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P. M. we endured a heavy storm of rain, hail, and thunder, from the west, followed by a clear and very cold might; our tent, which withstood the 75 hours rain at Diwalee, leaked in half a dozen places at once to-day, such was the deluge that fell. Our people fortunately had the huts to shelter them, for, notwithstanding every precaution, several fell sick every day with fever, so that our march resembles the retreat from Walcheren. September 28th.-After enjoying the view from the Pass, we des. cended to Sooring in 24 hours; slight rain in the evening. September 29th.--To Kupkot, in 4} hours, breakfasting at a hamlet about half way, called Dooloom. Some very large species of orchideoe. probably Dendrobium, Phaius, Coelogyne, &c. grow on the rocks and trees in this stage. The road at the landslip not yet replaced ; but after the paths above, it was trifling; one's feet seem gradually to acquire a sixth sense from practice over dangerous ground; a portion of the mind descending and taking up its temporary abode in the toes; as the bat is said to have a sensibility in its wings which enables it to avoid walls, &c. in the dark. To-day was fine till 4 P. M. when a strong cold wind blew down the valley accompanied with light showers for about an hour. The rice-crop is now being cut here. September 30th.-Walked to Bagesur in 54 hours, breakfasting halfway at the Mundilgurh Torrent, where we met Messrs. Norman and Weston on their way to Pinduree. The Puharees are quite aware of the value of a mid-way meal. . A friend once asked one of them how far such and such a place was off; and the reply was—“Two kros if you have dined, three if you have not.” The Surjoo has fallen six feet since we left Bagesur; the temperature of the town is considerably lower, but the people look sickly and sallow from fever. No rain to-day, for the first time since we started, 21 days since. October 1st.—To Sutralee in 43 hours, of which 2; were expended in reaching the summit of the Ladder Hill, exclusive of a full hour's delay in crossing the “infamous” Gaomutee, now just fordable, mounted on a ferryman's back, who was obliged to have a second man to steady him. That such an obstacle on the main line of commerce between Kumaoon and Tibet should remain without a bridge, is accounted for by the circumstance that little communication takes place in the rainy season; and that during the rest, the stream is only ankle-deep ; but when the iron-mines and foundries of the province are once in operation under the management of the new company, let us hope the traveller will be expedited on his way to Pinduree or Milum by one of the Suspension Bridges, the glory of Kumaoon above all the rest of the Himalaya taken together.” We breakfasted at the Dhurmsala, under a very elegant arbor of Jessamine, but clouds again disappointed us of the desired view of the snowy range. Noticed the Vitex negundo in various places to-day; indeed it is common in Kumaoon, as in all the outer hills, and is here called Shiwalee. An intelligent bráhman of Almorah assures me that This is the Sephalica of Indian poetry, and brought me the Amurkosh to prove his point, where it certainly was explained by “Soovuha”– “Nirga dee” and Neelika ; with niwar as the Hindee. For Nigoondee, H. H. Wilson gives us “Vitex negundo,” and “another plant, Neelsephalica,” but does not say what this is. “Neelika” though denoting “blue,” he follows Sir W. Jones in explaining by Nyctanthes arbor tristis, though no blue Nyctanthes was ever heard of Sir W. Jones was assured by his Bengali pundits that this tree was their Sephalica, though he quotes the Amurkosh as stating “WHEN the sephalica has white flowers,” &c. which the Nyctanthes always has. It grows wild abundantly in Kumaoon, but Roxburgh could never find it so circumstanced in Bengal; the original name is therefore more likely to be preserved in the mountains, where so far as the brāhmans are concerned, Parjat is the only one extant, and this also Sir William Jones was aware of in respect to other parts of India. He also gives Nibaree as the vulgar (Bengal) term for the Nyctanthes; but in Dr. Voigt's catalogue, this is annexed to Cicca disticha. The Puharee “Shiwalee” is an easy and regular corruption of Sephalica, and Sir William describes it in terms which might well attract the praises of the poets— “a most elegant appearance, with rich racemes or panicles (of odoriferous, beautifully blue flowers, Voigt,) lightly dispersed on the summit of its branches.” “Soovuha” “bearing well, may allude to these, or to the aroma of the bruised leaves; but the experimentum crucis of trying whether the “bees sleep in the flowers"—for that is the signification of Sephalica, remains yet to be made. October 2nd—To Almorah in 5} hours: total hours from the glacier 32; road distance 83 miles, (in a direct line 52,) giving an average rate of walking, 2 miles and 5 furlongs. In the preceding notes, the popular name of each tree and plant, where any certain one exists, is commonly added, with the view of enabling those who visit the same or similar localities, to acquaint themselves, if so disposed, with the more prominent characteristics of this department. “The naturalist,” says Sir William Jones, “who should wish to procure an Arabian or Indian Plant, and without asking for it by its learned or vulgar name, should hunt for it in the woods by its botanical character, would resemble a geographer who, desiring to find his way in a foreign city or province, should never enquire by name, for a street or town, but wait with his tables and instruments, for a proper occasion to determine its longitude and latitude.”
* These bridges are constructed of iron manufactured in Calcutta, and probably
smelted in England. The abutments of one over the river Khyrna near Nynee Tal are absolutely built on an iron-mine !
Account of the process employed for obtaining Gold from the Sand of the River Beyass : with a short account of the Gold Mines of Siberia ; by Capt. J. Abbott, Boundary Commissioner, &c.
It has long been known that the sand of the river Beyass yields Gold Dust to the sister. A description of the process and of the value of the produce may possibly be interesting ; and if it should lead to search for the original veins of this precious metal, the result may be valuable as well as curious.
From the mountain district of Teera to Meerthul, where the Chukki joins the Beyass, and the course of both is nearly southward, gold dust is found in the sands of the latter pretty equally distributed. The boulders and pebbles in the river channel from Ray to Meerthul (the greater portion of this interval) are generally siliceous, quartz, porphyry, sandstone, gneiss, with occasional granite—and oftener pebbles of jasper. These appear to be debris of the Brisma cliffs and hills bordering the river, with exception perhaps of the gneiss, which I suspect is carried down from the older formations. My impression is