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IIouse, Dr. Roer be requested to proceed with his Edition of the Rig
their several Departments, the meeting adjourned.
PREs ENTED. Rudimens de la Langue Ilindoui; par M. Garcin de Tassy. Paris, 1847.BY THE AUThor. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, for the year 1838.-BY E. BLYTH, Esq. The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, No. I.-BY J. R. Log AN, Esq. The Oriental Baptist, No. IX. —BY THE Editor. Upadeshak, No. IX. —BY THE Editor. The Oriental Christian Spectator, No. VIII.—BY THE Editors. The Calcutta Christian Observer, for August, 1847.—BY THE Editors. Meteorological Register kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for the month of July, 1847.-FROM THE SURVEYo R GENERAL’s Office. Record of cases treated in the Mesmeric IIospital from November 1846 to May 1847, with Reports of the Official visitors, (two copies.)—By the BENGAL Gov ERNMENT. Le Moniteur des Indes—Orientales, et Occidentales, Tome II. No. II.BY THE EDITOR. Excha NG ED. Calcutta Jonrnal of Natural IIistory, No. 29. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, No. 203-4. Journal Asiatique, Nos. 41-2. The Athenaeum, Nos. 1023-4.
Meteorological Register kept at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, for the Month of Sept. 1847.
Report on the Timber Trees of Bengal,” by Capt. MUNRo, F. L. S.
I know of no better mode of supplying, as far as may be in my power, the information required relative to the timber trees of India, than by making a catalogue of the best of them, appending such remarks to each, as my own experience and reading may enable me to supply.
1. Teak—Tectona grandis, Nat. Fam. Perbenaceae. Generally known to the natives as Saguan or Segoon, although in central India two or three other trees are also called by the same name. The Teak when in
flower is very pretty, and being so commonly cultivated nearly all over .
India, is known to most Europeans. Although it thrives to my own knowledge in almost every portion of Hindoostan, it attains perfection in a few favored localities only. The Teak forests of Malabar, are well known. They are very extensive, and produce according to experiment finer teak timber than any other forest. The trees generally grow in low hills of about 1 to 3000 feet elevation above the sea. Moulmein is also noted for its teak. I have seen large forests of the tree in Nagpore, and near the Nerbudda, the wood is very much used in that part of the country, and appears to be of a very superior description. In the Metcalfe Hall there is a very good specimen of Teak grown in the Botanical Gardens, which has been worked up into a table and presented to the Society, by the late Mr. Robison. From experiments carried on by Capt. Baker, and detailed in the 1st Volume of “Gleanings in Science,” it would appear that Rangoon, Bombay, and
* Drawn up by Capt. Munro, at the request of the Asiatic Society, for the information of the Military Board.
No. XI.-NEw SERIEs. 7 c
Pegue Teak were almost of the same strength, but are far surpassed by the Malabar Teak. Captain Baker's experiments, which will be constantly referred to, were carried on with specimens of wood two inches square and 6 feet long. In these trials the average weight, required to break the Malabar Teak, was 1070 lbs. whilst the other kinds broke with an average of 870 lbs. The extremes in these trials are very remarkable, indicating a very great difference in the value of different specimens of the same timber. The specimen from Rangoon, breaking with 654 shs. and another from Malabar required 1162 ibs. Teak will not bend so much as Sāl or Soondree, and breaks with about the same weight as Sál. It is therefore easy to determine for what purposes Teak is best adapted. It is used, as is well known, for an infinite number of purposes in India. The experiment made by Capt. Baker, differs much from the results of Major Campbell's experiment at Cossipore, as detailed in the Transactions of the Society of Arts. The Malabar specimen seems to have been a bad one, but as many of the other specimens were from unseasoned wood, they are not so much to be depended on. 2. GHUM BAR, Go MAR or GHUM BARRE—Gmelina arborea, Linn. —This belongs to the same natural family as the Teak, and is indeed very closely allied to that wood in appearance, with the grain rather closer, although much inferior in strength and elasticity. The best specimen broke with Capt. Baker, with 580 ths. and the worst with 500. It is a common tree in most parts of India, generally found on hills about 2000 feet in height. It also grows in the Soonderbunds. The timber is supposed to resist water and worms better than Teak. As it will not bear much stress, it is commonly used for light work, such as the cylinders of drums, carriage panels, decks of budgerows, and turnery. Although more durable than many woods, and not subject to warping, it can scarcely be called a valuable timber, and from its resemblance to Teak, might be used in mistake for that wood, where serious consequences would ensue. 3. DhAMUM or DANGAN.—This was discovered by Mr. Griffith to be an undescribed species, and was called by him Hemigymnia macleodii. Of the same order with the Teak, it is very dissimilar in its great elasticity. I am not aware of any other locality for its growth than the forest about Sconie, between Jubbulpore and Kamptee. The tree has a peculiar appearance, and can be distinguished at a long dis
tance in the jungle. I have seen excellent fishing rods made out of it, and good-sized timber could be at times procured. I believe the timber to be excellent, but, as according to our present information, it grows at such a long distance from water carriage, except by the Nerbudda, it cannot be looked upon as likely to be of much consequence in commerce. I imagine from observation the tree to be of slow growth, and that it would require 30 years to come to perfection, if it should be thought desirable to encourage its cultivation on the low hills which approach the Ganges. There is no good specimen of the wood in the collection of the Horticultural Society, and it would be very desirable to procure one. 4. and 5. There are two other woods of this family produced in Goalpara, CHIKAGH UM BAREE,-Premna hircina, and BUkDHoli, Premna flavescens,—which from Mr. Kyd's experiments would appear to be very durable woods, but are not I believe, possessed of any other valuable properties. 6. SAL–Wateria robusta, W. and A.—Shorea robusta, Rorh.-W. F. Dipterocarpeae.—I believe I am right in saying that every tree belonging to this family is a valuable one, most probably, from all containing a considerable quantity of a resinous juice, which is called in the various trees, Dammar, Wood-oil, Gum Anime, Piney varnish, Ral, Dhooma, &c. These trees are all fine ones, and in the forests of Malabar attain a stupendous height. In the Ghauts of Cong and the Neelgherries one kind is generally known to Europeans as the Buttress tree, and from growing within a short distance of the sea, with water carriage from the foot of the mountains by the Calicut River, thus offers a supply of the most valuable timber for some time to come. The Sál itself is probably the best timber in India. Of 10 experiments of Capt. Baker, the mean weight required to break the wood was 1238 ths., and one specimen required 1304. The tree is found in great abundance in the Murung forests and in the whole belt of forest at the foot of the Himalayas, frequently growing, as the Teak does, over a great extent of ground unaccompanied by any other tree. The Calcutta market is abundantly supplied with the timber, principally I believe from Gorrukpore. It is undoubtedly a very valuable wood for house building, and for many parts of gun carriages, and indeed for almost all purposes on shore, where very strong tough wood is required. It is heavy, the specific gravity