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of the wage earner of Montreal is decidedly deficient, and the result is manitest in the ill health of many localities.

The rear tenement is not to be found in great numbers throughout the district. Nine houses out of every ten front upon a through street. This proportion would be still further increased if sections 11, 12, and 13, which are in this respect most deficient, were eliminated. Only eight sections out of twenty-nine fall below the district average of one rear tenement in every ten. The typical rear tenement of Montreal is not a large building, but an ancient wooden structure of the rural babitant type or a two-story building incased with refuse brick and reached by rickety wooden stairs and galleries. These rear tenements rarely contain more than two families, generally only one, and though still a menace to the public health, because of their dilapidated condition, do not contain a sufficiently large proportion of the population to seriously affect the general health.

The healthfulness of the district as a whole and the salubrity of its various sections are matters also to be taken into consideration when describing residential conditions. The local death rate is usually accepted as a test in this matter. For the year 1895, in the entire city of Montreal, this rate was 24.81 per 1,000. For the district canvassed it was in 1896 slightly lower, viz, 22.47 per 1,000. It is significant that even this latter rate is nearly double that for the locality of similar extent just above the hill, occupied by the well-to-do. Certain sections of the nether city, however, show a death rate greatly exceeding the average of the whole. Section 21 shows a rate of 41.34 per 1,000; section 12, 40.70; section 19, 35.04; section 25, 31.15. The high deatlı rate in certain sections, being doubtless indicative of undesirable conditions, must be taken into consideration when estimating the surroundings of the homes of the working people.

The demand for homes in this portion of industrial Montreal is not in excess of the supply, a fact which, having a tendency to enlarge the choice of the tenant, leaves the less desirable houses unoccupied. Out of a total of 8,390 tenements, 719, or 8.6 per cent, were noted to be unrented and unoccupied when this census was taken. This is equivalent to about one dwelling out of every twelve, and might appear at first glance to be a large proportion. Local causes, however, accounted for the lack of tenavts in many sections. Thus in section 2 it was uncer. tainty regarding the widening of the adjoining street; in sections 7 and 8 it was the depreciation caused by the introduction of an elevated railroad. Making allowance for residences unoccupied on account of similar local causes, it is probable that not over 5 per cent of the houses

5 in a fair state of preservation were vacant. The percentage ran bighest in the well-to-do sections. Where the working people lived, lack of occupancy was comparatively rare. A score of blocks in localities of this latter character were found without a vacant house. At least nineteen out of every twenty houses suitable for the industrial class were occupied.

To recapitulate, what has been found to be the facts? The average dwelling of the district canvassed contains 1.78 families. The typical home is surrounded by a population equivalent to 82.5 persons per acre. It contains an average of 5.02 rooms. To each room there is one occupant. Ten per cent of these hoines are to be found in rear tenements. Fifty-one per cent of them are without proper sanitary accommodation. An average local death rate of 22.47 per 1,000 shows the presence of pathological conditions. About one-twelfth of all dwellings are uuoccupied. These statements express in brief residential conditions as they will average in the whole district. It is not difficult to note that to a very considerable degree the home actual falls short of the standard of the home ideal as set forth at the outset of this inquiry.

Having described existing residential accommodation within industrial Montreal, the question of cost is next to be considered.

The average rental paid per family, all classes included, throughout the district canvassed is $8.73 per month. In the more well-to-do sections and those wherein the land is largely taken up by industrial establishments, such as sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, rents are higher, ranging from $10.81 in section 8 to $15.93 in section 3. Throughout the remaining 20 sections averages between $6 and $9 per month are well-nigh universal. This latter estimate may be taken as the ruling figure for rent among the wage earners, varying according to desirability of accommodation, and, as will be later demonstrated, according to location.

Of the entire earnings of the residents of the district rental absorbs about 18 per cent. In the more well-to-do localities this proportion is greater, sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11 showing from 22 to 25 per cent. Among the very poor, also, as was discovered through a special inquiry covering 300 families, rent was found to absorb fully one-fourth of the income. Among families of the real industrial class, however, about 16 per cent of earnings went to satisfy the landlord, and this proportion decreased toward the southern limits of the city. It was found, further, that where a workingman's family was large he was compelled to take mphis residence near the suburbs in order to obtain the requisite number of rooms at a price which he could afford to pay.

Yo study of rentals would be complete, however, without some effort being inade to ascertain in a measure the influence exerted upon values by location and the nearness of employment. Accommodation otherwise of equal desirability commands greatly differing prices in conseqnence of these factors. In the preceding table an attempt has been made to express relative convenience of location for the workingman by showing the distance in miles and decimals of a mile from the heart of each section to the city center, at McGill street and Victoria square. Sections 1 and 4, being but 0.1 of a mile from this northern limit, exhibit high rentals, while distance accounts for the much lower rates in sections 10, 15, 20, and 30. Nearness to abundance of local employment, while

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it reduces the desirability of high-class residential properties, tends to increase the value of land designed for industrial class residents. The extent of this influence is indicated for each section in the table by figures showing approximately the number of persons finding steady employment within a quarter of a mile, or 5 minutes' walk, of the homes within the section. Rental values in sections 1, 2, 4, 11, 16, 17, 21, 22, and 24 are higher from the fact that all these sections are within easy reach of from 5,000 to 12,000 opportunities for individual employ. ment. The average home of the district canvassed would lie about three-quarters of a mile from the city center—that is, about 15 min. utes' walk each way, or half an hour daily. If the street-railway service were taken advantage of, the time required might be reduced one-half, but an expense of 38 cents per week would be thus incurred by each person. This would not, however, be the case with the great number, for local employment of at least 4,500 hands is within 5 minutes' walk of the average home. In fact, as already stated, the district affords more than enough employment to supply the resident wage earners.

In conclusion, let us endeavor to formulate an expression that will enable comparison regarding rental values to be made between Montreal and other cities. To this end a standard of accommodation must first be fixed, a reasonable valuation placed thereon, and adequate allowauce made for failure to reach the desired excellency. Since the size of the home affects its rental value, this calculation will be based upon the average rental value of a single room.

The erection of model dwellings which fulfill the bome ideal early set forth in this article has been undertaken in at least one instance within industrial Montreal. The best example of this form of investment is found within the district investigated, viz, the Diamond Court undertaking, situated upon the William street boundary of section 24. Here are four blocks of buildings conforming with the small house type so aniversally popular, occupied by 40 families of varying nationalities and conditions. These buildings furnish model accommodation at an average price of $2 per month per room, and yet yield a return of 5 per cent upon invested capital. Now, the value of the land upon which these buildings were erected is 80 cents per square foot. To estimate what it would cost to duplicate them elsewhere requires but one variable factor to be taken into consideration, and that will be the cost of the land. The expense of erection will not vary for any locality within the district. Now, if we estimate the price at which land suit. able for this purpose can be obtained within each section under study, we can calculate what it ought to cost to provide model accommodation in that section. This result also is shown in the preceding table, Model accommodation in sections 4 and 11 would cost the tenant of the small apartment $2.80 per room; in sections 1, 2, 3, and 16, $2.60 per room; in sections 5, 6, 17, and 21, $2.40 per room, and so on down to section 30, where the best of accommodation could be furnished at $1.60 per

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room. Model accommodation in the average locality can then be supplied at a monthly rental of $2 per room. This applies to dwellings of from three to six rooms, for which the following rentals would be charged: For three rooms, 86 per month; for four rooms, $8 per month; for five rooms, $10 per month; for six rooms, 811 to $12 per month. In more distant sections, such as 30, three rooms at $5 per montlı, four rooms at $6.50 per month, five rooms at $8 per month, and six rooms at $9 to $10 per month could be provided, equipped with model accommodation, and yet yielding reasonable returns to the investor.

The actnal price per average room in the district is $1.74 per month. The average amounts now paid are $5.25 for three rooms, $7 for four rooms, $8.75 for five rooms, and $10.50 for six rooms. From previous examination we know, however, that actual home conditions are by no means up to the model standard. The difference between the rates paid and the price of model homes marks the degree of dericiency in existing accommodation. By making the necessary allowances for the causes indicated, rental averages in Montreal may be compared with prices paid for equivalent accommodation elsewhere by students possessing similar data regarding their own cities.

These statements are believed to fairly express industrial conditions in Montreal. It is hoped that American readers may from an examination of them be enabled to form an adequate conception of industrial life across the border, and may be able to remark wherein they excel or fall below their own.



Ninth Biennial Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of Illinois.

1896. viii, 320 pp. This report consists of three parts, as follows: Franchises, 120 pages; taxation, 116 pages; gas companies in Chicago, 81 pages.

. FRANCHISES.-This part of the report contains four chapters, comprising the subjects: Municipalities, old and new; street railways; telephones; conclusions and remedies.

In the chapter relating to old and new municipalities, an historical sketch of the origin and development of municipal government is given, including a description of various systems in use at the present time and the reforms which are being most generally advocated by students of municipal government.

The chapter on street railways is presented with the view of showing the excessive capitalization of various street-railway companies in Chicago. It contains a history of the street-railway business of the city and statistics showing the capitalization of the three leading rail. way systems, together with statements showing the estimated cost of duplication; also other facts regarding these and minor surface and elevated street railways. The taxes, licenses, and special payments made by the three leading street railways are likewise shown). Comparisons are made between the Chicago street-railway systems and those of Montreal, Baltimore, and Detroit in the matter of taxation, rates of fare, etc.

The following statement shows the capitalization and mileage of the three leading street-railway systems in Chicago at the close of 1896: Capital stock

$31, 789, 000 Other obligations.

29, 903, 300

Total per mile

61, 692, 300

126, 160


(alle... Electric Horse.

82. 34 390.36 15.14


487.84 A detailed statement of the estimated maximum cost of all the items necessary to duplicate the properties of these roads is presented. The aggregate cost, according to the estimates, was $31,739,626, or $65,062 per mile. A similar estimate of the minimum cost is placed at $28,535,699, or $58,494 per mile. The market value of the securities of all these roads in 1896 was $91,704,740, or $187,981 per mile. The taxes and

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