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of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of
18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and
1. The migration or importation of such persons as 44 any of the States now existing shall think proper to ad
mit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the
2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not 45
be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or inva-
3. No bill of attainder, or ex-post-facto law, shall be 46
4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, un47 less in proportion to the census or enumeration herein
before directed to be taken.
5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported
from any State. No preference shall be given by any 48
regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one
shall be drawn from the treasury but in 49 consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regu
lar statement and account of the receipts and expenditures
7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United 50
States; and no person holding any office of profit or
gress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
SECTION 10. 1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex-post-facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts ; or grant any title of nobility.
2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or shipsof-war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
1. The executive power shall be vested in a Presi
dent of the United States of America. He shall hold 53
bis office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:
2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the 54 Legislature
, thereof may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress;
no Senator or Representative, or person hold
ing an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
(Superseded by the 12th Article of Amendments.) 3. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; and, if there be more than one who have such majority and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for President; and, if no person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But, in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote : a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be Vice-President. But, if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice-President.
4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.
5. No person, except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.
6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for bis services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected ; and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.
8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, be shall take the following oath or affirmation :
9. “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States; and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."
1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States when called into the actual service of the United States : he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.
2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided twothirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers,
cies that may happen during the recess of the Senate by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session.
1. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and, in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.
1. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and estab