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such extensive trust to one body of men is evident : hence results the necessity of a different organization.
It is obviously impracticable, in the Federal Government of these States, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all. Individuals entering into society must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered and those which may be reserved ; and, on the present occasion, this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several States as to their situation, extent, babits, and particular interests.
In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily in our view that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, - the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our national existence. This important consideration, seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each State in the Convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude than might have been otherwise expected ; and thus the Constitution which we now present is the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensable. That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every
State, is not, perhaps, to be expected; but each will doubtless consider, that, had her interest been alone consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurious to others. That it is liable to as few exceptions as could reasonably bave been expected, we hope and believe ; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happiness, is our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honor to be,
Excellency's most obedient, humble servants. By unanimous order of the Convention.
GEORGE WASHINGTON, President His Excellency the PRESIDENT OF CONGRESS.
Nute. — The figures at the end of the paragraphs, in the following analysis, refer to paragraphs in the Constitution printed in this work marked with corresponding figures.
We, the people of the United States, 1. In order to form a more perfect Union, 2. Establish justice, 3. Insure domestis tranquillity, 4. Provide for the common defense, 5. Promote the general welfare, and 6. Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 1.
DEPARTMENTS. Civil government in the United States is administered thrcugh three several departments; viz.,
I. The Legislative,
LEGISLATIVE. All legislative powers granted by the Constitution are vested in a Congress of the United States, consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. 2.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
ARTICLE I. - PROPORTION. 1. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every
thirty thousand 5.
2. Until the first enumeration was made, the States were allowed
to choose as follows:
North Carolina, 5.
South Carolina, 5
ART. II. - HOW APPORTIONED. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States
according to their respective numbers, which shall include, 1. The whole number of free persons, excluding Indians not taxed ; 2. Those bound to service for a term of years ; 3. Indians who are taxed ; and 4. Three-fifths of all other persons. 5. (See appendix to Analy
sis C, page 106.)
ART. III.- ELIGIBILITY. 1. A representative must have attained to the age of twenty-five
years. 2. Must have been seven years a citizen of the United States. 3. When elected, must be an inhabitant of the State in which
chosen. 4. 4. No United States officer shall be a member of either House of
Congress. 22. (See appendix to Analysis D, page 107.)
The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature. 3.
When vacancies bappen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. 6.
ART. VIII. — CENSUS. 1. How made. - In such manner as Congress shall by law direct 2. When made. — 1st. The actual enumeration shall be made
within three years after the first meeting of Congress. 2d. It shall be made within every subsequent term of ten
ART. IX.- HOUSE POWERS. 1. Coordinate with the Senate in general legislation. 2. 2. Sole
power of originating bills for raising revenue. 23. 3. Sole power of originating impeachments. 7. 4. To choose their Speaker and other officers. 5. When the electors of President and Vice-President of the
United States fail to elect a President, the House of Representatives shall elect one. 94.
ART. 1.- HOW COMPOSED.
Of two senators from each State. 8.
ART. II.-ELIGIBILITY. 1. Must have attained to the age of thirty years. 2. Must have been nine years a citizen of the United States. 3 Wben elected, shall be an innhabitant of the State for which
chosen. 10. 4. No United-States officer shall be a member of either House of
Congress. 22. (See appendix to Analysis D, page 107).
ART. III. - TERM.
The senatorial term is six years. 8.
ART. IV.- BY WHOM CHOSEN. By the legislatures of the several States. 8.
ART. V.-WHEN CHOSEN.
One-third the number of senators shall be chosen every second
ART. VI.- HOW CLASSED. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes : 1. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at
the expiration of the second year. 2. Of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year. 3. Of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year. 9.
ART. VII. – VACANCIES. If vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise during the recess of the legislature of any State, 1. The executive thereof may make temporary appointments until
the next meeting of the legislature. 2. The legislature shall then fill such vacancies. 9.
ART. VIII. – VOTE.
Each senator shall have one vote. 8.
ART. IX. PRESIDING OFFICER. 1. The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of
the Senate. 2. He shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 11. 3. The Senate shall also choose a president pro tempore in the
absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States. 12.
ART. X.- SENATE POWERS. 1. Legislative. - 1st. Co-ordinate with the House of Representa
tives in general legislation. 2. 2d. May propose or concur with amendments to bills for rais
ing revenue. 23.