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number of employees, their occupations, average daily wages and yearly earnings, the hours of daily labor, the nunber of days worked during the year, and various other items.
Following is a brief analysis of some of the tables presented: In 2,251 establishments $46,771,831 was paid in wages during 1895, which was an increase of $5,885,110 over the amount paid in the same estab. lishments during the preceding year. A considerable increase is also shown in the other items where comparisons are made for the same establishments. In 2,210 establishments the value of goods on hand January 1, 1896, was $28,148,528, while on January 1, 1895, it was $25,161,044; the value of materials on hand was $29,666,163 on January 1, 1896, and $26,810,659 on January 1, 1895. The total value of all goods made in these establishments from January 1, 1895, to Jannary 1, 1896, was $211,963,059, and the value of all materials used was $116,836,281. The total capital invested in these establishments was $177,809,331. During the year 1894, 2,105 establishments employed, on an average, 83,691 males and 15,842 females. In 1895, 2,232 establishments reported an average of 96,654 male and 17,786 female employees.
EMPLOYMENT OFFICES.—During the year 1896 the employment offices at Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Toledo, and Dayton received applications from employers for 3,078 males and 12,632 females. Applications for situations were made by 12,668 males and 15,030 females. Positions were secured for 2,781 males and 10,164 females. figures show an increase in the amount of the business transacted by the employment offices over the preceding year.
CENSUS OF MASSACHUSETTS FOR 1895.
Census of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1895. Volume I, Pop
ulation and Social Statistics. 865 pp. (Prepared under the direction of Horace G. Wadlin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor.)
Volume I of the report of the Massachusetts census for 1895 appears in five parts, as follows:
Part 1 (pages 1 to 68) contains statistics of population and legal voters; the population by towns, arranged alphabetically; a comparison of the population for 1885 and 1895, by towns; population and sex; a comparison of the population for 1885 and 1895, by sex.
Part 2 (pages 69 to 224) shows the number of families, the number of males and females, and the total population of each city and town, and the same facts for the several villages or sections of which each city or town is composed. The villages are shown by towns and in alphabetical order. There is presented in a brief manner the date of incorporation, or establishment, of every city and town in the State, together with changes in area, boundaries, etc. Following these historical facts relative to each city and town is given the population by each census between 1765 and 1895, a period of one hundred and thirty years.
Part 3 (pages 225 to 330) shows the number of polls and legal voters by counties, cities, and towns; also the percentage of native and foreign born voters of total voters. The political condition of the population is shown by sex and by age periods.
Part 4 (pages 331 to 790) shows the number of families by counties, cities, and towns, the size of families, and composition by sex; the number of occupied and unoccupied rooms, tenements, and dwelling houises, and the number of stories to dwelling houses and the materials of which constructed.
Part 5 (pages 791 to 865) classifies the population according to pative and foreign born, color and race, and conjugal condition. It also shows the number of soldiers, sailors, and marines.
Each subject is presented in the form of statistical tables, showing the results of the enumeration for the State and by minor civil divi. sions (counties, cities, and towns). The tables in each case are followed by tabular analyses.
The following is a brief statement of some of the returns for the entire State: Total population
2, 500, 183 Males...
1, 214, 701 Females
1, 285, 482 Native born.
1, 735, 253 Foreign born...
764, 930 Legal voters....
560, 802 Native born.
422, 676 Foreign born.
138, 126 Color and race: White
2, 471, 418 Colored..
26, 540 Indian...
1, 672 Conjugal condition: Single
1, 385, 030 Married..
943, 245 Widowed
165, 650 Divorced
4, 150 Unknown.
1, 808 Towns showing an increase in population since 1885.
210 Towns showing a decrease in population since 1885.
Since the census by the State in 1885 the population has increased 558,042, or 28.73 per cent.
In 1895, 48.58 per cent of the population were males and 51.42 per cent were females. In 1885, 48.03 per cent were males and 51.97 per cent were females, the proportion of females decreasing slightly during the decade.
Of the total population in 1895, 69.41 per cent were native and 30.59 per cent were foreign born. There was an increase in the relative number of foreign born during the decade, the per cent of the latter in 1885 being 27.13.
As regards political condition, it is shown that 22.43 per cent of the population were legal voters. Of the latter 75.37 per cent were native and 24.63 per cent were foreign born. By legal voters is meant not only registered voters but all who possess the legal qualifications.of voters. As to race and color, the census shows that, in 1895, 98.85
cent of the population were white, 1.06 per cent were colored, 0.02 per cent were Indian, and 0.07 per cent were Chinese. The Japanese represented less than one one-hundredth of 1 per cent. Iu respect to conjugal condition, 55,40 per cent of the total population were single, 37.73 per cent were married, 6.62 per cent were widowed, 0.18 per cent were divorced, and 0.07 per cent were unknown.
The following statement summarizes the returns relating to families and dwellings: Number of families..
547, 385 Average number of persons to a family.
2. 22 Females
2. 35 Number of dwelling housės.
428, 494 Occupied.
397, 633 Unoccupied...
30, 861 Number of tenements in occupied dwelling houses.
573, 958 Occupiec
26, 573 Number of rooms in total dwelling houses.
3, 946, 998 Occupied ..
3,568, 385 Unoccupied.
378, 613 Persons to each room in ocenpied tenements.
There were 547,385 families enumerated in the State in 1895. Dividing the total population by this number, it is found that the average size of a family is 4.57 persons. Of this average number, 2.22 represents males and 2.35 females.
The average number of persons to an occupied dwelling house was 6,29 and to a room 0.70. There were 310.97 persons, 68.08 families, and 53.30 dwelling houses to a square mile. This would make 2.06 acres to a person, 9.40 acres to a family, and 12.01 acres to a dwelling house. Population and social statistics are continued in Volume II.
RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.
Report on Contracts Giren Out by Public Authorities to Associations of
Workmen. 1896. vi, 316 pp. Published by the Labor Department of the British Board of Trade.)
This report is the result of an inquiry made by a special investigator of the Labor Department, in pursuance of a recommendation made by the late royal comunission on labor. The inquiry covers the t'nited Kingdom, New Zealand, Victoria, Russia, France, and Italy.
The recommendation of the royal commission on labor contemplated an investigation of cases in which separate contracts were given by public authorities for materials needed and for work to be done, and where the latter only was given to associated bodies of workingmen. The special investigator found that such cases were very rare, and that they were not as a rule practicable. He, therefore, devoted his report to all cases where the public authorities gave out contracts to cooperative associations.
The report is very complete, and includes, in addition to the descrip tive matter, appendixes for the various countries containing copies of laws, regulations, and specifications relating to contracts with cooperative associations; tables showing names of cooperative associations and public authorities, dates, nature, value, etc., of contracts, wages paid, sources of information, and other data.
THE UNITED KINGDON.-Only two cases are mentioned in the United Kingilom where contracts were made with associated bodies of workmen for labor only. The works and ways department of the Nottingham corporation gave contracts to the pavers and to the flaggers and curh layers for various classes of paving and for laying flags and curbs, respertively. These contracts, during twelve months, amounted to £1,100 (35,353.15) in the case of the pavers and £315 ($1,532.95) in the case of the flaggers and curb layers. The other case was that of a cooperative society called the Assington Agricultural Association, which did some stone carting for the highway authorities during two years, at a price of about £10 ($18.67) each year.
Public contracts involving both the performance of labor and the supply of material, or only the latter, were frequently given to cooperative associations. Some associations simply handle supplies, and are