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ART. V.- ELECTIONS.

The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators and

representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof, subject to the revision of Congress, except as to the places of choosing senators. 15.

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1. The appointment of the militia-officers is reserved to the States

respectively. 2. Also the training of the militia according to the discipline pre

scribed by Congress. 41.

ART. VII. - FEDERAL PROTECTION.

1. The United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a

republican form of government;
2. Shall protect each of them against invasion ;
3. Also against domestic violence,

1st. On the application of the legislature of the State ; or,
2d. On application of the State Executive, when the legisla-

ture cannot be convened. 77.

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1. From Justice. - A person charged in any State with treason,

felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be
found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive
authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up,
to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.

73.
2. From Service. No

person

held to service or labor in one State under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 74. (This clause has been superseded by the 13th article of Amend. ments to the Constitution.)

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ART. IX. RESERVATIONS. 1 The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitu

tion, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the

States respectively, or to the people. 92. 2. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not

be construed to dery or disparage others retained by the people. 91.

CHAPTER IX.

STATE SUBORDINATION.
ARTICLE I.- ORIGIN OF STATE OBLIGATIONS.
Constitution. The ratification of the conventions of nine

States was declared to be sufficient for the establishment of the

Constitution between the States so ratifying the same. 82. 2. Amendments. - Whenever amendments to the Constitution are

proposed in accordance with the terms of that instrument,
they become to all intents and purposes a part of it,
1st. When ratified by the conventions of three-fourths of

the several States; or,
2d. By the legislatures of three-fourths thereof. 78.

ART. II. – SUPREMACY OF UNITED-STATES AUTHORITY. 1. The supreme law of the land shall be,

1st. The Constitution of the United States ;
2d. All laws made in pursuance thereof;
3d. All treaties made, or which shall be made, under the

authority of the United States. 2. The judges in every State shall be bound thereby, notwithstand

ing any thing in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary. 80.

ART. III.- OFFICIAL OATH.

1. The members of the several State legislatures shail be bound by

oath or affirmation to support the Constitution of the United States.

2. All executive officers of the several States shall be bound in like

manner; 3. Also all judicial officers of the several States. 81.

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1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation

(51), nor, 2. Into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a

foreign power, without the consent of Congress. 52.

ART. II.- COMMERCIAL.

1. No State shall coin money ; nor,
2. Emit bills of credit; nor,
3. Make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of

debts; nor,
4. Pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts. 51.

ART. III.- WAR.

1. No State shall grant letters of marque and reprisal (51); nor, 2. Without the consent of Congress, keep troops or ships of war

in time of peace; nor, 3. Engage in war, unless,

1st. Actually invaded ; or,
2d. In such imminent danger as will not admit of delay. 52.

ART. IV. - PENALTIES.

1. No State shall pass any bill of attainder; nor, 2. Any ex-post facto law. 51.

ART. V.- NOBILITY.

No State shall grant any title of nobility. 51.

ART. VI. - DUTIES.
1. No State shall, without the consent of Congress,

1st. Lay any duty of tonnage ; nor,
2d. Any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except

what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspeo

tion-laws. 2. The net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any State on

imports or exports shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States. 52.

ART VII. - - SLAVERY. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment

for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist,

1. Within the limits of the United States ; nor,
2. In any place subject to their jurisdiction. 97. (See ap

pendix to Analysis B, page 106.)

CHAPTER XI.

PERSONAL RIGHTS.

ARTICLE I.- DOMICILE.

1. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house

without the consent of the owner ; nor, 2. In time of war, but in a manner prescribed by law. 85.

ART. II. - SECURITY.

1. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,

papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,

shall not be violated. 2. No warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by

oath or affirmation,

1st. Particularly describing the place to be searched ; and, 2d. The persons or things to be seized. 86.

ART. III.

JUDICIAL. 1. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infa

mous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand
jury, except in cases arising,

1st. In the land or naval forces; or,
2d. In the militia when in actual service, in time of war

or public danger. 2. No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put

in jeopardy of life and limb. 3 No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without

due process of law. 4. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just

compensation. 87.

ART. IV.- CRIMINAL ACTIONS. In all criminal prosecutions, 1. Accusation. The accused shall be informed of the nature and

cause of the accusation. 2. Trial by Jury. — He shall enjoy the right to a speedy and

public trial.

1st. By an impartial jury;
2d. The jury shall be of the State and district wherein the

crime shall have been committed.
3d. The district shall have been previously ascertained by

law. 88. 3. Witnesses. 1st. No one shall be compelled in any

criminal case to be a witness against himself. 87. 2d. He shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses

in his favor.

3d. He shall be confronted by the witnesses against him. 88. 4 Counsel. - He shall have the assistance of counsel for his

defense. 88. 5. Bail. - Excessive bail shall not be required. 6. Fines. - Excessive fines shall not be imposed. 7 Punishments. — Cruel and unusual punishments shall not be

inflicted. 90.

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