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which he spent in a gentleman's house there, he sat writing till morning, only now and then laying his clenched fists on the table, one above the other, and resting his head thereon for a few minutes, while he snatched a hurried slumber. Besides being able to sleep by mouthfuls, he had other qualifications, which fitted him in a peculiar manner for keeping alive and controlling the spirit of a militia like the Highlanders. He adapted himself to the manners and prejudices of that people, and caused them, instead of regarding him with the jealousy due to a stranger, to bebold him with a mixture of affection and respect superior even to what they usually entertain towards their chiefs. He walked on foot beside the common men, now with one clan, and anon with another. He amused them with jokes. He flattered them with his knowledge of their genealogies. He animated them by a recital of the deeds of their ancestors, and of the verses of their bards. He acted upon the maxim, that no general ought to fight with an irregular army, unless he be acquainted with every man he commands. He never, on the other hand, let this familiarity with his men go the length of generating contempt. The severity of his discipline was dreadful. The only punishment he inflicted was death. Like the corps of the Swiss Guard at Paris, be thought that any inferior punishment disgraced a gentleman. All his men be held to be of that rank ; and he would not put one of them to the shame of submitting to such an infliction. Death, he said, was properly the only punishment which a gentleman could submit to; because it alone relieved him from the consciousness of crime. It is reported of him, that, having seen a youth fly in his first action, he pretended he had sent him to the rear on a message. The youth fled a second time : he brought him to the front of the army, and, saying that a gentleman's son ought not to fall by the hands of a common executioner, shot him with his own pistol. *

It was altogether wonderful that he should have ever been able to keep an army on the field during this spring. When he first commenced the war, he had only fifty pounds of gun-powder. 3 He had no money except what was his own, or what he could raise by his personal interest. His men, though willing, were very ill armed; and what weapons they had were of such a nature as to defy any attempt at discipline or exercise. He wanted even that fundamental advantage, the commission of the King to levy war. He was only the generalissimo he had made himself, in consequence of his reputation, which was not very great, and his confident expectation of eventually procuring the royal sanction. The Highlanders had no other reason to adhere to him, except their appreciation of his lofty character, and their perception of his abilities to command them. He had got himself erected all at once into the leader of a great party, purely by the native force of his character, acting as it did under a very peculiar exigency.

CHAPTER V.

THE BATTLE OF KILLIECRANKY.

Claver’se and his Highlandmen,

Came down upon the raw, man,
And, being stout, gave mony a shout;

The lads began to claw, then.
Wi’ sword and targe into their hand,

Wi' which they were na slaw, man;
Wi' mony a fearfu' heavy sigh,
The lads began to claw, then.

Old Jacobite Song.

Some little changes had taken place in the general aspect of affairs, before the conclusion of this in.. effectual campaign of marches and countermarches, The Castle of Edinburgh had been surrendered by the Duke of Gordon ; some Lowland regiments had been raised for the defence of the new government; others had arrived from England; circumstances all calculated to depress the spirits of the Highlanders. On the other hand, Ireland was altogether subdued by King James, except two ei. ties; the Convention was beginning to fall into dissention; and invasions were threatened from France and Ireland at once. The Revolutionists were still as sure as ever of being eventually able to settle a Protestant succession; but the Anti-revolutionists were now, perhaps, more confident than before, of the impossibility of carrying through a measure so adverse to natural justice, and the prejudices of the people. A curious proof of the difficulty which men must then have felt in conjecturing which party would ultimately be uppermost, occurs at the end of Sir John Dalrymple's work, in the shape of a correspondence betwixt Lord Strathnaver (eldest son of the Earl of Sutherland) and the Viscount of Dundee. The former, who had acted since the Revolution with a firm and conscientious attachment to the new government, in the first place, writes a letter to Lord Dundee, beseeching him to yield to the current of the times, and offering to make his peace for him. It is as follows:

« My LORD_The concern that many equally interested in us both have for your Lordship, abstracting from that respect which your own merit made me have, cannot but occasion regrate in me, to see that the courses you take tend inevitably to the ruin of you and yours, if persisted in. I cannot therefore but wish, that you would follow the Duke of Gordon's example, and I am persuaded it will be found the best course ; neither shall your friends, who at this time dare not well meddle, be wanting to show their affection to you, and interest in the standing of your family; and I hope you will do me the justice to believe that none wishes it better, or will more effectually lay himself out in it, than

• STRATHNAVER.” Inverness, 3rd of July 1689.

Dundee lost no time to send back the following spirited answer :

« Struan, 15th July, 1689. My LORD-Your Lordship’s, dated the 3rd, I received the 13th, and would have returned an answer before now, had I not been called suddenly to Enverlochie, to give orders anent the forces, arms, and ammunition sent from Ireland. My Lord, I am extremely sensible of the obligation I have to you, for offering your endeavours for me, and giving me advice in the desperate estate you thought our affairs were in. I am persuaded it flows from your sincere goodness and concern for me and mine, and in return I assure your Lordship, I have had no less concern for you, and was thinking of making the like address to you; but delayed it till things should appear more clear to you. I am sorry your Lordship should be so far abused as to think that there is any shadow of appearance of stability in this new structure of government these men have framed to themselves. They made you, I doubt not, believe that Darie (Londonderry] was relieved three weeks ago. By printed accounts, I can assure you it never was relieved, and now is taken. They told you the English and Dutch were noasters of the sea. I know for certain the French is, and in the Channel; in testimony whereof, they have defeated our Scots fleet. For as they came alongst, they fell on the two frigates, killed the captains, and seized the ships, and brought the men prisoners to Mull. They tell you Schomberg is going to Ireland to carry the war thither. I assure you the King has landed a considerable body of forces there, and will land himself amongst our friends in the west (whom I

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