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SECTION 3.

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1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years; and each Senator shall bave one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in con9 sequence of the first election, they shall be divided, as

equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year ; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year; so that one-third may be chosen every second year : and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make tempory appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not bave 10

attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be

11 President of the Senate

, but shall have no vote unless

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5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore in the absence of the VicePresident, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside ; and no person shall be convicted without the con currence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not ex

tend further than to removal from office, and disqualifica14

tion to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit, under the United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictinent, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

SECTION 4.

1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections 15

for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in may at any time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every 16 year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

SECTION 5. 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, re

turns, and qualifications of its own members; and a ma17 jority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business

, may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.

2. Each House may determine the rules of its pro18

ceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceed

ings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting 19

such parts as may, in their judgment, require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either Houso on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, 20

shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

SECTION 6.

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1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, tu be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attend ance at the session of their respective lIouses, and in going to and returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

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SECTION 7.

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1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States : if he approve, he shall sign it; but, if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If,

after such reconsideration, two-thirds of that House shall 24 agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the

objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered ; and, if approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But, in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and

against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to bim, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to wbich the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the United States, and, before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

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SECTION 8.

States ;

The Congress shall have power, 26

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the common de fense and general welfare, of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; 2. To borrow money on

the credit of the United 27 28

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and

uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout 29

the United States;

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof and of 30 foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and meas

ures ; 31

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States ;

32 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads ;

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, 33

by securing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and dis

coveries; 34

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies com35

mitted on the bigh seas, and offenses against the law of nations ;

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and re36

prisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

12. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation 37 of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two

years ; 38 13. To provide and maintain a navy; 39

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces ;

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute 40 the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel

; 16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all 12

whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased, by the consent of the Legislature

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cases

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