populous ; for the people issue from it. It can only be said that there is a flow of people. It is an encouragement to have children, to know that they can get a living by

emigration." R.“ Yes, if there were an emigration of children under six years of age. But they don't emigrate till they could earn their livelihood in some way at home.” C. “It is remarkable that the most unhealthy countries, where there are the most destructive diseases, such as Egypt and Bengal, are the most populous." Johnson. “ Countries which are the most populous have the most destructive diseases. That is the true state of the proposition.” C. “Holland is very unhealthy, yet it is exceedingly populous.” Johnson. “I know not that Holland is unhealthy. But its populousness is owing to an influx of people from all other countries. Disease cannot be the cause of populousness, for it not only carries off a great proportion of the people ; but those who are left are weakened, and unfit for the purposes of increase." R.

“ Mr. E. I don't mean to flatter, but when posterity reads one of your speeches in parliament, it will be difficult to believe that you took so much pains, knowing with certainty that it could produce no effect, that not one vote would be gained by it.” E. “Waving your compliment to me, I shal} say in general, that it is very well worth while for a man to take pains to speak well in parliament. A man, who has vanity, speaks to display his talents; and if a man speaks well, he gradually establishes a certain reputation and consequence in the general opinion, which sooner or later will have its political reward. Besides, though not one vote is gained, a good speech has its effect. Though an act which has been ably opposed passes into a law, yet in its progress it is modelled, it is softened in such a manner, that we see plainly the Minister has been told, that the members attached to him are so sensible of its injustice or absurdity from what they have heard, that it must be altered.” Johnson.“ And, sir, there is a gratification of pride.

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VOL. IV.

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Though we cannot out-vote them, we will out-argue them. They shall not do wrong without its being shewn both to themselves and to the world.” E. “ The House of Commons is a mixed body. (I except the Minority, which I hold to be pure smiling], but I take the whole House). It is a mass by no means pure; but neither is it wholly corrupt, though there is a large proportion of corruption in it. There are many members who generally go with the minister, who will not go all lengths. There are many honest well-meaning country gentlemen who are in parliament only to keep up the consequence of their families. Upon most of these a good speech will have influence.” JOHNSON.

“ We are all more governed by interest. But interest will not make us do every thing. In a case which admits of doubt, we try to think on the side which is for our interest, and generally bring ourselves to act accordingly. But the subject must admit of diversity of colouring; it must receive a colour on that side. In the House of Commons there are members enough who will not vote what is grossly unjust or absurd. No, sir, there must always be right enough, or appearance of right, to keep wrong in countenance.” Boswell. “ There is surely always a majority in parliament who have places, or who want to have them, and who therefore will be generally ready to support government without requiring any pretext.” E.“ True, sir; that majority will always follow

· Quo clamor vocat et turba faventium.Boswell. “ Well now, let us take the common phrase, Place-hunters. I thought they had hunted without regard to any thing, just as their huntsman, the Minister, leads, looking only to the prey.” J.

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I Lord Bolingbroke, who, however detestable as a metaphysician,

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But taking your metaphor, you know that in hunting there are few so desperately keen as to follow without reserve. Some do not choose to leap ditches and hedges and risk their necks, or gallop over steeps, or even to dirty themselves in bogs and mire.” Bos

“ I am glad there are some good, quiet, moderate political hunters." E. “ I believe in any body of men in England I should have been in the Minority; I have always been in the Minority.” P. “ The House of Commons resembles a private company. How seldom is any man convinced by another's argument: passion and pride rise against it.” R. “What would be the consequence, if a Minister, sure of a majority in the House of Commons, should resolve that there should be no speaking at all upon his side.” E. “He must soon go out. That has been tried; but it was found it would not do."

E. “ The Irish language is not primitive; it is Teutonick, a mixture of the northern tongues; it has much English in it.” Johnson. " It may

have been radically Teutonick; but English and High Dutch have no similarity to the eye, though radically the same.

Once when looking into Low Dutch, I found, in a whole page, only one word similar to English; stroem, like stream, and it signified tide." E. “ I remember having seen a Dutch Sonnet, in which I found this word roesnopies. Nobody would at first think that this could be English ; but, when we inquire, we find roes, rose, and nopie, knob; so we have rosebuds."

Johnson. “I have been reading Thicknesse's

must be allowed to have had admirable talents as a political writer, thus describes the House of Commons, in his “ Letter to Sir William Wyndham :”-“ You know the nature of that assembly; they grow, like hounds, fond of the man who shews them game, and by whose hallou they are used to be encouraged.”

Travels, which I think are entertaining.” Boswell.

What, sir, a good book ?" JOHNSON. “ Yes, sir, to read once; I do not say you are to make a study of it, and digest it; and I believe it to be a true book in his intention. All travellers generally mean to tell truth ; though Thicknesse observes, upon Smollett's account of his alarming a whole town in France by firing a blunderbuss, and frightening a French nobleman till he made him tie on his portmanteau, that he would be loth to say Smollett had told two lies in one page; but he had found the only town in France where these things could have happened. Travellers must often be mistaken. In every thing, except where mensuration can be applied, they may honestly differ. There has been, of late, a strange turn in travellers to be displeased.”

E. “ From the experience which I have had,--and I have had a great deal.--I have learned to think better of mankind." Johnson. “ From my experience I have found them worse in commercial dealings, more disposed to cheat, than I had any notion of; but more disposed to do one another good than I had conceived.” J. "Less just and more beneficent." Johnson. “ And really it is wonderful, considering how much attention is necessary for men to take care of themselves, and ward off immediate evils which press upon them, it is wonderful how much they do for others. As it is said of the greatest liar, that he tells more truth than falsehood; so it may be said of the worst man, that he does more good than evil.” BOSWELL.“ Perhaps from experience men may be found happier than we suppose." Johnson. "No, sir; the more we inquire we shall find men the less happy." P.“ As to thinking better or worse of mankind from experience, some cunning people will not be satisfied unless they have put men to the test, as they think. There is a very good story told of Sir

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