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separate the graphites from the anthracites; namely, that with nitre, at a heat a little above its melting point only, the former melt and are consumed, while the latter deflagrate and almost explode. My trials were made with graphite from Borrowdale, from Cochin and from the Himalaya, all of which, as above stated, diffused themselves over the nitre and were consumed gradually, while Newcastle Coal, American Anthracite and our present mineral deflagrate smartly. It is usually taken, on the authority of Berzelius, founded on Karsten's researches, that the iron in graphite is a mere fortuitous mixture; but Beudant acutely says” alluding to this, that “when the iron is wanting we have no graphite, and when this substance is found in our furnaces, the proportions are sensibly the same,” i e. about 8 per cent. which he seems to think may be the true proportion. I do not advert to Kirwan's experiments, which were merely relating to coal and not to coal and graphite in comparison with each other. In Professor Vanuxem's experiments (Phil. Mag. for September 1815) the quantity of manganese and iron in anthracites is stated to be from 0.2 to 7.10 per cent. and the water from 1.90 to 6.70. In the graphites he found from 1.40 to 3.60 per cent. of oxide of iron and manganese is the pure, and 20.00 per cent. in the impure kinds; and of water from 0.60 to 1.23 in the pure and 5.33 per cent. in the impure kinds. It may then be a mooted point to which of these two classes of the anthracineat our mineral belongs, but as I have found nothing of the kind described before I have given it a distinguishing name, to be adopted or rejected, as better authorities shall determine.
On a new kind of Coal, being VolcANic CoAL, from Arracan, by the same
This coal was sent us from Kyook Phyoo by Major Williams, as one of the products of the eruption of the Mud Volcano at that station, described in his letter in the Proceedings for November, 1816.
It is in two lumps, which look externally like rolled boulders of Coal, and feel greasy on the outside like graphite.
* Beudant Minerologie, p. 404. tl use here Mr. Dana's term for this order.
It is highly sectile on the outside, being easily cut or pared without breaking, like soft plumbago. Internally it is a little more brittle, but still very sectile. Its smell when cut is very peculiar, being highly sooty, like the smell of a foul chimney in which a fire has not being made for a long time. When breathed upon the smell is very earthy and “bitter.”
The internal structure is in one direction highly foliated, or scaly, and . somewhat curved, with a semi-metallic lustre; at right angles to this it is granular and glimmering; the fracture partakes of both. In its general appearance it reminds us much of coal altered by dikes cutting through it. The streak is highly metallic, and the mineral very soft. It writes well and of a brown colour.
its specific Gravity is 1.28.
In an impure part of the specimen there are minute white veins, which are Carbonate of Lime. It burns and swells up like Newcastle Coal, but its smell when burning is more that of Cannel Coal. This is doubtless from the absence of sulphur of which there are no traces. It coaks perfectly ; swelling however to a mass four times the original size, while the best Newcastle only increases to about double its size.
Its composition is in 100 parts,
Water,. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1.00
| ()(), ()()
It gives of Coke per cent. by an independent ex
periment on a solid lump, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75.75 Newcastle Coal from the Percy High main seam
gives per cent. of Coke, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78.8 The mean of Cokes from English Coal by Dr.
Ure (Dicty. Chemistry) is, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65.0
We have here the fact that there must exist a scam or deposit of very fine Coal not far from the site of the Mud Volcanoes, and though at present all we know of the Arracan Coal is unpromising on account of the thinness of the seams, yet as nothing but surface examinations have
yet taken place, and these not by professional miners, we may hope for
better results when due research shall have been made. The alteration of the coal by the steam of the Mud Volcano cannot be great, since it preserves so large proportion of its bituminous matter. And coal like this if attainable, and in quantity, would be very valuable. The per centage of ash in English coal is I see* only 7 or 8, at the
highest, and more often far less. The mean of 13 specimens is 2.8 only, but one would suppose some error here.
Since this paper was written I have received from Major Williams a further supply of specimens collected at the Volcano, of which he says that there is no doubt about the coal's being the produce of the Volcano, and that the hardest specimens sent are those from a former eruption. Some of these are exactly our Volcanic coal, others approach more to Jet, and some which are intersected with Carbonate of Lime make very pretty specimens when polished.
Hints to Students of Arabic ; extracted from a letter by Col. Lockett.
I have to apologise to you for not writing sooner, but I have been so much engaged with the public examinations in the College that I have really not had time. If C. has made no progress in Arabic, he should commence with Bayley's Tables, which he will master in a week. He may then read attentively the Murt Amil and Shurhao Murt Amil, two works on Arabic Syntax, which will give him enough of grammar. I have translated both these works into English, and it will be of use to him, as there are many easy Arabic stories in it with translations. He can get a copy from the College Library on application. He must then begin to read some easy Arabic work to give him words and a knowledge of construction. The Arabian Nights Entertainment, and the Ikhwan-oos-suffa, are the easiest books and best adapted for that purpose. He may read about 200 pages in each. Then he may commence on Mahommedan Law in Arabic. There are three text books of the Mahommedan Law, all containing texts or simple rules on the same heads, but expressed in different words, supposed by the writers to be more explicit or comprehensive. The most ancient and authentic is that of Kudooree. The Wakayah and Kunz-ood-dukaek are the others; but they are but copies of the former with the change of style or phraseology I have mentioned. Then comes the Shurhus or Commentaries on these. The Hedayah is a Shurhu of the Kudooree, with an amplified text, but the whole of Kudoorees text verbatim et literatim is found in the Hedayah. This the Kazees and Mooftees and Moulavees in Calcutta were not till lately acquainted with. Captain Galloway, who has translated, but not prepared for publication the Kudooree, found part and explained it to them. The Hedayah is an invaluable work, but then it is full of disquisition and subtilty of argument which would not be much to the taste of a beginner, and this has given rise to fifty different Hasheeuh or annotations on the Hedayah. There is a commentary on the Kudooree, the Suraj-ool Wuhaus gla, gL*, but that is also a voluminous work. The Shurh Wukayah, a common work, is a good one. There are indeed several Shurhus on that text, all easy and good, by Abool Mukarum Birgundee, &c. and the Jaeemeea-ooz-Rumooz. Of the Kunz-ood Dukaek, the Aeenee is a good and easy shurh and a good book for a beginner, as well as the three last mentioned. Then there are the Futawahs, or collections of supposed cases and the opinions of the lawyers on them. These puzzle a beginner because he seldom finds a decided preference expressed for any opinion; but this wears off by a little acquaintance with the books and the celebrity of the lawyers who have expressed the conflicting opinions, and the increasing strength of the reader's own judgment; and if after all he find the opinions heavily balanced, he knows he may then adopt whichever his own mature judgment may think most suitable to the equity of the case. This is supposing him to be a Judge and that he had to decide a case in real life. The style however, of those Futawahs is quite simple, as well indeed as of all the Law Books, like that of books of science in all languages. Technical phrases are to be learnt of course. In short, the dryness of the subject is the only difficulty a student of Mahommedan law has to fear, but the HAJEE will encounter the Desert. Let there be a motive and the task will be overcome. C. should read Harrington's chapter on Mahommedan Law in the 1st volume of the Analysis, and provide himself with Hamilton's Hedayah.
* Prinsep's Table, Jour. : Vol. VII. p. 197.
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL,
The usual monthly meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on Wednesday evening, the 10th March. The Lord Bishop in the chair. . The minutes of the preceding meeting having been read, Major Marshall stated that in the financial report lately submitted, no notice was taken of the debt of £150 incurred by the Society to the Hon'ble the Court of Directors in 1840, for the passage to this country of Mr. Blyth, the Curator of the Zoological Museum. Dr. O'Shaughnessy, as one of the Secretaries, observed that he was not aware of the existence of this debt, but due enquiry should be made, and the result reported at the next meeting. The proceedings of the February meeting were then unanimously confirmed. The accounts of receipts and expenditure for the preceding month, with cash vouchers were laid on the table, for perusal of members during the ensuing month. The following gentlemen were then balloted for and duly elected members of the Society.
II. Thornhill, Esq. C. S., proposed by Mr. Bushby, seconded by Lieut.-Col. Forbes.
J. Newmarch, Esq., proposed by Mr. S. G. T. Heatly, seconded by Dr. O'Shaughnessy.
Lieut. Douglas, Artillery, proposed by Capt. Broome, seconded by Dr. O'Shaughnessy.
Baboo Debendermath Tagore, proposed by Dr. O'Shaughnessy, seconded by Mr. Laidlay.
E. Linstedt, Esq., proposed by Mr. Blyth, seconded by Mr. Laidlay,