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I. ii. 378, 379. Kiss'd the wild waves whist;' so the folios; i.e.,

Kissed the wild waves into silence;' often printed with a comma after 'kissed.'

I. ii. 461. I'll manacle thy neck and feet together specimens of this form of torture are preserved in the Tower of London. Knight gives the accompanying illustrative sketch.

II. i. 5. The masters of some merchant;' i.e., 'the owners of some merchantman;' Stevens suggested 'mistress' (old spellingmaistres'); the Cambridge editors 'masters' (i.c., 'master's wife ').

II. i. 12. he's winding up the watch

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of his wit, by and by it will strike;' watches that struck the hours were known as early as the commencement of the XVIth century; the striking portion of the accompanying speci

men is an alarum which acts to any hour at option.

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II. i. 27.which, of he or Adrian;' 'he' for him,' used somewhat substantively, probably owing to the use of the word in the previous sentence, he will be talking.' II. i. 35, 36. The folios read: Seb. Ha, ha, ha! Ant. So, you're paid.' Theobald gives the whole line to Sebastian; and his reading is adopted by the Camb. ed. Possibly a better emendation is the transposition of the prefixes to the speeches; the

point of the quibble is no doubt the old From the collection belonging to proverb 'let them laugh that win.' Capell

the late R. Bernal.

ingeniously suggested that the folio reading should stand with the slight change of you've paid' for 'you're paid.'

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II. i. 127. 'who hath cause;' the antecedent of 'who' is most probably 'she'; some make the relative refer to eye,' i.e., which hath cause to weep.' II. i. 131.should bow;' so folios; seemingly unnecessary corrections have been made, e.g., 'she'd bow;' which end the beam should bow; ' the omission of the pronoun 'it' or 'she' before 'should' can easily be paralleled in Shakespeare.

II. i. 243.

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But doubt discovery there;' i.e., Cannot but doubt that anything can be discovered there.'

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II. i. 250. She that from whom;' the unnecessary that' is perhaps intentionally repeated, owing to the previous repetition of 'she that.' II. i. 279. candied;' generally explained as sugared over, and so insensible; congealed;' perhaps a better interpretation is 'made sweet as sugar,' as in the phrase the candied tongue.' Antonio possibly playing

on 'candied' and 'candid'

(a word not yet fully naturalised in the language, but probably familiar)?

II. ii. 28. A strange fish! Were I in England now, as once I was, and had but this fish painted,' etc.; an allusion to the popularity of exhibitions of strange monsters, to which there are many allusions in contemporary records. The accompanying drawing is from a print of the time of Charles I.

Is

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II. 11-67. This is some monster of the isle with four legs;' Shakespeare's contemporaries were familiar with descriptions of strange four-footed

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and Jourdan's accounts of the Bermudas:-"a kind of web-footed fowle of the bignesse of a sea-mew" (Quoted by W. G. Gosling). Many emendations have been made; staniel' (a species of hawk) has been adopted by some editors; the word occurs probably in Twelfth Night (II.

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v. 124), though the editions read stallion.' Mr Wright has, however, pointed out that, according to Stevenson's " Birds of Norfolk," " the female 'Bar-tailed Godwit' is called a Scamell' by the gunners of Blakeney."

III. i. 15. Most busy least, when I do it ;' the first folio retained by Camb. Ed. "most busy lest, when I do it." Various readings have been suggested; Pope, 'least busy when I do it'; Theobald, most busie-less when I do it'; Holt, most busiest, when I do it'; Spedding, 'most busiest when idlest,' &c., &c. It seems likely that the reading of the second, third, and fourth folios throws light on the real meaning of the line:- most busy least, when I do it ;' i.e., ' most busy when I indulge my thoughts, least busy when I am actually at work.' A comma after busy' instead of after 'least' would simplify this reading, but it is possible to understand it as punctuated in the folios; Shakespeare probably wished to make the superlatives as antithetical as possible; perhaps we should read labour' for labours.'

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III. iii. 2 here's a maze trod, indeed through forth-rights and meanders': i.e. prob. through straight lines and circles, one of the most usual forms of the maze,' according to Halliwell, who gives the engraving of one, from a collection in the Maison Rustique, or the Country Farme, 4to, Lond. 1606. According to other commentators, meanders' meandering paths, without absolutely reference to 'circles.' (See engraving at the end of Glossary.) III. iii. 39. 'Praise in departing;' a proverbial expression : 66 stay your praises till you see how your entertainment will end."

III. iii. 52.

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Ariel, like a harpy;' probably suggested by the harpyepisode in the Third Book of Eneid.

IV. i. 60. fetches,' so Ff. an archaic and provincial form; Camb. Ed. vetches.'

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IV. i. 64. pioned and twilled;' various emendations have been suggested for these difficult words of the folio:-' peonied and lilied,' tullip'd', 'tilled,' &c. It is noted that 'piony' is an old spelling of peony,' and that the flower was formerly spoken of as the mayden piony' and 'virgin peonie.' In all probability the meaning of the words has not yet been discovered; they are evidently technical terms of horticulture. (Cp. Glossary.)

IV. i. 110. Mr Wright suggests that earths' should be read as a dissyllable, 'earthes;' this suggestion has been adopted in the present text; the second, third, and fourth folios read and' before foison.'

A harpy carrying away a lady, from a basrelief on an ancient tomb preserved in the British Museum.

IV. i. 123. 'so rare a wonder'd father and a wise;' some few copies of the first folio are said to read wife' (a reading independently suggested by Rowe): the harsh change has little to commend itself.

IV. i. 147, &c. In The Tragedy of Darius, by William Alexander, afterwards Earl of Sterling, published in the year 1603, occurs the following passage, which, according to Steevens, may have been the original of Shakespeare's Speech

:

"Let greatnesse of her glascie scepters vaunt:

Not scepters, no but reeds, soone bruis'd, soone broken:

And let this worldlie pomp our wits inchant.

All fades, and scarcelie leaues behind a token.

Those golden palaces, those gorgeous halles,

With fourniture superfluouslie faire:

Those statelie courts, those sky-encountering walles
Evanish all like vapours in the aire.".

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IV. i. 193. The folios read hang on them.'

IV. i. 221. 0 King Stephano! O Peer!' an allusion to the old song, often referred to in Elizabethan literature, "Take thy old cloak about thee":

"King Stephen was a worthy peere,

His breeches cost him but a crowne,
He held them sixpence all to deere ;
Therefore he called the taylor Lowne."

The ballad is printed in Percy's Reliques; Shakespeare quotes it also in Othello, II. iii. 92.

IV. i. 231. Let's alone;' some verb of motion must be understood, i.e., 'let us go alone' (leaving Trinculo behind); alone' is possibly an error of the folios for 'along,' as suggested by Theobald.

IV. i. 237. “ An allusion to what often happens to people who pass the line. The violent fevers which they contract in that hot climate make them lose their hair."-STEEVENS.

IV. i. 264. ' lies' (probably correctly, the verb preceding the plural noun), so Ff.; Camb Ed. lie.'

V. i. 23-24. The first and second folios place a comma after 'sharply,' making 'passion' a verb; the comma is omitted in the third and fourth folios.

V. i. 39. mushrumps' (the old form of the word), so Ff.; Camb. and Mod. Edd.' mushrooms.'

V. i. 309.

'beloved,' trisyllabic; Ff. 'belov'd.'

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