« 이전계속 »
in this country so we would not have to have any diplomatic dealings with Mexico. Mr. DAVIs. No, sir; we could deliver that water to them in the United States. Mr. SUMMERs. Is it necessary to have a levee on the Mexican side in order to ultimately protect the Imperial Valley? Mr. DAvis. Absolutely. . Mr. SUMMERs. Would not that be used as a strong argument for their rights. Mr. HAYDEN. Possibly so. I had not thought of that. Mr. SINNOTT. I may have missed the point. You are not going to abandon the Alamo Canal? Mr. DAvis. When the all-American canal is built the American lands are supposed to abandon it. Mr. SINNoTT. But we will not disturb it in any way near the intake? Mr. DAVIs. No, sir. Mr. SINNOTT. We will leave that to the Mexicans to handle. Mr. DAvis. The intake is in the United States, and it is not proposed to disturb the Mexicans making use of it without the consent of the United States authorities. Mr. SUMMERs. Could they drop down on Mexican territory and divert there just as well? Mr. DAvis. Not quite as well, but about as well. They could divert below the line practically as well as up there, because they have only one side of the river. Mr. SUMMERS. Which side? Mr. DAvis. The west side. First, as they come down they lose grade, and they would not be able to build a dam without the consent of the United States, because it would be in Arizona, until they went below the Arizona boundary. Mr. SUMMERs. But that would not irrigate their lands. Mr. DAvis. I think most of their lands now irrigated could be covered from the diversion down here. The Alamo falls rapidly there. Their diversion is at this point and the river falls here. Mr. LITTLE. You speak of a steamboat on the Rio Colorado. What additional steamboats navigate on that river? Mr. DAvis. It was formerly navigable. There were three or four steamboats plying for the benefit of various settlements. Mr. LITTLE. From where? Mr. DAvis. Clear down to the Gulf of California, and along up to the point where the river forms the boundary between Nevada and Arizona, but most of the traffic was between Yuma and the Needles. Mr. LITTLE. They still take a boat from Yuma to the Gulf of California? Mr. DAvis. They could not at low water, but at high water they might. Mr. LITTLE. What part of the year is there that you could? Mr. DAvis. Any time during the season from the 1st of May until the 1st of August. Mr. LITTLE. Do you know the next river below on the California side, the St. Ysabel, below the Gulf on the western side? Mr. DAvis. No, sir; I am not acquainted down there. Mr. LITTLE. There is no river down there that is navigable?
Mr. DAVIS. I do not know as to that. Mr. SMITH. In the early inception of the reclamation policy, did the service contemplate making a project at Imperial Valley? Mr. DAVIs. Yes, sir; in the distant future, and this land was withdrawn with that in view. Mr. SMITH. When was the Yuma project approved? Mr. DAVIs. In 1908. Legislation, however, was obtained prior to that, authorizing the service to build a dam and divert the water across the line of direct navigation, which required legislation in order to protect it. The legislation provided for establishing reservoirs on the west side of the Colorado River and for the building of a dam at that point and diversion of water. Mr. SMITH. The bill provides for selling anybody's land at $10 an acre, and recognized the sale for not less than $10 an acre? Mr. DAVIs. Yes, sir. Mr. SMITH. Do you think it is possible to sell this land if we secure the necessary legislation for a sufficient amount to construct this allAmerican canal? Mr. DAVIs. No, sir; I do not. Mr. SMITH. If the lands are so valuable as is claimed, it seems to me oy would sell for $40 or $50 an acre or over; would that be sufficient? Mr. DAVIS. $100 an acre, and 200,000 acres would be $20,000,000. Mr. SMITH. There are 400,000 acres. Mr. DAVIs. Not of public land; there is probably less than 200,000. Mr. SMITH. The railroad people are expected to pay their proportion or share, are they not? Mr. DAVIs. Yes; but you asked if the public lands would sell for enough. § SMITH. If the railroad lands would be required to pay the same amount for the construction of the canal? Mr. DAVIs. It might be. I have not figured it up. It is my guess what it would sell for. Congress passed a law a few years ago authorizing the United States through the Secretary of the Interior to sell the land at Yuma Mesa to provide irrigation, and it is proposed to undertake that next fall. We have been making preparations for it and have about concluded to go ahead with the opening. Mr. Evans. What is the elevation of the mesa below that river? Mr. DAVIS. The water has to be lifted 80 feet. Mr. Evans. I understood you said you have been making a ditch at 150 feet in the sand hills. The sand hills have a cut of 150 feet? Mr. DAVIs. A small part of it does. That is simply the sunken art. p Mr. Evans. How do you propose to do that with an open cut? Mr. DAvis. That is what is now proposed. It might be tunneled. Mr. LITTLE. Do you think it should be better to have the Rio Colorado of Mexico back in its old bed? Mr. DAVIs. It would be better, and I think eventually we will have to put it back there, but it may not be in its old bed. Its old bed is higher than some of the other country and it would be very likely necessary to make a new channel for that river there. If levees were placed 500 to 1,000 feet apart so the river is unable to meander, it does not attack the levees and undermine them, and if that river is to
be controlled or removed from its present channel artificially I think most likely the engineers will consider that the best thing to do is to make a straight channel down there with one on each side paved with rock, and throw the river into it and that will give it a very much greater fall, because it cuts out curves, makes it shorter for the same amount of ditch, and that will make a relatively permanent improvement. Mr. HAYDEN. You would have the advantage of the bluff on the Arizona and Sonora side, for instance. Mr. DAVIs. Yes, sir; it might be controlled by one levee, and Mr. Ockerson tried to control it by continuing that down and reenforcing them. It does not take the meanders out of the river and it would be more difficult to protect the levee that way, but if it cuts its channel out as it now does, it would be a greater menace from year to year. And if the channel lengthened it would make a scouring action. - Mr. SMITH. That would remove the danger of overflow from the Salton Sea. Mr. DAVIs. To a large extent. Of course, we will have another serious problem there. Mr. LITTLE. There is a volcano lake there. How big is that? Mr. DAVIs. Volcano lake is roughly shown on the map. I think that is about 10 miles in diameter. 'Mr. LITTLE. And the water? Mr. DAvis. The water is mostly mud. The lake is filling up with mud because the river flows in there and settles, and that is one of the things that emphasized this menace. As it fills the lake up it is difficult for the water to get in and it is probably standing, against the Volcano levee to-day menacing it, and they are building it higher each year. r. SINNOTT. Do you know approximately how many entries there are on the Eeast and West Mesa! Mr. DAVIs. No, sir; I have not that information. I know there are some. On the East Mesa, the railroad land and school land is probably all or nearly all privately owned land. At any rate, there is school land, and there are a few desert entries that have been made. I do not know whether any of them have been patented or not on the east side. I know nothing about the west side. Mr. SINNOTT. Do you know how many entries were made or in contemplation before any service of the Government established a reclamation project in the valley? Mr. DAvis. No; I do not know anything about it except that in the East Mesa it was withdrawn; no entries could be made there. Mr. SINNOTT. When was it withdrawn? Mr. DAvis. It was withdrawn in 1903. But patches of it have been restored since. Mr. SINNOTT. The year after the passage of the reclamation act? Mr. DAVIs. Yes, sir. Mr. KETTNER. That is land on this East Mesa and some 200,000 acres which have been restored were all withdrawn to be placed in the Yuma project. Mr. DAvis. With a view to building this same all-American canal
practically as planned.
Mr. KETTNER. And when President Roosevelt recommended that so strongly in his message, you do not know why the Reclamation Bureau did not go ahead with it? What stopped them?
Mr. Davis. Lack of money.
Mr. WELLING. Congress did not do what the President recommended.
Mr. Davis. Yes, sir; and the heavy work here had a great deal to do with it, the great expense, with the lack of money available for that purpose. It was hard to get it.
Mr. LITTLE. What is the Laguna Selada in Mexico ?
Mr. Davis. A big body of water which was a former overflow of the Colorado, a salt lake. Mr. LITTLE. Is it a tidewater ditch? Mr. Davis. Yes. Mr. LITTLE. It is not on sea level, is it? Mr. DAVIS. No. Mr. LITTLE. Does the tide come in? Mr. DAVIS. The tide affects the flow there. Mr. LITTLE. How deep is it?
Mr. Rose. In some places it is deep, but there is a section here [indicating]. There is a big one here.
Mr. HAYDEN. There is a heavy tide.
Mr. HAYDEN. I have been told the tides at the head of the Gulf of California were very similar to the tides in the Bay of Fundy, because the gulf narrows and at the change of tide there is a heavy bore of water which rushes up through the channel of the Colorado River, so it might be possible to force water into the Laguna Selada at a 12-foot level. Mr. Rose. I notice it is.
The CHAIRMAN. This is not, then, in position.
The CHAIRMAN. If that is all, then, Gen. Davis, it has been very instructive, and we are very much obliged to you for the presentation of this.
Mr. Davis. I am under obligations to you, sir.
Mr. HAYDEN. I want to direct the attention of the members of the committee to this report, which is Water Supply Paper No. 395, The Colorado River and Its Utilization. I asked the folding room to send a copy of it to each member. You will find a very interesting study of the whole Colorado River situation in a general way. Reference is made to the Imperial Valley, beginning at page 140 of the report. I thought that it might help us to get a general idea of the subject.
Mr. TAYLOR. Might it not be.well to incorporate part of it in this hearing?
Mr. HAYDEN. I shall be glad to insert some extracts from this report in the record.
The CHAIRMAN. Now, we will hear Mr. Swing.
Mr. SINNOTT. Will that all be needed for the construction of this all-American canal ?
* Mr. Davis. The figures that the engineer has made, which are not yet approved by the board, and of course are subject to change by the board, figure the cost at about $25,000,000 to get a canal to that point.
Mr. HAYDEN. That is, to a point where water can be placed on the land?
Mr. Davis. No; just to the point where you can make diversion to the main canal.
Mr. SINNOTT. Is that country such that it will run that way? Mr. Davis. Yes; the lowest part of the Salton Sea, and it slopes in that way. The $30,000,000 you speak of is carrying one line there [indicating).
Mr. SINNOTT. Those are townships?
Mr. TAYLOR. How long do you estimate it will require to construct a canal-how many years?
Mr. Davis. Probably about three years.
Mr. TAYLOR. And how long will it take to put a dam in the river and go down to the old head gate opposite there?
Mr. Davis. That could be done in a short time. Of course, this could be carried on at the same time. Probably that could be done if money were made available.
Mr. SINNOTT. Did you mention the full length of the all-American canal ?
Mr. Davis. About 40 miles from Laguna Dam to this point (indicating]. That is just a guess.
Mr. SINNOTT. What is the width and depth of that canal ?
Mr. Davis. The canal through the sand hills would be a 140-foot bottom and 15 feet water depth. The sides slope so that the surface of the water in the canal, running full capacity, would be about 200 feet; depth, 15 feet.
Mr. TAYLOR. The water from the higher area carries sand?
Mr. Davis. Yes, sir; not so much at low water as at high water. It always gives trouble carrying sand.
Mr. WELLING. Added to the $30,000,000 for the main canal, there would be some millions more for the laterals, for building diversion ditches to take the water to the high lands? Mr. Davis. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Is it expected that the Government would conduct the construction of the laterals or leave that to the district and water users?
Mr. Davis. Where the land is in the district they would leave that to the district.
Mr. HAYDEN. You have no objection to dealing with the individual water user?
Mr. Davis. The bill does not contemplate it.
Mr. WELLING. No estimate has been made of the cost of these lateral canals.
Mr. SINNOTT. Has the East and West Mesa been organized in a water district ?