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No. 24—the only one which now remains in the position into which it was swung by the gale. It was also reported to me by eye-witnesses that the action was gradual, the cribs one after another careening townward. It thus appears that the parting of the lower courses began as would naturally be the case on the lake side. That side is therefore the one which particularlly needs protection, and therefore I propose to put the buttress cribs on that side to protect the weak lower courses from the direct action of the sea, to which they would otherwise be exposed.

Were the buttress cribs to be placed on the townward side it would be necessary, in my opinion, to build the superstructure of the buttress cribs squarely up to the level of the pier itself, which would greatly increase the cost of reinforcing; and even then, I do not think the combination would be as strong as the one already proposed, having buttress cribs on the lake side with only one course of superstructure, because in a heavy gale, the defective lower courses of the main pier being directly exposed to the action of the sea, the least settling townward of the buttress cribs, they being on the townward side, would render possible the opening of the lower lake side courses of the main work, as in the gale of October 7th and 8th; and this action once begun, if to the extent of allowing the flat slate filling to be sucked out by the rifling through the opened seam, would of course eventually result in at least a serious damage to the work, if not a complete wreck. I therefore cling to the opinion that the buttress cribs in this case should be on the lake side.

I am not apprehensive of any great settling of the buttress cribs to lakeward from the pier, should they be placed on the lake side, which action might be expected in ordinary cases, for the reason that the solid rock is found at no place on the line of the pier at a greater distance than two feet from the natural bottom of the lake. This is shown by the fact that the stone has settled through the grillage of the cribs built with open bottoms not more than 18 inches in any place, and no crib frame has settled more than eight inches. The slight careening lakeward of the buttress cribs which might possibly occur at some points, due to even this slight settling, can be remedied by allowing those cribs to stand until fully settled, then level up and pack any apertures which may occur between the buttress cribs and main pier, and fit the course of superstructure over the top crib timber and packing in such a manner as to make a tight joint.

I am of opinion that such precaution being taken, there could be no danger of any further parting of the buttress from the pier. I am, general, very respectiully, your obedient servant,

F. HARWOOD, Captain Engineers, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel U. S. A. Maj. Gen. A. A. HUMPHREYS, Chief of Engineers, Headquarters

Corps Engineers, Washington, D. C.

HEADQUARTERS CORPS OF ENGINEERS,

Washington, D.O., November 12, 1868. COLONEL: Your letter of the 10th instant, giving your reason for reinforcing the west United States pier at Dunkirk on the lake side, &c., has been received.

Your explanation is satisfactory, and you are authorized to repair and reinforce the pier referred to in accordance with the plan and recommendations submitted in your letters of October 10th and 29th, 1868. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. G. PARKE,

Major of Engineers, Brevet Major General. By command of Brig. Gen. Humphreys. Capt. and Brevet Lt. Col. F. HARWOOD,

Corps of Engineers, Buffalo, N. Y.

E 4.

UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,

Buffalo, N. Y., November 20, 1868. GENERAL: By headquarters instructions of October 16, 1868, I am required to prepare and submit sketches showing the projected improvements of the harbors under my charge.

The project of a south channel from Lake Erie into Buffalo Creek was a part of the general scheme brought to the consideration of the board of engineers, of January, 1867, on the improvement of Buffalo Harbor, and was by that board indorsed in the following terms: "The upper inlet or canal proposed to afford a direct entrance from the lake to the upper or southern portion of the inner harbor, (which is the Buffalo Creek,) thus giving an additional ingress and egress, is considered important to the inner harbor, and whenever it is made will add largely to the convenience of commerce.”

The proceedings of that board having been approved by headquarters, it is understood that the projected south channel is to be accounted as one of the proposed improvements of Buffalo Harbor, and, therefore, to be marked on the sketch showing these improvements. But before so doing it is necessary to decide upon the general plan and course of the channel, which were not determined by the board, the matter having only received a general consideration and approval.

I therefore have indicated on the sketch a plan which I have projected after much thought and deliberation, and which I believe to combine to the greatest extent possible at this locality the elements of economy, durability, and accessibility, all three of which are very necessary to the success of a project which has never met with much favor in any quarter, although quite generally admitted to form a very desirable part of the general scheme of improvement. This plan is respectfully submitted as combining the best features of the previous plans, hereafter enumerated, and I am bold to assert that I am confident that it will effect the object of making a secure and accessible channel at a cost not disproportionate to the advantages to the commerce of the port which must necessarily result from its construction.

I append herewith a sketch which will give a comparative view of the most prominent schemes heretofore devised, together with the one which I have adopted from them all.

It is necessary to premise by stating that the site of these projects, as well as the one herewith submitted, is a little over a mile from the mouth of the creek, and the soil in which the excavation must be made is a stiff clay, overlain by about eight inches of sand.

Some years ago an attempt was made to construct a channel from No. 24—the only one which now remains in the position into which it was swung by the gale. It was also reported to me by eye-witnesses that the action was gradual, the cribs one after another careening townward. It thus appears that the parting of the lower courses began as would naturally be the case on the lake side. That side is therefore the one which particularlly needs protection, and therefore I propose to put th buttress cribs on that side to protect the weak lower courses from th direct action of the sea, to which they would otherwise be exposed.

Were the buttress cribs to be placed on the townward side it would necessary, in my opinion, to build the superstructure of the buttress cri squarely up to the level of the pier itself, which would greatly incre the cost of reinforcing; and even then, I do not think the combinat would be as strong as the one already proposed, having buttress o on the lake side with only one course of superstructure, because heavy gale, the defective lower courses of the main pier being dir exposed to the action of the sea, the least settling townward of the tress cribs, they being on the townward side, would render possib] opening of the lower lake side courses of the main work, as in the of October 7th and 8th; and this action once begun, if to the ext allowing the flat slate filling to be sucked out by the rifling throu opened seam, would of course eventually result in at least a seriou age to the work, if not a complete wreck. I therefore cling to th ion that the buttress cribs in this case should be on the lake sid

I am not apprehensive of any great settling of the buttress lakeward from the pier, should they be placed on the lake side action might be expected in ordinary cases, for the reason that .. rock is found at no place on the line of the pier at a greater than two feet from the natural bottom of the lake. This is s the fact that the stone has settled through the grillage of the c with open bottoms not more than 18 inches in any place, an frame has settled more than eight inches. The slight caree! ward of the buttress cribs which might possibly occur at soi due to even this slight settling, can be remedied by allowing t to stand until fully settled, then level up and pack any apert! may occur between the buttress cribs and main pier, and fit of superstructure over the top crib timber and packing in s ner as to make a tight joint.

I am of opinion that such precaution being taken, there danger of any further parting of the buttress from the pier. I am, general, very respectiully, your obedient serva

F. HARW
Captain Engineers, Breret Lieutenant Colon
Maj. Gen. A. A. HUMPHREYS,
Chief of Engineers, Headquarters

Corps Engineers, Washington, D. C.

HEADQUARTERS CORPS OF ENG

Washington, D. C., Novex COLONEL. Von letter of the 10th instant givin rany

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