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GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA.
NEW YORK :
346 & 348 BROADWAY.
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN.
ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of
NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA.
EUWARD (THE ELDER)
EDWARD (THE CONFESSOR) EDWARD I., surnamed the Elder, son and opposition formally accepted as king. The strife successor of Alfred, king of the West Saxons, among the clergy, however, still divided the kingaseended the throne in 901, died in 925. His dom, and the party opposed to St. Dunstan plotdaim to the throne, though recognized by the ted the murder of the young monarch. He was vitenagemote, was disputed by his cousin Ethel- stabbed in the back at Corfe castle, the residence wald, who gained the support of the Northum- of his stepmother, as he was drinking a cup of brian and East Anglian Danes. The rebels march- mead on horseback, and sinking from his seat ed through the counties of Gloucester, Oxford, he was dragged away by the stirrup by his and Wilts, and Edward, unable directly to oppose frightened horse. them, retaliated their ravages in the country of ĚDWARD III., surnamed the Confessor, king the East Angles. He thought proper to with- of the Anglo-Saxons, son of King Ethelred II., draw his army, loaded with booty, before the successor to Hardicanute, born in Islip, Oxfordapproach of the rebels, but the venturous Kent- shire, in 1004, ascended the throne in 1042, ish men, greedy of more spoil, stayed behind in died Jan. 5, 1066. His mother was a Norman defiance of orders. They were assaulted by the princess, Emma, and during the Danish domiEast Angles, and resisted so valiantly that though nation which had succeeded the death of Edobliged at last to retreat, it was not till after mund Ironside, he dwelt in exile in Normanthey had slain a great number of the bravest dy. When the news of the death of Canute in of the enemy, and had terminated the rebellion 1035 reached him, he determined to assert his by causing the death of Ethelwald himself. The pretensions to the crown, crossed the channel regn of Edward, as of many of his predeces- with a fleet of 40 ships, and landed at Southsors and successors, was occupied with subduing ampton. He found himself opposed by his the turbulent Danes, wbo abounded and were mother, who had become a second time queen constantly reēnforced in the provinces of East of England by marriage with the Danish monAnglia and Northumbria. In this task he was arch, and was now regent of the kingdom. sssisted by his sister Ethelfeda, who governed Menaced with destruction by a constantly inMercia He protected his territories by for- creasing force, he hastily effected his retreat. tresses which gradually became centres of trade With his brother Alfred he received a perfidions and population. He gained two signal victories invitation from King Harold to cross the sea in # Temsford and Maldon, and subjected all the 1037. Alfred was murdered at Guildford, and tribes from Northumbria to the channel to his Edward, apprised of the fate which was awaitimmediate control. He was twice married, and ing bim, escaped into Flanders. After the ackit a numerous family, and 3 of his sons, Athel- cession of his half brother Hardicanute, Edward tao, Edmund, and Edred, successively occupied was received with honor into England, presented the throne.
with a princely establishment, and was at court EDWARD II., surnamed the Martyr, king when the king suddenly died in 1042. The Danof the Anglo-Saxons, son and successor of Edgar, ish heir Sweyn was then absent from the kingborn in 962, ascended the throne in 975, and dom; the rightful heirs of the Saxon line, the sons 73s murdered in 978. The intrigues of his step- of Edmund Ironside, were in exile in Hungary; other Elfrida raised a faction in favor of her the Anglo-Saxons were determined to throw off own son Ethelred, who was but 7 years of age. the Danish yoke; the Danes were divided and disZxclesiastical parties took opposite sides, the pirited; Edward was the nearest to the throne harried clergy who had been ejected in the pre- of any one present, and after a short period of hesceding reign regarding Elfrida as their patron- itation and commotion he was recognized as king *** and supporting the pretensions of Ethelred, in a general council at Gillingham. His reign sed the monastic followers of St. Dunstan main- was the period when the mutual aversion of the Saining the superior claim of Edward. A civil two fierce Teutonic peoples, whose struggles for me had already begun, when at & general meet- dominion had vexed the country during 6 goning of the witenagemote Edward was after much erations, began to subside, when intermarriages
and a blending of language and customs nearly At this period occurred the events which form effaced the distinction between the two races, the groundwork of Sha' apeare's tragedy of and when the Normans began to exercise á “ Macbeth.” In 1039, cbeth, a turbulent potent influence in the country, both nations nobleman, murdered Duncan, king of Scotland, of which they were soon to prostrate. The chased Malcolm, his son and heir, into England, first royal act of Edward was to strip his mo- and usurped the crown. The exiled prince rether, whose resistance had defeated his first ceived from Edward permission to vindicate bis attempt to obtain the throne, of her iminense rights with an English army, but for 15 years treasures, and to confine her for life in a monas- the power of the murderer defeated every attery at Winchester. The government was at tempt. At length in 1054 Maloolm was sucthis time in the hands of 3 powerful noblernen: cessfully supported by Macduff, the thane of Earl Godwin, who ruled all the southern prov. Fife, and by Siward, earl of Northumberland. inces; Earl Leofric, who governed Leicester and The fall of Macbeth' cost the death of the son the northern counties of Mercia ; and Earl Sic of Siward; the Northumbrian earl died soon ward, whose sway extended from the Humber after, when Harold obtained that earldom, in to the confines of Scotland. Edward sought the opposition to the rights of an infant heir, for his protection of Earl Godwin by marrying his own brother Tosti. Thus the support which daughter Editha, a lady praised by the chroni- Edward gave to Malcolm resulted in adding clers for her learning, piety, and benevolence; largely to the power of his own most ambitious yet the motive which prompted Edward to mar- and dangerous subject. To oppose Harold's furry her was merely political, and the alliance ther progress, the king invested Algar, the son proved therefore a source of enmity instead of of Leofric, with the government of East Anglia, friendshin hans he king and his father-in- but the intrigues of Algar quickly led to his exlair
artial both to Norman man- pulsion from his new possession. He, however, ny foreign churchmen and soon returned into Herefordshire with an army
'ed him to England, where of Welsh and Norwegian auxiliaries, was opposvyuuseu intuence in the government. ed by the inconstant Englisla movarch, but was A popular jealousy was already felt agaiust them, able to maintain the cause of the king in spito when in 1050 Eustace, count of Bonlogne, with of the king himself, and returning again, forced his train, visiting England, quarrelled with the Harold to a compromise and was reinstated in burghers of Dover, and in the tumult several per- East Anglia. He was again expelled and again sons were slain. The affray was reported to the restored, and at his death in 1058 Harold was king at Gloucester, by the discomfited Eustace, left without a rival, the most powerful subject and Edward gave orders to Godwin, in whose in England. Edward the Outlaw, the Saxon government Dover lay, to chastise the insolence heir to the throne, after a life of exile, died of the men of that city. The earl refused to obey; within a few days of his arrival in Magland, and a rupture was therefore anavoidable, and 3 armies there now stood between Harold and the crown under the command of Godwin and his 2 song only the young and feeble Edgar. Thoinfirm old immediately marched against the king in Glou- king, inveterate in his animosity to the family of cestershire. Edward summoned to his aid Lo0Earl Godwin, turned his eyes toward his kinsfric and Siward, and was quickly in a condition man across the channel, William of Normandy, as to intimidate his opponents, when it was agreed a person whose capacity and power would render to refer the dispute to the decision of the witen- him the most formidable rival to Harold. Haagernote. Godwin, however, fled with his wife rold, being thrown in a tempest upon the coast of and sons to Flanders; their estates were then Normandy, was obliged while this in the power confiscated, Queen Editha was confined in a of William to swear that he renounced all hope monastery, and the greatness of this family of the crown, and to do homage for his lands and seemed completely destroyed. Tranquillity was honors to William, as the appointed successor hardly restored when William, duke of Nor- of Edward. He returned to England, and, as mandy, the future conqueror, reached the coast Hume says, deterred the king from abdicating in of England to render assistance to his royal favor of William, increased his martial renowa kinsman. He was received in a manner worthy by an expedition against the robbers of Wales, of his great reputation, visited several of the which terrified them into submission during the royal villas, and was dismissed with magnificent next 4 reigns, extended his sway by marrying presents. Godwin, however, having gradually the sister of Morcar of Northumberland, and collected a fleet, suddenly appeared in 1052 on was crowned king on the very day of Edwaru's the southern coast of England, swept away the death. It was fortunate for the memory of ships from the different harbors, entered the Edward that he occupied the interval between Thames, menaced London, and extorted from the Danish and the Norman conquests; that the king the restoration of himself and his son his reign was a time of comparative tranquillity Harold to their earldoing and the banishment under a nativo prince, between two periods of of the foreigners; and the primate and the nu- subjection to conquerors. The laws and customs merous other Norman functionaries fled for their of good King Edward” wero long remembered lives. Godwin did not long survive this tri- with popular affection. He was highly esteemed got th, and left his possessions to his son Harold, for his sanctity, was the first English prince that
al in ambition and his superior in address. touched for the king's evil, and was canonized