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rukhsiyar (1713–1718) entered the service of Nawāb Muhammad Khán as Munshi or Secretary. The period of his death is not known. His grandson, Dalpat Ráe, held the same office and played a prominent part in the time of Nawāb Muzaffar Jang (1771–1796) and Nāsir Jang (1796–1813). The next in order of time and perhaps of value, is a work by Sayyad Hisām-ud-din Sháh Gwāliári. His grandfather, Abu'l Hasan, was sister's som and son-in-law to the saint Muhammad Ghaus Gwāliári. Hisāmud-din came to Farrukhābād in Muhammad Khán's time (before 1743) and served as a yakka or adventurer riding his own horse. He was present at the siege of Allahābād (Oct. 1750 to April 1751), the siege of Fathgarh (April–May 1751), and the campaign in Rohilkhand (Oct. 1751—April 1752). He became a Fakir and died in 1210 H. (July 1795–July 1796). His book is of little value till he comes to the battle of November 1748, in which Káim Khán lost his life. From that time till the death of Ahmad Khán in 1771 the narrative is full and interesting. The style is clear and graphic with little attempt at literary effect, and I think he fully deserves Mufti Wali-ullah's praise of trustworthiness. The MS. was lent to me by Mír Fazl 'Ali from the Madrasa library of Mufti Waliullah. It measures 7% in, × 5 in. and has 393 pages of 11 lines to the page. It is divided into the following headings—Muhammad Khān and Káim Jang, pp. 4-54—Imām Khān succeeds, fine to Emperor paid, Imām. Rhán imprisoned, Bibi Sáhiba escapes; pp. 54-89—Ahmad Khán, death of Naval Ráe, defeat of Wazir, siege of Allahābād, pp. 89-150—Return of the Wazir, Ahmad Khán goes to Rohilkhand, pp. 150-226—Ahmad Khán retreats under the Hills and gets aid from the Rájah of Almora, pp. 226-249—The Wazir with the Mahrattas arrives and besieges Ahmad Khán, pp. 249-264—Interview between Ahmad Khán and the Rájah, the Wazir makes peace and takes the Nawāb's son with him towards Lakhnau, pp. 264-313—Ahmad Khán and his chiefs, with the Rohelas, march from the entrenchment, Ahmad Khán comes to Farrukhābād, pp. 313-340– Marriage of Muzaffar Jang, pp. 340-353—The Wazir brings the Emperor (Shāh ’Alam) to attack Ahmad Khán, pp. 353-393. The next in order of date is Mufti Wali-ullah's Tarikh-i-Farrukhábād written about 1245 H. (July 1829–June 1830). Sayyad Wali-ullah, son of S. Ahmad `Ali (who died 1187 H.-1773 A. D. aged 51), was born at Sándi, Sirkar Khairābād, on the 14th Shawwal 1165 H. (26th August, 1752). The family had been settled for ten generations at Sándi, about twentysix miles south-east of Farrukhābād, on the other side of the Ganges. Before that, ten generations had lived at Dáipur, just east of Kanauj and close to the Ganges. The founder of the colony there is said to have come

from Láhor. When he was nine years of age, Wali-ullah came with his father to Farrukhābād. He studied at Farrukhābād, Kanauj and Bareli, finishing under 'Abd-ul Básit Kanauji. In 1189 H. (March 1775—Feb. 1776), while on his way to Mecca, he visited the town of Rahmatābād in the eastern part of the Dakhin, where he was initiated into the Nakshbandi and Kádiriya tenets by Khwāja Rahmat-ullah. In 1190 H. (Feb. 1776—Feb. 1777) he spent six months at the holy places. Returning to India, he at length in 1196 H. (Dec. 1781—Dec. 1782) settled at Farrukhābād. From his savings he bought several houses, and joining them together he established a madrassa and named it Fakhr-ul Maraba o Raba'-ul Musäkhir, which gives the date 1224 H. (Feb. 1809–Feb. 1810). His library is still kept there, but there are no scholars and nothing is taught. On the 29th August, 1805, he was appointed Mufti, which office he held till the 13th October, 1828, when he was succeeded by his relation, Mufti Wilāyat-ullah. Wali-ullah died on the 5th Jamādi II, 1249 (18th Nov., 1833). The following tárikhs give the year of his death. The first is by Bahádur 'Ali Sayyad. I. Ganj-i-ma'ni ba-raft zer 2amon. II. Dafan Kardand ganj-i-ilm ba-khák. One of the copies of his history lent me by Mír Fazl 'Ali measures 10 in. × 6% in., and has 370 pages, the number of lines to a page varies. The book is divided into two parts. Part I, History of Farrukhābād and the Bangash family (160 pp.) containing an introduction and six books, the first book comprising five chapters. Part II: divided into five books, (1) Famous personages; (2), Shekhs, Sayyads, and Fakirs ; (3), Learned men ; (4), Poets, and (5) an account of the author. In the historical part there is little or no detail, much being taken from the Siyar-ul Mułókharin and similar works, though some facts are added from personal knowledge or enquiry. The most valuable part is, that giving the traditional origin of the Bangash Patháns. About two-thirds of the work is taken up with biographies of obscure Muhammadan worthies who lived in, or had visited Farrukhābād.* The Lauh-i-Tūrākh is an Urdū work which in its present shape was composed in 1255 H. (March 1839—March 1840). Mír Bahádur 'Ali's copy, lent me by his nephew Salāmat 'Ali of Chibramau, measures 93 in. × 6 in., and has 554 pages, with 16 to 18 lines to the page. It is written in an easy popular style, and though defective in chronology and arrangement, it preserves a mass of interesting tradition which would otherwise have perished. The origin of the book is thus described: In 1248 H. (May 1832—May 1833) Mamavvar 'Ali Khán Bakhshi, great-grandson of Muhammad Khán's daughter, Daulat Khātum, began to prepare an account of Farrukhābād and * He was the author of several other works,

its rulers from the work of Mufti Wali-ullah and other books, such as the I(hulásah-i-Bangash, but more especially from the recollections of an old man, Allahdād Khán, Son of Mukim Khán chela. Two copies of this work were given away, one to Nawāb Dilāwar Jang, son of Nawāb Husain 'Ali Khán, and the other to Dharm Dás, Káyath Kharowah. Neither of these copies can be found now, although search has been made. Manavvar 'Ali Khán says, that as he had neither practice in the Urdū language nor the habit of literary composition, he made his book over to Mir Bahádur 'Ali to be put into shape. Bahádur 'Ali returned it corrected in 1255 H. (March 1839—March 1840) with additions from his own knowledge. To the amended work were given the titles of Anwān-i KhándánŻ-Bangash or Lauk-i-Tärikh. A poetical tărăkh, giving the year 1255 H., is as follows: “Kyá baná hai, miyan, yih khúb kitáb.” The book is divided into eight parts, besides the introduction. I. Nawāb Muhammad Khán, Ghazanfar Jang. II. N. Káim Khán. III. N. Ahmad Ibán, Ghālib Jang. IV. N. Daler Himmat Khán, Muzaffar Jang. V. N. Imdād Husain Khán, Nāsir Jang. VI. N. Khádim Husain Khán, Shaukat Jang. VII. N. Tajammul Husain Khán, Zafar Jang. VIII. Chap. 1, Biography of Manavvar 'Ali Khān; Chap. 2, Biography of Mir Bahádur 'Ali. Manavvar 'Ali Khán, born in 1799, was the son of Sarfaráz’Ali Khán, Ustarzai Karláni Pathán. His great-grandfather, Khudádád Khán, had married Daulat Khátun, the ninth daughter of Nawāb Muhammad Khán, Ghazamsar Jang. On his grandmother's death in 1809, his father gave up all her jágirs, but Manavvar 'Ali Khán in 1839 still received 200 rupees a year from Sarfaráz Mahal, widow of Nāsir Jang, to whom the property had been assigned. Manavvar 'Ali Khán died on the 13th Sha’ban 1280, H. (24th August, 1863). Mír Bahádur 'Ali was a Sayyad of Chibramau, a small town on the Grand Trunk Road, about eighteen miles from Farrukhābād. He claims to be descended from the eldest son of Zain-ul 'Abidain, who left Madína and settled in Turmaz. Some of his descendants were long settled near Láhor, but gradually moving eastwards they reached, some five hundred years ago, the town of Chibramau, Sirkär Kanauj, Súbah Akbarābād. It is said that once seventy to eighty families existed, occupying three muhallas, but for the last two or three hundred years these have disappeared. Now-a-days there is only one small muhalla, with five or seven families of Sayyads. During the Mughul rule the male members of those families sought employment at Delhi as Kázis, Muftis, religious officers, Diwāns, writers or revenue-collectors. The absence of a genealogical table is apologized for by Bahádur 'Ali, in his biography. Owing to the unsettled times and the occurrence of several Mahratta incursions and village raids (Ganwór Gardi) the records of his ancestors had been destroyed. From signatures in books in his possession, he traces his family for six generations. His father and grandfather used to say the Chibramau Sayyads were among the descendants of Sayyad Kamál, who came down country from Láhor. One of his sons S. 'Ali Amjad settled in Chibramau, the others went to Samdhan, Parganah Tâlgrám, to a village near Kanauj, to the town of Tâlgrám, to Sándi, to Márahra and to Sakatpur. Bahádur 'Ali's ancestors, some openly and some secretly, were all Shi’as in religion. Bahádur’Ali’s grandfather, Ghulām Husain, was born, he asserts, in 1101 H. (Oct. 1689–Sept. 1690) and he died in 1226 H. (Jan. 1811–Jan. 1812). He had only two sons, Chirágh 'Ali and Hashmat 'Ali (b. 1182, May 1768– May 1769, d. 1231 H. Dec. 1815–Nov. 1816). The grandfather was at one time in the service of Najib Khán and Shuja'-ud-daula, from the former receiving Rs. 125 and from the latter Rs. 100 a month. For forty years he was in the service of Nawāb Dáim Khán, chela of Nawāb Ahmad Khán, first as a trooper on Rs. 80, then as a physician om Rs. 50, then as a pensioner on Rs. 20 a month. At last he was made teacher, on Rs. 10 a month, to the Nawāb's sons and wife. Till near the end of his life, he lived at the gateway of Dáim Khán's house in Farrukhābād, Five or six years before his death, when he became very feeble, his son and grandson persuaded him to remove to Chibramau, where he died on the 27th Ramzan, 1226 H. on the day of the Diváli festival. Bahádur 'Ali believed his grandfather could perform miracles, and relates a story of his appearing in a dream to a sick man, and telling him to gather grass from his tomb, which when ground was to be applied to the chest. An instantaneous cure was the result. Bahádur 'Ali's father, Chirágh 'Ali, was born in 1157 H. (Feb. 1744– Jan. 1745). When twenty-five years of age he became blind. He retained, however, his bodily strength, and was endowed with great quickness of understanding and power of repartee. His touch was so fine, that he could tell the wrong from the right side of a rupee. He possessed a great talent for planning buildings; and he also practised physic, as he had learnt it from his father, Ghulām Husain. His memory was wonderfully good, and he remembered the details of every body’s family history in all the country round Chibramau. He died on the 4th Ramzán, 1247 H. (6th Feb. 1832). Bahádur 'Ali's mother's people lived at Bhonganw, a town on the Grand Trunk Road in the Mainpuri district, about 22 miles west of Chibramau. She was the second daughter of Shekh Khalíl-ur-rahmān Khátib, son of Shekh Khair-ullah Khátib. Bahádur 'Ali was born on the 20th Shawwél 1195 H. (9th Oct. 1781). In 1201. H. (Oct. 1786–Oct. 1787), his grandfather brought him to Farrukhābād to live at the gateway of Nawāb Dáim Khán chela. He was taught there for six years. He read through the usual Persian books and

wrote daily some composition for his teacher's correction. Mir Makhú Fakir was engaged to teach him writing. A few books on grammar and physic were read and the whole word of God; to this was added some arithmetic. It was also his habit to visit the holy and religious men of that time, whom he names. Once Hāfiz Ghulām Muhammad condescended to go over a chapter of the Kurán with him.

When Bahádur 'Ali had completed his twelfth year, his uncle Hashmat 'Ali came home from Lakhnau. He had lived in that city for fifteen years as a teacher in the family of Lála Lachman Singh and Lála Budh Singh, Sarsūt Brähmans, employed in the service of Rájah Tikait Ráe, Náib. In 1207 H. (Aug. 1792–Aug. 1793) Hashmat 'Ali, taking Bahádur 'Ali with him, returned to Lakhnau. The boy was made over to Mír Sájid 'Ali, a great friend of his uncle's, who followed the profession of a teacher. After a year had passed, Bahádur 'Ali was sent to read grammar with Maulvi Kamāl Ahmad Sháhjahámpuri; and in order to gain an acquaintance with the poets, he frequented Maulvi Pir 'Ali Rasūlpuri. For a short time he also attended Maulvi Ghulām Muhammad, Fáik, Amethawi, who conferred on him the poetical title of Núr. A desire to write poetry having sprung up in him, he asked his uncle to introduce him to Miyan Ghulām Hamdāni Mashafi, whose instructions he followed for several years. Here he took the names of Gardish and Wämisc. It was at this time that he wrote a Persian diván entitled Juwälä-7-’Ishk. He also attended the poetical assemblies held every fortnight at the houses of Miyan Jurát, Inshállah Rhán, Mír Takki, Miyán Mashafi, Shahzādah Sulaimán Shikoh, Miyán Muntazar and others. On these occasions he recited ghazals under both the above titles in Persian and Urdu.

For the eleven years, ending in 1217, H. (May 1802–April 1803), which he spent in Lakhnau, Bahádur 'Ali to provide for his own support worked as a teacher at various places. He was also for a time a trooper in the Nawāb Wazir's service, in the time of Asaf-ud-daula (1775–1798) and Sa'dat 'Ali Khán (1798–1813). Farrukhābād having been taken over by the English, Bahádur 'Ali returned to his home in the end of 1217, H. and for a long period supported himself as a teacher. At length he was appointed tutor to Rájah Jaswant Singh, Baghela. Thákur, of Tirwa in the south-east of the Farrukhābād district, on a salary of Rs. 8 a month, plus the food of two persons, besides presents. Through the Rájah's influence he obtained the appointment of Thámadár of Chibramau, which he held for two years. Afterwards, at the Rájah's request, he acted as Wakil for him and his brother, Kunway Pitam Singh, at Mainpuri, Bareli, and Fathgarh, in the office of the Collector, the Civil Courts, the Revenue Board’s Office, and the Court of Appeal.

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