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but also by directing his favourable notice to examples, which otherwise might be overlooked by him, of silent suffering, of frugal housewifery, of prudent self-restraint, of filial or parental devotedness, which the occupants of his property present to the eye of one whose calling leads him to enter amongst them freely, and follow them to their fire-sides. Many are the scenes going on upon every estate, which the owner of it knows little about heroic sacrifices, though upon a small scale and amongst humble peasants—struggles of delicacy, though under a homely garbchivalrous honour, where the arms are no better than the mattock and the spade :
· Gods ! what lies I have heard ! Our courtiers say, all's savage but at court:
Experience! O thou disprov'st report.' Now it is good for the proprietor of an estate to know that such things are, and at his own doors. He might have guessed indeed, as a general truth, even whilst moving in his own exclusive sphere, that many a story of intense interest might be supplied by the annals of his parish. Crabbe would have taught him thus much, had he been a reader of that most sagacious of observers, most searching of moral anatomists, most graphic of poets ; and we reverence this great writer not less for his genius than for his triotism, in bravely lifting up the veil which is spread between the upper classes and the working-day world, and letting one half of mankind know what the other is about. This effect alone gives a dignity to his poetry, which poems constructed after a more Arcadian model would never have in our eyes, however pleasingly they may babble of green fields. But such wholesome incidents reach the ears of the landlord in his own particular case most commonly through the clergyman—they fall rather within his department than another's—they lie upon his beat—through his representations the sympathies of the landlord are protitably drawn out, and judiciously directed to the individual—and another thread is added to those cords of a man, by which the owner and occupant of the soil are knit together, and society is interlaced.
Nor is this all. The children born upon an estate are to be brought up with some sentiments or other, loyal or liberal. As it is, they fall under the eye of the 'clergyman-he, directly or through his family, takes a labouring oar at the parochial and Sunday schools — the various duties resulting from the various relations in life come under his handling ; on these occasions he may take, if he will, an opportunity of strengthening in their early years the notions of subordination and devotion to the lords of the soil—and he rejoices to do so; not from any base and timeserving spirit, but from a feudal as well as religious feeling, which
stirs in himself, and which he would impart to those about him. Other seasons, too, there often are, which may be improved to the reception and propagation of such sentiments in the young, and of which the clergyman is apt to take advantage : an heir is born at the Hall—a son attains his majority—a daughter is made a bride—an honour has graced the house-a feat of arms has been achieved by some gallant member of it. He knows little of human nature who does not know that much good-will to the landlord may be planted throughout a parish by the cheap hospitality which the parsonage finds a pleasure in furnishing to the children of the poor inhabitants on occasions like these. Neither is this done under any low-thoughted desire of paying court to a patron, but upon principle-upon the principle of renewing the kindly bond between high and low, which idle refinement, on the one hand, and over-much depression on the other, have impaired.
We may be exposing ourselves to a scoff, we are aware, whilst we enter into these very minute and unambitious details, but for that we care not. It is, and long has been, the curse of the times, that men in responsible situations will not give themselves the trouble to examine the manifold bearings of a subject before they decide upon it :-a man of comprehensive views, in the jargon of the day, meaning a man who casts his eye over the broad surface of an intricate question, concludes upon it by intuition, and sneers at the painstaking dunce who calls for documents. Without such details we cannot properly insense (the word is Shakspeare's) the owners of the soil, that the clergy of the established church go before them, as men bearing a shield ; and with them we can only do it imperfectly, for we miss after all far more to the purpose than we summon.
We put it then to the land-owners of the country, to say whether they can afford to part with men who are the best outworks they have; especially at a moment when the eyes of the Philistines are upon them, and their hands itch for the spoil. And we put it to them further, whether the position these same men occupy is not altogether the consequence of an established national church.We it is this which places the minister in the auspicious relation to the landlord we have described—it does so both by its discipline and by its revenues :-By its discipline-for he who is for a bishop at the head of a church, is for a king at the head of a country, and a lord at the head of a manor; his ideas of ecclesiastical and civil discipline run habitually side by side : so again, he who is for a popular form of government of the church, naturally leans to the same in the state, and in every fraction of the state :- The primary theory of the one or the many,
the èis Brotheus or the mohuxóipanin, tints the views a man' takes of the system of society throughout-exalting or abasing the monarch, defending or abandoning the squire. By its revenues for by this means it is that the mediating party is rendered independent of either, and therefore above suspicion in his interference; by this means it is that he is of such a station in society as to be brought into familiar and friendly contact with the superior, whilst he is of such a calling in it as to be brought into no less friendly and familiar communion with those below. The agent, who is as eyes to the proprietor, it must be at once perceived is not so favourably placed for seeing the whole game; nor, if he could see it, is he in a condition to supply the place of the clergyman in the social system. We press this point the more, because the clergyman is now almost the only conductor that remains between the upper and lower ranks. The tendency of capital to accumulate in masses has annihilated that middle class of landed proprietors which existed in former times amongst us; and, with the single exception we have mentioned, all the rounds of the social ladder are out between the bottom and the top. But we must pursue this question of church revenue a little further :we have said, that it is the nature of our ecclesiastical endowments which enables the clergy to stand where they do amongst their fellow-citizens. For, suppose the free-trade principles to be adopted in religion as in other matters—and to this point things have been tending for some time, and with the blind approval of many who ought to have known better—what would the effect be upon the structure of society, and more particularly upon that part of it to which our remarks have been chiefly directed ? No doubt we are arguing this great question unworthily, and higher ground would be the true ground to take; but our present business is with the landlords and large proprietors, whom we would caution to take care of themselves in what they are doing to the church—they are stirring their own foundations, or laying bare at least their own defence, far more fearfully than they seem to imagine. Now, in matters of merchandise, free trade may possibly be all very well-(it is no part of our present business to decide whether it is so or not)—the demand may create the supply: but in the concerns of religion it is different. We apprehend it is not found on experience, that those who stand in most want of religion are the most anxious to procure it. The more hungry a man is, the louder will be his cry for food; but the more ungodly he is, will he be the more clamorous for a church? Would it were so !—for by this time we should have our great towns amply provided with church-room. The two states of Connecticut and Rhode Island had been planted
by colonies from the same nation, lie in the same climate, and are in fact merely separated by a meridional line ; but we know, on the authority of Dr. Dwight, whom Dr. Dealtry quotes in the excellent Charge named at the head of our paper-(the authority, be it remembered, of one who was neither an episcopalian nor an Englishman)--that the one state presented, down to a recent period, a mere contrast to the other in its religious aspect. The Rhodeislanders resisted the support of the public worship of God by law, leaving it to be regulated entirely by the demand for it. The people of Connecticut, on the contrary, like the rest of the New Englanders, enforced it; and, accordingly, whilst the latter state was, for a long time, duly provided with means for keeping alive the knowledge of God, the former, with the exception of the large towns, bad scarcely a well-educated minister throughout it-clowns and mechanics, too idle to drive a plough or a nail, taking refuge in a pulpit; and the inhabitants of that district, in this as in other respects, the reverse of their neighbours --- low, licentious, and ignorant. And, if it be said, in reply, it is not contemplated to go the lengths of the people of Rhode Island-public worship is to be maintained by the law of the land, but by tax and not by glebe or tithe-it may be answered, that not only does this provision violate the principles of free-trade as much as the other, and more ; but also, as we may learn from the continuation of this chapter of American history on which we have touched, is a perishable provision after all. Connecticut did well in compelling its citizens to maintain a church; -What would you have more? We reply,—we would have an ecclesiastical revenue which did not arise from the people at all, whether exacted or spontaneous, but from endowments, as our own does; for Dr. Dwight is scarcely cold in his grave before Connecticut itself throws the tax off as onerous, and leaves it at the option of every individual to belong to a congregation or not, only requiring him, if he does so, to pay his dues. And in New Hampshire, the compulsory payment has in like manner been abandoned ; and with this effect, says Dr. Chalmers, that when a chapel has been vacant by the death of the incumbent, his place has not been supplied; and the district which enjoyed his services, now left without any sabbath ministrations whatever, gives melancholy attestations to the native Jistlessness and unconcern of its families.' So that the process going on has been, first, the rejection of the glebe and tithe system; then, the adoption in its stead of a compulsory tax; and, finally, the relinquishment of the tax and the consignment of the immortal interests of men's souls to the tender mercies of a trading populace. It is all very fine to talk of the increased stimulus which would thus be communicated to the ministers of religion, by
reason of which their energy and zeal would secure for themselves support and encouragement. No ministers, however virtuous, would be able to maintain their hold upon a people for any great length of time, in opposition to the annual struggle of avarice at the period of the annual vote of supply, There is no doubt, we fear, that by degrees a great portion of this country would in the end be deserted of all ecclesiastical superintendence whatsoever, were the payment of the clergy made to depend upon the pious benefactions of the people.
If it be contended that the dissenters have spread themselves over the whole face of England, enlarging themselves to its remotest borders, in spite of their system having been such as we reprobate ;-we answer, let the established church disappear, and see what will the dissenters do then. They, unconsciously, derive the means of their own continuance from the continuance of an establishment which, in their blindness, they would pull down. They proceed with it, in some sort, pari passu.
The articles, the liturgy, the great divines of the church, though they profess no obligation to such things, afford them a gauge for their own opinions, and save them from running riot.Again, the parochial minister, his parsonage, liis glebe, his tithes, his personal rank and carriage, secure to their preachers from their Hocks the beneficial fruits of a jealous rivalry, which would willingly fix a conventicle wherever there is a church, and a teacher wherever there is a clergyman. Let the Church of England fall, and the cause of dissent, instead of rising on its ruins, which is the hope, will wax feeble. Congregations will split, polypus-like, into little knots of select Christians, from want of that great rival, which had before held its course steadily on, and which could not fail of imparting by the way a certain degree of uniformity to the doctrines and discipline of the dissenters themselves ;--whilst the dissenting congregations, no longer baving before their eyes, in the clergy of the church, a standard of reference whereby to measure the point of elevation in society to which they should uphold a minister of God, would pare him down more and more, till he became little better than a religious mendicant.
Meanwhile, upon whom would the clergy, such as they were, and such as did remain in the land, be dependent, but upon the broad public? The fierce democracy would be their patrons - - from that they would receive their daily bread. We leave it to the land-owners themselves to say what would be the position of these reformed pastors with respect to them—for to this point we are desirous of bringing our argument round. Would the land-owners find in these men, we would wish to know, advocates or adversaries? Would these be the men to stand up in