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PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION.

nervous

1. Every Art, and SCIENCE, has its Externals, up the Body, with the materials, furnished by the and its Internals, its Generals and Particulars; external world. The Soul is the architect, and which must be understood Analytically, and Syn

the body is thetically, if we would practice either successful

workmanship. ly. The Internals of Elocution, are Thoughts

Here is a good an Feelings, and its Externals comprise all that

representation of is addressed to our five senses: its Generals are

this Mind and Body, with their various Languages,

mass, which is a or modes of manifestation. Comparatively, Lan

kind of brain, guage—is the Tune, Body-the Instrument, and

(or series of Mind-the Performer: hence, the necessity of

brain,) that prebecoming acquainted, theoretically and practi

sides over those cally, with their NATURES, RELATIONS and Uses.

glands, or work2. As the subjects of MIND and LANGUAGE,

shops, that tako are partially unfolded in the following work, in

charge of the this part, something must be said of the Body,

food, digestit, the harp of ten thousand strings : particularly in

and watch over regard to structure, position, and the organs to be

its changes, till used for the production and modification of

it is made into sounds, in Speech and Song: also of Gestures,

blood, and then or Actions; illustrated by appropriate Engravings,

appropriated to wh ch may be imitated by the Pupil, for the pur

the body. The pose of bringing the Body into subjection to the

nervous centre, Mind; without, however, any reference to spe

called Semilunar vifie Recitations, - lest he should become artifi

Ganglion and So cinh, instead of natural.

lar Plexus, may 3. The more we contemplate Man, the more

be seen at a, a, a, we see and feel the truth, that he is a MICROCOSM

e; it is situated Indeed; a minature-world, an abstract of crea

under the diation-- an epitome of the universe,-a finite repre

phragm and parlsentation of the INFINITE DEITY! Well saith the

ly behind the hes then motto, "KNOW THYSELF!" and the poet

stomach: other “ THE PROPER STUDY OF MANKIND-IS MAN."

subordinate cénAnd it may truly be said, that there is nothing

tres may be seen in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms,

at e, e, e, e; also that cannot be found, essentially, in the human

in other places, body; and nothing in the world of Mind, that is

that need not be not shadowed forth in his spiritual nature: hence,

designated, the grandeur, the magnificence-of our subjects,

they are very and our objects.

numerous: these 4. The three grand essentials of the Body pro

centres are like per, are the Osseus, or bony system, which fixes

miner posts in a its forn, and gives it stability: the Muscular, or

state, or king fleshy system, which is designed to act on the

dom. At i, is Deens; and Nervous system, acting on the Mus

seen a pair of cular: while the Mind, acts on and through the chords, called trisplanchnic nerves: and at oo, Nervous ; receiving its life and power from Him, are seen other nerves, with their little brains or who is emphatically “THE LIFE:"thus, we can centres, where they come together, forming a line look through Nature, up to Nature's God. Ob-along the spine, from the bottom of the chest, ic serve, the Analytical course is from outermosts to the top of the neck. From this large collection innertnosts, from effects to causes; and the Syn- of Organic Nerves, others proceed to every pari betical progress from imnermosts to outermosts ; of the system, uniting in smaller centres, and or from causes to effects.

forming ganglions in the palms of the hands, 5. NERVES OF ORGANIC LIFE. Everything balls of the fingers, &c. Our Astronomical sy's. must have a beginning: and nothing is made per- tem is called the Solar System, because the Sun fect at once. Now in the body, there is a cer- is its centre, watching over our planets; so, of tman portion, called Nerves of Organic Life ; be these nervous centres of the grand and smaller cause they are the first forined, and constitute departments of our miniature-universe. Owing the grand inedium, through which the soul builds I to the intimate connection of these nerves with

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their numerous centres, and with the nerves of of organic life, or solar plexus. The roots of there the whole body, they are sometimes called the nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion, Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity table Life. There are three orders of these of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiration Nerves: one going to the blood-vessels and other and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the parts of the vascular system; one to the contrac- proper co-operation with the nerves of organie ule tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: life; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption. and one to the nerves of organic sensation, con- hence, the painful mode of teaching children to veying the impressions made on the organs. read by a book: away with this felse system, un

less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising generation on the altar of evil; let the ear, or rigin feeling predominate : please work out the whole; for you can do it: a hint is sufficient for those who think.

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6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (originating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (6,) or seat of Volunlary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c.) that goes to the Diaphragm (,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Accessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration ; one of its fellow roots goes to the tongue (d,) and is concerned in mastication, swal lowing, speaking, &c. (Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.) Next in order is the 7. Here is an excellent representation of the pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (L, Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, g, hy) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la- with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respira. rynx and wind-pipe, (,) also to the cardiac, or tory Nerves, constitute the inmosts of the body; heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, of(s); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c; which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of other branches go to the face, to exhibit the feelings. which, are Will and Understanding. The letter All interweave, and bring the vocal organs into c, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where mportant relations with the heart and lungs, with the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lofeelings and thoughts; while the main body goes cated; and cv, the cerebellum, or Little brain, o the stomach. and umbes with the great centre under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the norizontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard parts of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseous these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped system, or the bony parts which may be aptly in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the voluntary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.

8. Here is a striking view of the Muscuins, or fleshy portions, that form the medium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds acting on the bones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfeet subjection to the Sous

called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid through the

temple we live in; which is three stories high; Mind; so that

viz. the cavity below ihe diaphragm, the one above whatever 18

it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, felt & thought,

the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied

of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.

ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now letusput

frame, there are 250 bones: they afbord us the these three

means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy

between the body and language ? systems, the Nerves, Mus.

10. ZOOLOGY—(the doctrine or science of life, cles and

is a necessary element of education. Whose cuBones, togeth

riosity has not been excited by the innumerable er, and con

living beings, and things, with which we are sur

rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their template the whole as a

interiors, and see how they are made, and under

stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, unit, bound up in the skin,

a spider, an oyster, a planı, a stone; observe their

differences, in many respects, and their similariand acting in

ties in others: they all have essence, form, use obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind is subservient to the Creator of mind. of nature, the Animal Vegetable, and Mineral,

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is to emancipate the human mind from the dark constituting the nutritive function of which living ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evi. liberty of rational humanity. The things of the dences 100 plain to be misunderstood: may we have Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power to appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or

12. Here is a representauon of the Human grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engra

Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses ving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own of Elocution. But it ia necessary to enter more beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the continent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism: second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full oi pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat

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and drink, in the form of what is called insensible verspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy miri, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and ihe skin being

into the particulars of our subject; which s lone the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out in the succeeding parts of this introduction : how. particles of the system; the great importance ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the outof keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy lines of subjects are given in the book, designed condition, by daily washing in soft cold water,

for such as are determined to dig for truth and must be evident to every one of reflection, it be

etemal principles, as for hidden treasures ; ing the safe.y-valve of the body: and thirdly, to whose motto is “ Press On.” indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of Animals and Plants endure for a time, and a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- under specific forms, by making the external cordance with its slate ; which is often perceived world a part of their own being; i. e. they have when certain persons are present; also wher, the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly and when this outward supply ceases they die, wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts ; so as having completed their term of duration : hence, to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive death, to material existences, is a necessary COLE with their tones and audible words, ruling im- sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they er. mense audiences with absolute sway, and de- ist so long as external forces do not destroy them: monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo

Animals and Plants increase by nutrition : sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is , Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from with.

but a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How inhundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- teresting must be the history of all things, ani. stances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, are composed ? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us! bulk, and give back to the world what was once 13. If we would have the Mind act on the its owu. Thus, corr position and decomposition, Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an or

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derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all necessary that the body be in a natural and up- the short ribs, from the lower end of the breastright position. The following engraving repre- bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the

the spine, so that Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no or

the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either

and other digestive by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position.

organs in that viciThe Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami

nity, are pressed liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking

small analogy between it and the body, in the act of

| | compass, that their speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is

functions are great. like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab

ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of

all the vessels, course, to blow with ease and power, one must bones and viscera are more or less distorted and take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything,

17. This engraving,

of a bell-shaped glass, Larynx, .....

C, C, shows how the Wind-pipe, ...

air gets into the lungs,

and some of its effects. Collar bone, ..

A head is placed on Bronchia,

the cork, T, represent

ing the wind-pipe, and Heart & Lungs,

having a hole through

Cit. L, represents a 7 Long Ribs,..

bladder, tied to the Diaphragm,

D)

lower end of the cork,

to indicate a lung. At 5 Short Ribs, ..

D, is seen the diaDorsal and

phragm. The cavity Abdominal

of the bell represents

the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungs Muscles......

are: there is no communication with the external 14. This is a view of a well developed and air, except through the hole in the cork; air, ennaturally proportioned chest; with space for the tering through that hole, can go oniy into the bladlangs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is ample room for the free action of the organs: it is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid the true model of the form of one who would live of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of to a good old age.

the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be 15. Tight DRESSING. No one can enjoy good the consequence, which can be supplied with air, health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or only through the hole in the cork; the air expandTead, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the ly compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the is elevated again, the air will be forced from the

dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air to parify the blood, and prevents the proper action bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausof the diaphragin. The following engraving shows led by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, the alarming condition of the chest, when com- and of the contraction and elongation of the nbpressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hur

dominal muscles; hence, the comparison between tied, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is

distinctly seen. to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the offspring an accumulation of evils, foo awful 10

MUSCULAR Action. These contemplate. What is the difference between

two engravings represent some killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and

muscular fibres in two stales: doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight laxed nervous filament ramified througla the fibres,

the upper one at rest, with a re us to prevent the air from coming between it and as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in the body.

a state of contraction, and the fi16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or

bres in zigzag lines, with a simi thorax of a female, showing the condition of the

lar nervous filament passing over bones of the body, as they appear after death, in

them: apply the principle to all every one who has habitually worn stays and muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; corsets, enforced by tight lacing. But,' says one, but for further inforination, see the Author's large I do not lace too tight. If you lace at all, you work on Physiology and Psychology, which will most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe- be published as soon as convenient.

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