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words which need to be reduced to this analogy are only about eight in number, including installment and inthrallment, which, if spelled with a single l, are liable to be mispronounced, instälment, &c. Again, the words expense, license, recompense, which formerly had a c in the last syllable, have now taken an s, because the latter consonant is the only one used in the derivatives, as expensive, &c. A similar change is needed in only three words more to complete the analogy, namely, defense, offense, and pretense, and these Dr. Webster has changed. It is sometimes asked, “Why not change fence also o' For the simple reason that its derivatives are spelled with a c, as fenced, fencing, and the word, therefore, stands regularly with others of its own class. Finally, Dr. Webster proposes to drop the u in mould and moult, because it has been dropped from gold and all other words of the same ending. Such are the changes under this head, as introduced by Dr. Webster into his dictionary. In the present edition the words are spelled in both ways for the convenience of the public, except in cases where this seemed to be unnecessary or was found to be inconvenient. These changes, considering the difficulty that always belongs to such a subject, have met with far more favor from the public than was reasonably to be expected. Most of them have been extensively adopted in our country. They are gaining ground daily, as the reasons by which they are supported are more generally understood; and it is confidently believed that, being founded in established analogies, and intended merely to repress irregularities and remove petty exceptions, they must ultimately prevail. “The other class of changes mentioned above rests on a different basis, that of etymology. These will be estimated very differently, according to the acquaintance of different persons with the languages from which the words are derived. When Dr. Webster substituted bridegoom for bridegroom, fether for feather, &c., the German critics highly applauded the change. They predicted its speedy and universal reception, because similar improvements, on a much broader scale, had been easily made in their language. But Dr. Webster sound the case to be widely different among us. After an experiment of twelve years, he restored the old orthography to a considerable number of such words. In the present edition it is restored to nearly all that remain, from the full conviction that, however desirable these changes may be in themselves considered, as they do not relate to the general analogies of the language, and cannot be duly appreciated by the body of the people, they will never be generally received.”
In regard, then, to the orthography adopted in the revised edition before us, we see nothing to object to. The principles appear to be correct, and founded in settled analogies. The conformity of good writers to these principles is becoming every year more and more extensive. It will soon, we doubt not, be general. The growing circulation and use of this volume among the great body of the people will speedily insure this result. And thus a most valuable end will be attained.
In relation to the subject of pronunciation, the work appears to have passed through a very thorough and careful revision, and will give, it is thought, general satisfaction. “The latest and best authorities have been consulted,” and the changes made appear to have been made in accordance with sound principles and the most approved standards. The editor's own views are of themselves good authority. The “Key" to pronunciation he has somewhat enlarged, and the pointed letters he has used to a still greater extent, as indicating the pronunciation given. “Many thousands of words have been respelled, and no efforts have been spared to render the work, in all respects, a complete pronouncing dictionary.”
The “Synopsis of Words differently pronounced by different Orthoepists,” which was prepared by Mr. Worcester for the edition of 1829, has been retained in this edition, but it has been entirely remodeled, some of the authorities then adopted being now rejected, and others substituted in their place. The authorities now made use of are six in number—Walker, Perry, Jameson, Knowles, Smart, Worcester—and a view of several hundreds of words, as given by these different authors, can be had at a single glance, and with them the pronunciation of the author and the editor of this work, as presented in a distinct parallel column, may be easily compared. This Synopsis, as a guide to the best pronunciation of words, is a happy contrivance, and one of much value.
“Walker's Key to the Pronunciation of Classical and Scripture Names,” as published in an appendix to the former edition, has also been much enlarged and improved, thus supplying an important desideratum in such a work, and giving greater completeness and utility to the whole performance. Of this “Key” we learn, that
“More than three thousand words have been added to it, from a revised edition by the Rev. W. Trollope, M. A., late of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and from the ‘Classical Pronunciation of Proper Names,’ by Thomas S. Carr, of King's College School, London. A careful revision of the work has also been made throughout, in reference to the division of words into syllables, &c., in which the editor has derived great assistance from. Professor Thacher, of Yale College. More than three hundred errors have been discovered and corrected.”
At the close of the volume there is annexed, by the publishers, a Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names, with their pronunciation, prepared by an associate editor of Baldwin's Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer. This vocabulary embraces nearly five thousand words, being the names of places of the most frequent occurrence in the modern geography of the globe, and is designed to aid the reader in the right pronunciation of these names. It is a highly important aid to the student in geography, to the general reader, and indeed to the more mature and accomplished scholar. As to the mechanical execution of this volume, which ordinarily bears the name of the octavo edition, we cannot speak in terms of too strong approbation. The typography is clear and beautiful; the paper excellent; the binding neat and substantial; and the form highly convenient for use. The price is only three dollars and fifty cents, a remarkably low price certainly for a book which, if printed with the type of Prescott's Mexico, for example, would fill nearly eight volumes of five hundred pages each. We would remark, in conclusion, that the work before us, in its present revised state, is fitted to be a standard authority, in all those matters which appropriately belong to a dictionary of the English tongue. To this station already the American Dictionary has risen, by its intrinsic merits alone, and taken decidedly the first rank. It has had no blind partiality or spirit of favoritism to aid it in gaining popularity and confidence, and we deem it well for such a work as this that it has thus had to stand upon its own naked merits, unsupported by foreign and adventitious aid. The ordeal has indeed been severe, but it has only rendered the triumph more complete. A work which has thus forced itself, as it were, into favor, has the best of all evidence that it is fitted to be, and will be, a standard work. The reputation of Dr. Webster, as author of this great and elaborate performance, will, we cannot doubt, be a solid and enduring reputation. Few names will go down to posterity so deeply embalmed in the earliest and best recollections and feelings of his countrymen as that of the author of the American Dictionary. His fame will never die. The literature of our language, which he has done so much to advance, will render it imperishable. The editor, too, of this valuable revision, has done a good service to his country and to the world by the years of assiduous and well-directed labor which he has bestowed upon it, to give to it its present completeness and finish. He will allow us, we hope, in closing this already protracted article, to offer one suggestion. It is this : The high character of the work before us must be sustained hereafter. It must keep pace, in time to come, with the advancing wants of the nation. To this end, other revisions will from time to time be called for. We doubt not that the same faithful hand, or some other, will supply them.
ART. WI.-Sketches of Matters and Things in Europe.
WE closed our last paper with a notice of taking the steamboat. at Belfast for Scotland, late in the evening. We had a quiet sea, and slept sweetly until daylight, when we found the vessel making the port of Ardrossan. We had on board, as deck passengers, perhaps a hundred and fifty Irish laborers, of both sexes, on their way to Scotland to assist in gathering the harvest. The deck presented a singular appearance. There had been during the night a drizzling rain; and, having no covering, the poor creatures had disposed of themselves in the best way they could. Some had put their heads under the tarpauling with which the baggage was covered, while others lay upon the deck without any sort of a shelter, and slept soundly until the boat struck the dock. We were delayed some little time for the cars, during which the deck passengers were either listlessly strolling about, or in groups discussing matters in which they were interested. When the train arrived they took a class of cars—what class, whether third or fourth, we cannot tell; but one which furnished neither covering nor seats. The cars were simply surrounded by a railing, and the people stood up like so many sheep going to the market; but they were apparently right well contented, as they were constantly boiling over with glee. We did not learn what the fare in these open cars was, but we presume it was very low; and it is certainly a great relief to these poor people to be able to transport themselves to almost any part of the kingdom for a mere trifle, especially as they are so largely dependent upon England and Scotland for employment in harvest. Indeed, the harvesting in these countries seems to be done principally by Irish laborers.
In our way we passed several straggling towns, and saw some flourishing farms. We passed through Paisley, a large manufacturing town, containing several fine streets and many commodious buildings. In the old parts of the town are still seen the old houses covered with thatch. “The boundaries of the parliamentary borough comprise four parishes, whose aggregate population in 1831 was 57,466, and was distributed among 12,308 families, of whom nineteen-twentieths are in trade and manufactures.” We noticed a beautiful new church which we were told belonged to the Free Church of Scotland
We reached Glasgow at late breakfast time, and took up our line of march for the “Eagle Hotel,”—a temperance house, where we found excellent accommodations and reasonable charges. The house seemed well sustained, which speaks favorably for the Scotch. Glasgow is one of the most ancient royal burghs in Scotland. Its origin is attributed to St. Kentigern, also called St. Mungo, who, it is said, founded a bishopric here in the year 560. The length of the city from east to west is four and a half miles; its average width is about two miles. The derivation of the name of Glasgow is not settled. In the Gaelic language it signifies a graysmith, and some suppose that it derived its name from its having been in ancient times the residence of a person of that profession. The place was a mere religious establishment until 1174, when, by the charter of William the Lion, it became a free burgh or barony. Before the Reformation the inhabitants are said to have been in a deplorable state of ignorance and superstition, attributable mostly to the ecclesiastical government to which they had been subjected. Glasgow is situated on the Clyde, which, until 1775, was only navigable by vessels of small burden; but since that time large sums have been expended in the improvement of the river. The banks have been widened, the bed deepened, and the numerous sand bars and other obstructions removed. In 1780 no vessels exceeding forty tons could reach the city; but now ships of four hundred tons have been loaded and discharged. Formerly only lighters from Greenock came up to Glasgow; now, ships from America, India, and China, come up with ease and safety. Glasgow has the advantages of a connection with the Atlantic by the Clyde, and is also connected with the North Sea and the German Ocean by the Forth and Clyde Canal. But though Glasgow carries on considerable commerce, it is much more a manufacturing than it is a commercial town. The entire manufactory of cotton for Scotland is confined to Glasgow and its vicinity. Linens, cambrics, &c., are extensively manufactured here, and the manufacture of iron is rapidly increasing and has many local advantages. “According to the population returns for 1831, the city and suburbs contain 202,426 inhabitants, (93,724 males and 108,702 females,) composing 41,965 families, of whom 26,586 were engaged in trade and manufactures, 299 in agriculture, and 15,080 were not comprised in the preceding classes.” Upon arriving in Glasgow the first object of interest we visited was the university. The university and college buildings are situated on the east side of the High-street, and consist of two squares separated by a handsome library. The building presents a front of three hundred and five feet in length, with three lofty