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witches among heathen and Christians have fed upon man's flesh to aid, as it seemeth, their imagination with high and foul vapors.”

Lord Bacon was not only a philosopher, but he was a biologist, as appears from the following: "As for living creatures, it is certain that their vital spirits are a substance compounded of an airy and flamy matter, and although air and flame being free will not mingle, yet bound in by a body that hath some fixing, will.” Now and then the inventor of induction reasons by analogy. He says: “As snow and ice holpen, and their cold activated by nitre or salt, will turn water into ice, so it may be it will turn wood or stiff clay into stone.” Bacon seems to have been a believer in the transmutation of metals, and solemnly gives a formula for turning silver or copper into gold. He also believed in the transmutation of plants, and had arrived at such a height in entomology that he informed the world that “insects have no blood.”

It is claimed that he was a great observer, and as evidence of this he recorded the wonderful fact that “tobacco cut and dried by the fire loses weight"; that "bears in the winter wax fat in sleep, though they eat nothing”; that “tortoises have no bones”; that “there is a kind of stone, if ground and put in the water where cattle drink, the cows will give more milk”; that “it is hard to cure a hurt in a Frenchman's head, but easy in his leg; that it is hard to cure a hurt in an Englishman's leg, but easy in his head”; that “wounds made with brass weapons are easier to cure than those made with iron”; that "lead will multiply and increase, as in statues buried in the ground”; and that “the rainbow touching anything causeth a sweet smell."

PAUSE AND SILENT REPLY. [While not wishing that the reply be oral, a speaker frequently asks his audience a question which he expects them to think over and silently answer. Where this is desired there must be increase of the normal pause. Ex. (Sydney Smith): “Has your system of exclusion made Ireland rich? Has it made Ireland loyal? Has it made Ireland free?'']



SECESSION! Peaceable Secession! Sir, your eyes and mine are never destined to see that miracle. The dismemberment of this vast country without convulsion! The breaking up of the fountains of the great deep without ruffling the surface ! Who is so foolish–I beg everybody's pardon-as to expect to see any such thing? Sir, he who sees these states, now revolving in harmony around a common centre, and expects to see them quit their places and fly off without convulsion, may look the next hour to see the heavenly bodies rush from their spheres and jostle against each other in the realms of space, without producing the crush of the universe. There can be no such thing as a peaceable secession. Peaceable secession is an utter impossibility. Is the great Constitution under which we live here—covering this whole country—is it to be thawed and melted away by secession, as the snows on the mountain melt under the influence of a vernal sun-disappear almost unobserved, and die off ? No, sir! no, sir! I will not state what might produce the disruption of the states; but, sir, I see it as plainly as I see the sun in heaven-I see that disruption must produce such a war as I will not describe in its twofold characters.

Peaceable secession! peaceable secession! The concurrent agreement of all the members of this great Republic to separate! A voluntary separation with alimony on the one side and on the other. Why, what would be the result? Where is the line to be drawn? What states are to secede? What is to remain American? What am I to be?-an American no longer? Where is the flag of the Republic to remain? Where is the eagle still to tower? or is he to cower, and shrink, and fall to the ground? Why, sir, our ancestors—our fathers, and our grandfathers, those of them that are yet living among us with prolonged lives—would rebuke and reproach us; and our children, and our grandchildren, would cry out, shame upon us ! if we, of this generation, should dishonor these ensigns of the power of the government, and the harmony of the Union, which is every day felt among us with so much joy and gratitude. What is to become of the army? What is to become of the navy? What is to become of the public lands? How is each of the thirty states to defend itself?

Sir, I am ashamed to pursue this line of remark. I dislike it-I have an utter disgust for it. I would rather hear of natural blasts and mildews, war, pestilence, and famine, than to hear gentlemen talk of secession. To break up! to break up this great government! to dismember this great country! to astonish Europe with an act of folly, such as Europe for two centuries has never beheld in any government! No, sir ! no, sir! There will be no secession.


[Often in literature and speech, for various reasons, there is implied a lapse of time. To effectively convey this the speaker must increase the length of pause beyond the normal. Ex. (Bible): “And he cried, 'Cause every man to go out from me.' And there stood no man with him.'']

The Prodigal Son.



And he said, A certain man had two sons; and the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living. And not many days after, the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living. And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.

And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine. And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat; and no man gave unto him. And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger ! I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.

And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck and kissed him. And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.

But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: and bring hither the fatted calf and kill it; and let us eat and be merry: for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.

Now his elder son was in the field : and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing. And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant. And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf because he hath received him safe and sound. And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and entreated him.

merry with

And he answering, said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment; and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make

my friends; but as soon as this thy son was come which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf. And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me; and all that I have is thine. It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost and is found.

PAUSE AND UNSUPPORTED STATEMENT. [Where a statement (unless self-evident) is unsupported, there should be an increase in pause to give time for the listener to verify the assertion by reference to his experience. As no proof is offered of the following, time must be given to recall some concrete instance or instances, corroborative.

"The greatest men bave been martyrs who, in order to pull down the evil, have had themselves to perish.”']


The Poetic Principle.


An immortal instinct deep within the spirit of man is a sense of the Beautiful. This it is which administers to his delight in the manifold forms, and sounds, and odors, and sentiments, amid which he exists. And just as the lily is repeated in the lake, or the eyes of Amaryllis in the mirror, so is the mere oral or written repetition of these forms, and sounds, and colors, and odors, and sentiments, a duplicate source of delight. But this mere repetition is not poetry. He who shall simply sing with however glowing enthusiasm, or with however vivid a truth of description of the sights, and sounds, and odors, and colors, and sentiments, which greet him in common with all mankind-he, I say, has yet failed to prove his divine title. There is still a something in the

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